# A Model of Monopoly. Monopoly Profit Maximization. The Monopolist s Price and Output Numerically. The Monopolist s Price and Output Numerically

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1 A Model of Monopoly Monopoly Profit Maximization How much should the monopolistic firm choose to produce if it wants to maximize profit? Chapter 15-3 The Monopolist s and The first thing to remember is that marginal revenue is the change in total revenue that occurs as a firm changes its output. The Monopolist s and When a monopolist increases output, it lowers the price on all previous units. As a result, a monopolist s marginal revenue is always below its price. TR=P x Q = Change in Total Revenue/ change in output Another way to say it is: how much does your Total Revenue changes as you increase output The Monopolist s and In order to maximize profit, a monopolist produces the output level at which marginal cost equals marginal revenue. Producing at an output level where > or where < will yield lower profits. Profit Maximizing Level of Output The goal of the monopolistic firm is to maximize profits, the difference between total revenue and total cost The monopoly maximizes profit when marginal revenue equals marginal cost Marginal revenue () is the change in total revenue associated with a change in quantity Marginal cost () is the change in total cost associated with a change in quantity

2 Profit Maximizing Level of Output The profit-maximizing condition of a monopolistic firm is: = For a monopolistic firm, < P A monopolistic firm maximizes total profit, not profit per unit If >, The monopoly can increase profit by increasing output If <, The monopoly can increase profit by decreasing its output 15-7 Profit Maximization for a Monopolist Output TR TC Profit The Monopolist s and Output Graphically The marginal revenue curve is a graphical measure of the change in revenue that occurs in response to a change in price. It tells us the additional revenue the firm will get by expanding output. = etermines the Profit- Maximizing Output** If >, the monopolist gains profit by increasing output. If <, the monopolist gains profit by decreasing output. If =, the monopolist is maximizing profit. The a Monopolist Will Charge The = condition determines the quantity a monopolist produces. The monopolist will charge the maximum price consumers are willing to pay for that quantity. That price is found on the demand curve. The a Monopolist Will Charge To determine the profit-maximizing price (where = ), first find the profit maximizing output. 2

3 etermining the Monopolist s and Output \$ Monopolist price raw the firm's marginal revenue curve. etermine the output the monopolist will produce by the intersection of the and curves. etermine the price the monopolist will charge for that output. etermine the average cost at that level of output. etermine the monopolist's profit (loss) by subtracting average total cost from average revenue (P) at that level of output and multiply by the chosen output. The monopolist will make a profit if price exceeds average total cost. The monopolist will make a normal return if price equal average total cost. The monopolist will incur a loss if price is less than average total cost. A Monopolist Making a Profit A monopolist can make a profit. 3

4 A Monopolist Making a Profit A Monopolist Breaking Even A monopolist can break even. C M Profit A B A Monopolist Breaking Even A Monopolist Making a Loss A monopolist can make a loss. A Monopolist Making a Loss C M B Loss A Profit Maximization The monopoly firm will not set the price arbitrarily high, the profit-maximizing price still corresponds to the point where =. The monopoly firm s market power will allow the firm to achieve above-normal profits. 4

5 Profit Maximization Q P Monopolistic Profit Maximization Table TR TC 47 Profit The profitmaximizing condition is: = If <, increase production Profit maximizing quantity is where = If >, decrease production P = \$24 Monopolistic Profit Maximization Graph P at Q profit max = 4 = Q profit max Marginal revenue is not constant as Q increases because: revenue increases as the monopolist sells more revenue decreases because the monopolist must lower the price to sell more Q Find output where =, this is the profit maximizing Q Find how much consumers will pay where the profit max Q intersects demand, this is the monopolist price Monopoly Profit and Loss A monopolist will suspend operations in the short run if its price does not exceed the average variable cost at the quantity the firm produces. A monopolist will shut down permanently if revenue is not likely to equal or exceed all costs in the long run. In contrast, however, if a monopolist makes a profit, barriers to entry will keep other firms out of the industry. Monopoly Myths 1. A monopolist can charge any price it wants and will reap unseemly profits by continually increasing the price. 2. A monopolist is not sensitive to customers. All Not True! 3. A monopolist cannot make a loss. 5

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