1 Proposal of New Products and Services to Support the Next Generation Dining Styles by Determining Preferred Dining Styles Pi-Ju TSAI*, Shin ya NAGASAWA**, Waki Hirofumi***, Sasaki Hayuri*** * College of Business Administration, I-Shou University,, Section, Hsueh-Cheng Rd., Ta-Hsu Hsiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 8404, R.O.C., ** Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University, Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo , JAPAN, *** Matsushita Refrigeration Company, Planning Group, 3--2,2 Chome, Noji-Jigashi, Kusatsu City, Shiga Pref., Japan Abstract: This research study aims to determine a preferred dining style for the next generation by using three methods from the helpful toolkit called The Seven Tools for New Product Planning suggested by N. Kanda etc. They are: group interview, questionnaire survey, and positioning analysis. Just as our diet has changed year-by-year, the attitudes and behavior of homemakers in respect of diet 0 years from now are not expected to mirror those of present-day homemakers. And this means that many of the products and services that meet current dietary requirements will not be able to satisfy the demands of homemakers 0 years hence. In order to be prepared to introduce new products and services as quickly as possible to potential new markets, we believe it is necessary to understand the dietary perceptions of today s younger generation, and to propose a new dining style, together with new concepts for products and services to support that lifestyle. This study was implemented through the following procedures: first, group interviews to understand potential dietary preferences; next, a questionnaire survey to verify dining style preferences for the next generation; finally, positioning analysis to determine the correlation between various eating patterns and the eating styles that consumers prefer. Key words: Seven Tools for New Product Planning, New dining style for the next generation, Group Interview, Questionnaire Survey, Positioning Analysis.. Introduction Meals constitute essential parts of our lives. And, just as our meals have changed year-by-year, homemakers attitudes and behavior in respect of meals 0 years from now are not expected to mirror those of present-day homemakers. Moreover, the attitudes and behavior of today s young people in respect of meals are expected to exert a significant influence on the dining style of homemakers 0 years on. This means that many of the products and services that meet current requirements for dining will not be able to satisfy the demands of the next generation of homemakers. In order to be prepared to introduce new products and services as quickly as possible to potential new markets, we believe it is necessary to understand the perceptions of today s younger generation, and to propose a new dining style, together with new concepts for products and services to support that dining style. However, traditional surveys and studies on dining style have only considered contemporary conditions, offering few suggestions as to new dining styles that coming generations might adopt. That being the case, this
2 study aims to determine a new dining style that the next generation will develop, using a selection of methods from the helpful toolkit called The Seven Tools for New Product Planning, and to propose products and services that could provide the necessary means to realize that dining style. The Seven Tools for New Product Planning, advocated by Kanda and Nagasawa etc, was presented in 994  and a revised edition proposed in 2000. In the revised edition, Questionnaire Survey, Positioning Analysis, Conceptualization, Idea Screening, Conjoint Analysis and Quality Chart were included. It has been described in a number of case studies, such as mini-component stereo MDX707, Ricoh digital copying machine IMAGIO MF-200 and Nissan X-TRAIL.  However, most of these were examples of planning for a specific product. This research exercise set out to employ the toolkit not only to plan a specific product, but also for the specific purpose of proposing a new dining style, together with products and services supporting that style. In short, this research also sought to extend the application of the toolkit. 2. Method The Seven Tools for New Product Planning comprise Group Interview, Questionnaire Survey, Positioning Analysis, Conceptualization, Idea Screening, Conjoint Analysis, and Quality Chart. This research was implemented through the following procedures: firstly, group interviews to gather opinions and attitudes on dining from undergraduates, in order to hypothesize preferred dining factors; then, questionnaire surveys to verify the hypothesis; and finally, positioning analysis to determine preferred dining. 3. Results and Discussions 3. Hypothesizing dietary demands based on results of group interview In the group interview, the first method of The Seven Tools for New Product Planning, researchers meet face-to-face with consumers to gather information which helps to determine their potential demands. This study, with the objective of developing a hypothesis about potential requirements of future dining, employed the evaluation grid method one of a range of interview techniques to conduct in-depth interviews with individual consumers, and to provide concrete solutions for related problems. The evaluation grid method enables consumers to express their ratings of existing products in their own words. Researchers show respondents pairs of subjects and repeatedly ask them the following questions: mid-level concept questions such as which do you prefer, super-ordinate concept questions such as why do you prefer it, and sub-ordinate concept questions such as what should it be like in order to meet your needs. Respondents evaluation data are arranged into a tree diagram. While most traditional research using the evaluation grid method has focused on existing, tangible products, the subject of this study is an abstract concept dining styles. Therefore, researchers ask respondents not about their likes and dislikes of specific products, but about their dining styles, and they encourage respondents to expand upon their answers by asking follow-up questions. This group interview was conducted with undergraduates. The test sample was a 50/50 mix of male and female students, half of them living independently and half still residing at their parents homes, because gender and living environment were expected to influence their answers. Each respondent received a 2,000 book token for their cooperation. Figure shows part of the tree diagram of respondents ratings based on interview results. The hypothesis in table is based on Figure.
