# Oligopoly Pricing. EC 202 Lecture IV. Francesco Nava. January London School of Economics. Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

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1 Oligopoly Pricing EC 202 Lecture IV Francesco Nava London School of Economics January 2011 Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

2 Summary The models of competition presented in MT explored the consequences on prices and trade of two extreme assumptions: Perfect Competition Monopoly [Many sellers supplying many buyers] [One seller supplying many buyers] Today intermediate assumption is discussed: Oligopoly [Few sellers supplying many buyers] Two models of competition among oligopolists are presented: Quantity Competition Price Competition [aka Cournot Competition] [aka Bertrand Competition] Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

3 A Duopoly Consider the following economy: There are two firms N = {1, 2} Each firm i N produces output q i with a cost function c i (q i ) mapping quantities to costs Aggregate output in this economy is q = q 1 + q 2 Both firms face an aggregate inverse demand for output p(q) mapping aggregate output to prices The payoff of each firm i N is its profits: u i (q 1, q 2 ) = p(q)q i c i (q i ) Profits depend on the output decisions of both Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

4 Cournot Competition: Duopoly Competition proceeds as follows: All firms simultaneously select their output to maximize profits Each firm takes as given the output of its competitors Firms account for the effects of their output decision on prices In particular the decision problem of player i N is to: max u i (q i, q j ) = max p(q i + q j )q i c i (q i ) q i q i [Historically this is the first known example of Nash Equilibrium 1838] [Example: Visa vs Mastercard] Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

5 Cournot Competition: Equilibrium If standard conditions on primitives of the problem hold: a pure strategy Nash equilibrium exists the PNE is characterized by the FOC If so, the problem of any producer i N satisfies: u i (q i, q j ) = p(q i + q j ) + p(q i + q j ) q i q i q }{{ i } Marginal Revenue c { i (q i ) 0 if qi = 0 q }{{ i = 0 if q } i > 0 Marginal Cost Marginal revenue accounts for the distortion in prices Prices decrease if inverse demand is downward-sloping FOC defines the best response (aka reaction function) of player i: q i = b i (q j ) Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

6 Cournot Example Consider the following economy: p(q) = 2 q c 1 (q 1 ) = q1 2 and c 2 (q 2 ) = 3q2 2 Firm i s problem is to choose production q i given choice of the other q j : max q i (2 q i q j )q i c i (q i ) The best reply map of each firm is determined by FOC: 2 2q 1 q 2 2q 1 = 0 q 1 = b 1 (q 2 ) = (2 q 2 )/4 2 2q 2 q 1 6q 2 = 0 q 2 = b 2 (q 1 ) = (2 q 1 )/8 Cournot Equilibrium outputs are: q 1 = 14/31 and q 2 = 6/31 Perfect competition outputs are larger: q 1 = 3/5 and q 2 = 1/5 Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

7 Collusion and Cartels Suppose that the producers collude by forming a cartel A cartel maximizes the joint profits of the two firms: max p(q)q c 1 (q 1 ) c 2 (q 2 ) q 1,q 2 First order optimality of this problem requires for any i N: p(q) + p(q) q q }{{} Marginal Revenue c { i (q i ) 0 if qi = 0 q }{{ i = 0 if q } i > 0 Marginal Cost Aggregate profits are higher in the cartel Players account for effects of their output choice on others But the profits of each individual do not necessarily increase Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

8 Collusion Example Consider the previous duopoly, but suppose that a cartel is in place If so, FOC for the cartel production satisfy: 2 2q 1 2q 2 2q 1 = 0 q 1 = (1 q 2 )/2 2 2q 2 2q 1 6q 2 = 0 q 2 = (1 q 1 )/4 Cartel outputs are: q 1 = 3/7 and q 2 = 1/7 Cournot outputs are larger: q 1 = 14/31 and q 2 = 6/31 Cartel profits are: u 1 = 3/7 and u 2 = 1/7 Cournot profits are: u 1 = 392/961 and u 2 = 144/961 Total profits are larger with a cartel in place, but not all firms may benefit Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

9 Defection from a Cartel Suppose that the firm j produces the cartel output q j If so, firm i may benefit by producing more than the cartel output since: b i (q j ) > q i In this scenario sustaining a cartel may be hard without output monitoring In the example this was the case as firms preferred to increase output: b 1 (1/7) = 13/28 > 3/7 b 2 (3/7) = 11/56 > 1/7 If so the problem of sustaining the cartel becomes a Prisoner s dilemma Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

10 Bertrand Competition: Duopoly Competition proceeds as follows: All firms simultaneously quote a price to maximize profits Each firm takes as given the price quoted by its competitors Firms account for the effects of their pricing decision on sales Consider an economy with: Two producers with constant marginal costs c Aggregate demand for output given by q(p) = (b 0 p)/b Given the prices demand of output from firm i N is: q(p i ) if p i < p j q i (p i, p j ) = q(p i )/2 if p i = p j 0 if p i > p j Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

11 Bertrand Competition: Monopoly If only one firm operated in such market it would choose the price to: max p u(p) = max q(p)(p c) p Thus a profit maximizing monopolist would sell goods at a price: p = (b 0 + c)/2 With two producers the problem of each firm becomes: max u i (p i, p j ) = max q i (p i, p j )(p i c) p i p i Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

12 Bertrand Competition: Best Responses In the Bertrand model, i s optimal pricing is aimed at maximizing sales In particular firm i would set prices as follows (for ε small): If p j > p, set p i = p and capture all the market at the monopoly price If p p j > c, set p i = p j ε, undercut j and capture all the market If c p j, set p i = c as there are no benefits by pricing below MC Such logic requires the best response of each player to satisfy: p if p j > p p i = b i (p j ) = p j ε if p p j > c c if c p j Thus in the unique NE both firms set p 1 = p 2 = c and perfect competition emerges with just 2 firms! Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

13 Cournot vs Bertrand Competition Bertrand model predicts that duopoly is enough to push down prices to marginal cost (as in perfect competition) Cournot model instead predicts that few producers do not suffi ce to eliminate markups (prices above marginal cost) In both models there are incentives to form a cartel and to charge the monopoly price Neither model is intrinsically better Accuracy of either model depends on the fundamentals of the economy: Bertrand works better when capacity is easy to adjust Cournot works better when capacity is hard to adjust Nava (LSE) EC 202 Lecture IV Jan / 13

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