PRICE SPREAD AND EFFICIENCY OF MARKETING OF TOMATO IN RAJASTHAN

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1 Indian J. Agric. Res.., 48 (4) , 2014 doi: / x AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION CENTRE PRICE SPREAD AND EFFICIENCY OF MARKETING OF TOMATO IN RAJASTHAN Susheela Meena* and I.P. Singh 1 College of Agriculture SKRAU, Bikaner , India Received: Accepted: ABSTRACT The present investigation was carried out to study the price spread and efficiency in marketing of tomato. The study was conducted in Jaipur and Kota which were selected on the basis of highest area and production of tomato. Due to perishable nature of vegetable, the farmers did not stock tomato for sale in lean months. Therefore, there was no difference in marketable and marketed surplus of tomato. Total marketing cost accounted for per cent and marketing margins accounted for per cent of. In Kota, producer s share in was per cent. Total marketing cost accounted for per cent and marketing margins were per cent of. Total marketing cost accounted for per cent and marketing margins were per cent of price paid by the consumer. Total marketing cost accounted for per cent and marketing margins were per cent of price paid by the consumer. Key words: Marketing, Price spread, Tomato. INTRODUCTION Consumer preferences have shifted away from cereals and moved towards high-value agricultural produce like vegetables. With increase in economic standards, urbanization, international market integration and trade liberalization, the demand for horticultural products is expected to increase even further. On the production side, if cereal pricing is left to market forces, land will be released from traditional cultivation to meet the growing demand for non-cereal crops such as fruits and vegetables i n accordance with the diversification in consumption pattern (Mittal, 2006). Thus, in a holistic way, horticulture can be promoted as a means of agro-diversification for the second green revolution, providing the much needed impetus to the growth of agricultural sector, through increase in trade, income and employment. Presently, Indian agriculture is diversifying into the production of high value commodities, also providing an increasing role to small holding farmers. Indian rural economy had been facing the challenge of inability to manage the problems involved with transition of agriculture from a supplydriven value chain to a demand-led market-oriented supply chain (Viswanadham, 2006). In Rajasthan, area under vegetables crop in was thousand ha and production was 885 thousand MT with productivity of 6.3 MT/ha (Anonymous, ). In India, tomato is grown in 865 thousand ha area with production of thousand MT. Tomatos is grown in thousand hectare area with production of thousand MT in Rajasthan (Anonymous, ). Marketing of vegetable crops is quite complex and risky due to the perishable nature of the produce, seasonal production and bulkiness. The spectrum of prices from producer to consumer, which is an outcome of demand and supply of transactions between various intermediaries at different levels in the marketing system, is also unique for vegetables. Moreover, the marketing arrangements at different stages also play an important role in price levels at various stages viz. from farm gate to the ultimate user. The present study was undertaken to study price spread and efficiency in marketing of tomato. * Corresponding author s