3 Economical 0 Dining cheaply 7 Brown-bag Bread Self-catering 0 Selecting ingredients that are useful for many recipes Keeping vegetables carefully to prevent them from Preparing slightly larger meals Eating inexpensive restaurants at Avoid snacks eating Avoid eating boxed meals sold at convenience stores My electronic cooker is 2 It is difficult to plan menus It takes too long to cook 4 3 Egg menus Use of freezers It is difficult to determine appropriate the amount School cafeterias Yoshinoya Fast-food restaurants Portable gas stove Researching recipes on the Internet Easy recipes 4 Having kitchen garbage that needs to be taken out Dishwashing is a nuisance Produces cooking odors Garbage disposer 6 Dishwasher 6 2 Powerful fan Figure. Part of the tree diagram of ratings by undergraduates living independently Table. Hypothesis about dining based on group interview Category Health Style Communication Dining-out Convenience Economics Hypothesis Undergraduates, excluding male students living with their parents, need easier access to nutritious foods through daily meals Female students need a greater variety of nutritional products for a balanced diet, in addition to existing supplements and CalorieMate Female students want to enjoy stylish meals even at home Not only female but also male students might want to enjoy stylish meals? All students (irrespective of gender and living environment) want to enjoy social interaction at mealtimes Students living with their parents have a greater need than those living independently to gain stimulation from enjoying different atmospheres or foods which they cannot experience at home Students living independently experience many problems with cooking appliances and need products to solve these problems All students (irrespective of gender and living environment) need inexpensive products and services in order to enjoy a stylish but balanced diet 3.2 Verification of the hypothesis about needs related to dining by questionnaire survey Because hypothesis by the evaluation grid method is based on small-sample interviews, it needs to be verified by the questionnaire survey with rating scale method, whether the hypothesis applies to a majority of consumers. The questionnaire for the survey must include approximately 0 subjects and 0 evaluation items for the next step, positioning analysis. To simplify the various and complex factors of dining, dining attributes corresponding to the hypothesis, as shown in Table 2, were defined for the questionnaire surveys. In addition, levels for each attribute were defined as shown in Table 3, based on some aspects of eating patterns identified from the interview results. These attribute options can be combined in 28 ways. If the questionnaire covers all of these combinations, respondents find it too tiring to answer, and adequate data cannot be collected. For this reason, the 28 combinations were refined down to 6 patterns, using the L 6 orthogonal array of experimental design statistical method. By applying mathematical principles of this method, the 6 patterns can achieve results as
4 effectively as 28 combinations. With regard to the evaluation items, keywords corresponding to needs related to dining were selected from words that were frequently found in the interview responses. These keywords are described in Table 4. For the positioning analysis, the questionnaire includes an item for comprehensive evaluation, preferable. This questionnaire survey was conducted among undergraduates in environmental science classes at Ritsumeikan University. There were 7 valid responses. To depict the results in a visual form, average values of all responses for every evaluation item were incorporated into a snake plot (Figure 2). As shown in Figure 2, there were two groups of eating patterns; one group registered high values with respect to the evaluation item, Easy to communicate, while the other registered low values. The former group also registered higher values with respect to other options, such as stylish, familiar, enjoyable, and preferable. In other words, it is obvious that students prefer Easy to communicate eating patterns because those take place in a familiar, enjoyable and stylish setting. Table 2. Dining attributes corresponding to hypothesis based on the interview results Hypothesis based on interview results Hypothesis about convenience and economics Hypothesis about style Hypothesis about health, style, and convenience