2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Sampling framework: A sample of 50 tomato growing farmers from different land size categories was selected by probabibility proportion to number of farmers in each size group. Two vegetable markets of Jaipur, and Kota were selected purposively as these were nearby district markets. Five intermediaries each, from the commission agents, wholesalers and retailers were selected randomly, thus making a sample of 30 intermediaries from two markets (15 from each selected market). Vol. 48, No. 4, 2014 Analysis of data Marketable and marketed surplus: Marketable surplus was worked out by deducting the total quantity required for family consumption and farm needs from the total quantity available. MS = P C MS = Marketable surplus P = Total production C = Total requirement for family and farm Marketed surplus refers to actual quantity sold by the producer in the market. Marketing Cost: The marketing cost incurred by farmers was computed by using following formula: MCi = CGi + CPi + CTi + CCi + CMi MCi = Average marketing cost of i th vegetable crop ( /qtl.) CGi = Average cost of grading i th vegetable crop (/qtl.) CPi = Average cost of packing i th vegetable crop (/qtl.) CTi = Average cost of transporting i th vegetable crop (/qtl.) CCi = Average amount of commission paid for i th vegetable crop (qtl.) a) CMi = Average miscellaneous cost of i th vegetable crop (/qtl.) Absolute and per cent margin: Absolute margin = P Ri (P Pi + C Mi ) P Ri (P Pi + C Mi ) Per cent margin= x100 P Ri P Ri = Total value of receipts (sell price) P Pi = Total purchase value of goods (), and C Mi = Cost incurred in marketing Producer s share in : The producer s share in the was worked out as under: 295 P F P s = x100 P C P S = Producer s share in, P F = Price of the produce received by the farmer, and P C = Price of the produce paid by the consumer. Marketing efficiency: The modified marketing efficiency (MME) suggested by Acharya was worked out: RP MME= MC+ MM MME = Modified measure of marketing efficiency MC = Marketing cost MM = Marketing margin RP = Price paid by consumer Various constraints faced by farmers and intermediaries in production and marketing of selected vegetable crops were also studied. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Marketable and Marketed Surplus: Table-1 shows marketable and marketed surplus of tomato. From the table, it may be observed that qtl of tomato was produced by the sample households, of which qtl was the marketable surplus. Due to perishable nature of vegetable, the farmers did not stock tomato for sale in lean months. Therefore, there was no difference in marketable and marketed surplus of tomato. Marketing cost, Price spread and Marketing efficiency in Jaipur district: Two marketing channels were prevailing in the study area as under; Channel- I: Producer Commission agent cum wholesaler Retailer Consumer Channel- II:Producer village trader - Commission agent cum wholesaler Retailer Consumer Table-2 provides the marketing cost and margin for market functionaries involved in sale of tomato in channel- I. Marketing cost borne by producer was `90 per quintal. Net price received by farmer was 50.0 per cent of price paid by consumer. Average selling price of commission agent cum wholesaler agent was `800 per quintal and it was per cent of. The commi ssion agent cum wholesaler incurred marketing cost of ` The commission agent cum

3 296 INDIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH TABLE 1: Marketable and marketed surplus of tomato on all sample farms Size groups Total prod. (Qtl.) Family and farm Marketable surplus (Qtl.) Marketed surplus (Qtl.) requirement (Qtl.) Small Medium Large Over all TABLE 2: Marketing cost and margins in Channel I in Jaipur Mandi S. No. Particulars per quintal Per cent of consumer s I Producer s net price II Cost incurred by producer 0.00 (1.) Labour cost, grading and packing (2.) Karet (3.) Loading charges (4.) Transportation Total cost III Producer s sale price/ commission agent cum wholesaler IV Cost incurred by commission agent cum wholesaler 0.00 (1.) Mandi tax (1.6%) (2.) Commission (6.0%) (4.) Weighing (5.) Quantity 1% Total cost V Net margin of commission agent cum wholesaler VI Sale price of commission agent cum wholesaler/ of retailer VII Cost incurred by retailer (1.) Loading (2.) Transportation (4.) Quantity losses (2%) (5.) Store charges Total cost VIII Retailer net margin IX Sale price of retailer/ of consumer wholesaler sold it to retailer at an average price of `800, and earned a margin of ` per quintal. The retailer incurred an average cost of ` 60.0 per quintal and received on an average margin of ` per quintal, which accounted for per cent of. The average price paid by the consumer was ` 1200 for a quintal. The marketing cost in channel-ii is presented in Table 3 the table reveals that total cost incurred by village trader was ` 92.0 per quintal of tomato, which was 7.67 per cent of consumer rupee. Cost incurred by commission agent cum wholesaler was ` per quintal of tomato, which was 5.55 per cent of consumer rupee. Margins earned by village trader and commission agent cum wholesaler were ` 58.0 and per quintal, respectively. Cost incurred by retailer was ` 60.0 per quintal of tomato, which was 5.00 per cent of. The producer s share in consumer rupee was per cent. Margin earned by the retailer was `340.0, which was per cent of. Total cost incurred and margin earned along with price spread for different intermediaries is presented in Table-4. These figures have been derived from Table 2,3. Channel-I is more efficient as the producer s share in was 50.0 per cent in channel- I and per cent in channel-ii. Total cost of marketing in channel- I was