Hypothesis about communication Hypothesis about convenience Dining attribute Meal procurement Meal setting Meal choice Alone or with other people Cleanup necessary/unnecessary Table 3. Levels for each dining attribute Meal procuremen Meal setting t Meal choice Alone or with other people Cleanup Buy at store Comfortable and relaxing area Sumptuous dishes Alone Necessary Self-catering Room of refined design Well-lit and open area Cozy room with a convivial mood Main and other course One-plate servings Fast food With other people Unnecessar y Table 4. Evaluation items corresponding to needs related to dining derived from the interview results Hypothesis about needs related to dining Evaluation item They want a stylish diet. Stylish They are interested in a balanced diet Healthy They want to make preparation and cleanup easier They prefer easy-to-prepare dishes Easy to do They want to communicate with each other at mealtimes They want to enjoy meals with other people Easy to communicate They prefer inexpensive meals Economical They seek refreshment by dining out Refreshing When dining out, they want to enjoy meals that they cannot cook at hom Fashionable They want to relax Casual They want to make preparation and cleanup easier They prefer easy-to-prepare dishes Quick They want to relax Familiar When dining out, they want to enjoy meals that they cannot cook at home Enjoyable
5 Considering that pattern-o is relatively low rated with respect to easy to prepare and quick while being highest rated on preferable, it could be that students place less emphasis on time and trouble for meals than on other factors with respect to the pattern. In addition to average values, matrices of correlation coefficients between items were calculated. The higher the correlation value between 2 items (ex or 0.7 or more), the stronger the linear relationship, and the higher the degree of similarity. This survey showed that students prefer eating patterns which rated higher with respect to Easy to communicate and enjoyable, because both items correlate closely with the comprehensive evaluation item, preferable. The fact that no correlation coefficient among the 6 eating patterns is particularly high indicated that the patterns were dissimilar to one another. In conclusion, it can be said that hypothesis of They are interested in a balanced diet, They want to communicate at meal times and They prefer inexpensive meals are verified A B C D E F 0.00 Stylish Healthy Easy to do Easy to communicate Economical Refreshing Fashionable Casual Quick Familiar Enjoyable Preferable it (a) Snake plot of A ~ F evaluation items G H I J K 0.00 Stylish Healthy Easy to do Easy to communicate Economical Refreshing Fashionable Casual Quick Familiar Enjoyable Preferable it (b) Snake plot of G ~ K evaluation items L M N O P 0.00 Stylish Healthy Easy to do Easy to communicate Economical Refreshing Fashionable Casual Quick Familiar Enjoyable Preferable it (c) Snake plot of L ~ P evaluation items Figure.2 Snake plot of the evaluation items
6 3.3 Determination of position of existing eating patterns and possible best positioning for optimum patterns by positioning analysis Positioning analysis was conducted to determine the positioning of current eating patterns, and possible ideal positioning for new patterns that will appeal to consumers. This analysis is designed to provide a multidimensional space, like a map, in which the eating patterns that consumers perceived are placed. This is referred to as perception map. The perception map has axes to define a perceptional space, in which points indicate positioning of eating patterns. In this analysis, the data collected through the questionnaire survey (7 valid responses) were analyzed by the factor analysis and preference regression analysis methods, using PLANPARTNER, the application software for The Seven Tools for New Product Planning. First, factor analysis was conducted to combine Evaluation items to two or three factors. As the results, factor- pleasure, factor-2 ease and factor-3 style were obtained. Second, a market map based on the 3 factors of the 6 evaluation pattern was made. Preference regression was performed using Preferable it" as the outcome variable to clarify the direction of the preference. Figure 3 shows these results. Figure 3 shows that pattern-o and pattern-m are superior with respect to pleasure (factor-); pattern-d and pattern-i are superior for ease (factor-2); and pattern-f