4 Vol. 48, No. 4, 2014 TABLE 3: Marketing cost and margins in Channel II in Jaipur S. No. Particulars per quintal Per cent of consumer s I Producer s net price/ of village trader II Cost incurred by village trader (1.) Labour charges, grading and packing (2.) Kerat (3.) Loading charges (4.) Weighing charges (5.) Transportation Total cost III Net margin of village trader IV Sale price of village trader/ of commission agent cum wholesaler V Cost incurred by commission agent cum wholesaler (1.) Mandi tax (1.6%) (2.) Commission (6.0%) (4.) Weighing (5.) Quantity 1% Total cost VI Net margin of commission agent cum wholesaler VII Sale price of commission agent cum wholesaler / of retailer VIII Cost incurred by retailer (1.) Loading (2.) Transportation (4.) Quantity losses 2% (5.) Store charges Total cost IX Retailer net margin X Sale price of retailer/ of consumer per cent and per cent in channel-ii. Analysis of marketing margin showed that higher margin of `38.45 per cent was earned by intermediaries in channel-ii as compared to percent in channel-i. Marketing efficiency for channel I and channel-ii was worked out and is presented in Table 5. Marketing efficiency was 1.00 for channel- I and 0.76 for channel -II. Table reveals that efficiency was higher in channel- I, hence, it was the most efficient market. Marketing cost, Marketing margin, Price spread and Marketing efficiency in Kota district: The marketing costs and margins in channel-i (Table 6) indicate that the cost incurred by producer was agent cum wholesaler 80 per quintal of tomato which was 7.27 per cent of. Cost incurred by commission agent cum wholesaler was ` per quintal of tomato which was 5.98 per cent of. Cost incurred by retailer was 54.6 per quintal of tomato which was 4.96 per cent of. The farmer s share in the was per cent in channel-i. The margins earned by the commission agent cum wholesaler and retailer were ` and ` which accounted for 4.93 and per cent of, respectively. The marketing cost in channel-ii is presented in Table 7. It reveals that the total cost incurred by village trader was ` 82.0 per quintal of tomato, which was 7.45 per cent of. Cost incurred by commission agent cum wholesaler was ` per quintal of tomato, which was 5.98 per cent of. Margins earned by village trader

5 298 INDIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH TABLE 4: Price spread in marketing of tomato in different marketing channels in Jaipur mandi S. No. Particulars Channel I (Mandi sale) Channel II (Village Sale) /Qt. Per cent share in ` /Qt. Per cent share in 1. Producer s net price Cost incurred by (a) Producer (b) Village trader (c) Commission agent cum wholesaler (d) Retailer Total cost Margin earned by (a) Village trader (b) Commission agent cum wholesaler (c) Retailer Total margin Consumer s price TABLE 5: Marketing efficiency in marketing of tomato in Jaipur mandi Particulars Channel I Channel II Price paid by consumer ( /Qt.) Marketing Cost (/Qt.) Marketing margin (/Qt.) Marketing efficiency TABLE 6: Marketing cost and margins in Channel I in Kota and commission agent cum wholesaler was ` 58.0 and per quintal, respectively. Cost incurred by retailer was ` 54.6 per quintal of tomato, which was 4.97 per cent of. The producer s share in was per cent. Margin earned by the retailer S. No. Particulars per quintal Per cent of consumer s I Producer s net price II Cost incurred by producer (1.) Labour cost, grading and packing (2.) Karet (3.) Loading charges (4.) Transportation Total cost III Producer s sale price/ commission agent cum wholesaler IV Cost incurred by commission agent cum wholesaler (1.) Mandi tax (1.6%) (2.) Commission (6.0%) (3.) Unloading (4.) Weighing (5.) Quantity 1% Total cost V Net margin of commission agent cum wholesaler VI. Sale price of commission agent cum wholesaler / of retailer VII Cost incurred by retailer 1 Loading Transportation Unloading Quantity losses (2%) (5.) Store charges Total cost VIII Retailer net margin IX Sale price of retailer/ of consumer

6 was ` , which was per cent of. Total cost incurred and margin earned along with price spread for different intermediaries is presented in Table 8 These figures have been derived from table 6 and 7. Channel-I was more efficient as the producer s share in was per cent in channel- I and per cent in channel-ii. Total cost of marketing in channel- I was per cent and per cent in channel-ii. Analysis of marketing margin showed that higher margi n of per cent was earned by intermediaries in channel-ii as compared to per cent in channel-i. Marketing efficiency for channel I and channel-ii was worked out and is presented in Table 9. Marketing efficiency was 1.12 for channel- Vol. 48, No. 4, 2014 TABLE 7: Marketing cost and margins in Channel II in Kota S. No. Particulars per quintal Per cent of consumer s I Producer s net price/ of village trader II Cost incurred by village trader (1.) Labour charges, grading and packing (2.) Kerat (3.) Loading charges (4.) Weighing charges (5.) Transportation Total cost III Net margin of village trader IV Sale price of village trader/ of commission agent cum wholesaler V Cost incurred by commission agent cum wholesaler (1.) Mandi tax (1.6%) (2.) Commission (6.0%) (3.) Unloading (4.) Weighing (5.) Quantity 1% Total cost VI Net margin of commission agent cum wholesaler VII Sale price of commission agent cum wholesaler / of retailer VIII Cost incurred by retailer (1.) Loading (2.) Transportation (3.) Unloading (4.) Quantity losses 2% (5.) Store charges Total cost IX Retailer net margin X Sale price of retailer/ of consumer I and 1.07 for channel -II. Table reveals that efficiency was higher in channel- I, Hence, it was the most efficient market. Policy implications: Looking at quantum of the marketed surplus coupled with perishability of vegetables, every effort should be made by the policy makers to promote processing of vegetables for value addition and should also exploit export avenues from the state. Provision of cold storage facilities to the farmers at the village level and adequate refrigerated transport facilities for the smooth movement of vegetables from the places of production to the various consumption centers are some of the means suggested to improve the efficiency of marketing of vegetables in the state. This will help in reducing the wide gap prevailing between price paid by the

7 300 INDIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH TABLE 8: Price spread in marketing of tomato in different marketing channels in Kota mandi S. No. Particulars Channel I (Mandi Sale) Channel II (Village sale) ` /Qt er cent share in ` /Qt. Per cent share in 1. Producer s net price Cost incurred by (a) Producer (b) Village trader (c) Commission agent cum wholesaler (d) Retailer Total cost Margin earned by (a) Village trader (b) Commission agent cum wholesaler (c) Retailer Total margin Consumer s price TABLE 9: Marketing efficiency in marketing of tomato in Kota mandi S. No. Particulars Channel I Channel II 1 Price paid by consumer (`/Qt.) Marketing Cost (`/Qt.) Marketing margin (`/Qt.) Marketing efficiency consumer and price received by the vegetable growers. In order to encourage vegetable production, prices should be stabilized by fixation of minimum support prices for the vegetables. There is an urgent need to set up an efficient market information network by state Government, so that farmers can get timely and adequate market information which may help them to get better prices of vegetables. REFERENCE Anonymous (2011). Indian Horticulture Database National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Gurgoan. Mittal, Surabhi (2006). Structural Shift in Demand for Food: Projections for Working Paper No 184. New Delhi: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER). Viswanadham, N. (2006). Food and retail chains in India. ISAS Working Paper No 15, October 6, 2006, Singapore: ISAS.

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