and pattern-k are superior for style (factor-3). Both pattern-o and pattern-m include the attribute option of eating with other people, therefore this option was found to equate to pleasure. Pattern-D and pattern-i are perceived as easy, because meals are bought at stores, and cleanup is unnecessary in both patterns. On the other hand, pattern-f and pattern-k, highly rated with respect to stylish, correlate with sumptuous dishes, eating with other people, and Room of refined design. Meal choice and meal setting are therefore considered to be key elements in style y = x Style おしゃれ Ease 手軽 (a).000 I D J C L K B A NG H M E O P F Pleasure わいわい Perception map including an ideal direction with respect to pleasure and ease y = 0.30 x F K B A M J P D I N E G H O C L Pleasure わいわい (b) Perception map including an ideal direction with respect to pleasure and style Figure 3. Perception map based on data from 7 undergraduates
7 To determine the best placement for optimum patterns on the perception maps, it is necessary to conduct a preference regression analysis based on the preferences of the respondents. For this study, the relative importance of the factors was determined through regression analysis with reference to a criterion variable - the comprehensive evaluation item, preferable ; and ideal direction was defined according to importance. In Figure 3, the ideal direction is the straight line from the point of origin, so eating patterns positioned along this line are deemed as being most preferable by customers. The angle of the ideal direction suggests that details of eating patterns should be reviewed in the following order: pleasure, style, and ease. In addition, the eating pattern positioned closest to the line is pattern-m, which would be the most preferred pattern provided there were to be some improvement concerning the ease factor. 4. Conclusions With the theme, New Dining Style for the Next Generation and Proposal of New Products and Services to Support the Dining Style, this research study was carried out to determine the preferred eating patterns of young people, using three methods derived from The Seven Tools for New Product Planning : group interview, questionnaire survey, and positioning analysis. The aim of the group interview was to develop a hypothesis on dining. Results from 2 student interviews led to the hypothesis that students place importance on the following factors: health, style, communication, convenience, economics, and refreshment. Next, a questionnaire survey was conducted to verify the hypothesis based on the interview results from a small sample. Results of the questionnaire survey covering 7 students show that they place importance on communication at mealtimes, and want meals that provide refreshment and pleasure. While it is obvious that these two factors are important for an ideal dining situation, health and affordability are considered to be fundamental requirements for everyday dining. They may perceive that easy-to-prepare and quick meals are not sufficiently healthy or affordable. Finally, positioning analysis was conducted, based on the results of the questionnaire survey, to determine the factors for preferred dining. This analysis shows that the students want to enjoy their dining, placing higher priority on pleasure and style than on ease. In conclusion, this research shows that enjoyable meal is most preferred by the students. The next paper, on Idea Generation Method, Idea Selection Method and Conjoint Analysis, will describe what products are required to support such meals. References. Kanda, N., S. Nagasawa, T. Konno. S. Okamoto and T. Ohfuji(994), The Seven Tools for New Product Planning, Quality Control Nol.45. No. 7-2, JUSE. 2. Nagasawa, S. et al., On the Revision and Enlargement of the Seven Tools for New Product Planning, Proceedings of the 4 th Asia Quality Symposium 2000 Taipei, pp.56-59(2000). 3. Nagasawa Shin ya: Revision and Verification of Seven Tools for New Product Planning, Kansei Engineering International, Kansei Engineering, Vol.3, No.4, pp.3-8 (2002). 4. Nagasawa, S, Development of Nissan X-TRAIL, using the Seven Tools for New Product Planning, Kansei
8 Engineering, Vol.2, No., pp.2-5 (2002). 5. Noriaki Kanda, Tadashi Ohfuji, Shin ichi Okamoto, Tsutomu Konno, Shin ya Nagasawa and Kazuhiko Maruyama: The Seven Tools for New Product Planning to Create Hit Products (II)-Easy-To-Understand Version (2000, JUSE Press. Ltd.) (in Japanese)