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1 SOLUTIONS TO EERCISES EERCISE 2-1 (15 minutes) 1. F; I 2. V ; D 3. V ; D 4. F; I 5. F; I 6. F; I 7. V ; D 8. F; I 9. F; I 10. V ; D 11. F; I 12. F; I 13. F; I 14. F; I EERCISE 2-2 (15 minutes) 1. Product 2. Product 3. Period 4. Period 5. Product 6. Period 7. Period 8. Product 9. Product 10. Period 11. Product 12. Product 13. Product 14. Period

2 EERCISE 2-8 (20 minutes) 1. Product A Product B Differential Cost and Revenues Selling price Units sold Sales Cost of goods sold (V): \$16 x 500, \$20 x 600 Gross margin Operating expenses: Rent (F) Repair service fee (F) Advertising (F) Total expenses Net income \$24 x500 \$ 12,000 8,000 4, \$ 3,200 \$30 x600 \$ 18,000 12,000 6, ,000 1,700 \$ 4,300 \$6,000 4,000 2, (500) \$ 1, Yes. The opportunity cost would be \$3,200 per year, the net benefits foregone if Product A is eliminated. However, the opportunity cost is less than the potential profit from Product B. John would benefit by replacing Product A with Product B. EERCISE 2-10 (10 minutes) 1. Step 2. True 3. Semi 4. Semi 5. Step 6. Semi 7. Semi 8. True 9. Step 10. Semi 11. Semi 12. Step

3 PROBLEM 2-12 (20 minutes) Cost Behavior Selling & Product Cost Cost Item Variable Fixed Admin. Cost Direct Indirect

4 PROBLEM 2-16 (45 minutes) 1. Hampton Company Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured for 19x1 Direct materials: Beginning raw materials... Raw material purchases Raw materials available for use Ending raw materials.. Raw materials used in production Direct labor cost. Manufacturing overhead: Factory depreciation.. Factory utilities Factory maintenance. Factory repairs.. Factory insurance.. Indirect labor... Total overhead costs.. Total manufacturing costs Beginning work in process inventory Ending work in process inventory.. Cost of goods manufactured.. \$ 2,000 10,000 12,000 (3,000) \$ 27,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 1,500 5,500 \$ 9,000 18,000 41,000 68,000 12,000 80,000 (9,000) \$71, Hampton Company Income Statement (Cost of Goods Sold Section) for 19x1 Cost of goods sold: Beginning finished goods inventory.... \$10,000 Cost of goods manufactured... 71,000 Finished goods available for sale... 81,000 Ending finished goods inventory... (9,000) Cost of goods sold... \$72,000

5 3. Raw materials used in production... \$ 9,000 Number of units produced... 1,000 units Per-unit cost of raw materials \$ 9 If 1,500 units are produced, total cost of raw materials will be: \$9 x 1,500 units = \$13, Factory depreciation, which represents the periodic cost of the existing production capacity, is a good example to use to illustrate an economy of scale. Unit cost if 1,000 units are produced: Factory depreciation... \$ 27,000 Number of units produced... 1,000 units Per-unit cost of depreciation... \$ 27 Unit cost if 1,500 units are produced: Factory depreciation... \$ 27,000 Number of units produced... 1,500 units Per-unit cost of depreciation... \$ 18 Unit cost of depreciation drops from \$27 to \$18 as the level of production increases. Since fixed costs do not change in total as the activity level changes, they will decrease on a per-unit basis as the activity level goes up, and will increase on a unit basis as the activity level goes down. There is no difference in unit cost of direct materials because direct materials are variable costs; they change in total as the activity level changes.

6 PROBLEM 2-19 (50 minutes) 1. a. Units of finished goods sold: Sales in dollars..... \$ 990,000 Selling price per unit... \$ 45 Number of units sold ,000 b. Cost of goods sold: Sales \$ 990,000 Gross margin ,000 Cost of goods sold.... \$ 550,000 c. Per-unit cost of goods manufactured = Per-unit cost of goods sold: Cost of goods sold..... \$550,000 Number of units sold ,000 Per-unit cost.... \$ 25 d. 19x7 ending finished goods inventory: Units of 19x7 ending finished goods ,760 Per-unit cost of goods manufactured..... x \$25 19x7 ending finished goods... \$ 69,000 e. 19x7 beginning finished goods inventory: Units of 19x7 beginning finished goods.... 1,760 Per-unit cost of goods manufactured..... x \$25 19x7 beginning finished goods... \$44,000 f. Cost of goods manufactured: Cost of goods sold.... \$ 550,000 19x7 ending finished goods inventory ,000 Goods available for sale ,000 19x7 beginning finished goods.... (44,000) Cost of goods manufactured..... \$575,000 g. Number of units produced: Cost of goods manufactured \$575,000 Per-unit cost of goods manufactured... \$ 25

7 Number of units produced ,000 h. Manufacturing overhead cost: Indirect labor.... \$40,000 Rent on the building (60% manufacturing). 30,000 Utilities ,000 Repairs and maintenance ,000 Total manufacturing overhead... \$220,000 i. Direct materials used: Total current manufacturing costs.... \$570,000 Direct labor.... (150,000) Manufacturing overhead.... (220,000) Direct materials used.... \$200,000 j. 19x7 ending work in process inventory: Total current manufacturing costs.... \$ 570,000 Beginning work in process inventory , ,000 Cost of goods manufactured..... (575,000) Ending work in process... \$30,000 k. 19x7 ending raw materials inventory: 19x7 beginning raw materials.... \$ 23,000 Purchases ,000 Available for use ,000 Raw materials used.... (200,000) 19x7 ending raw materials..... \$13,000

8 2. FutureTerm, Inc. Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured For the Year Ended December 31, 19x7 Direct materials: Beginning raw materials..... Raw material purchases Raw materials available for use. Ending raw materials.. Raw materials used in production.. Direct labor cost. Manufacturing overhead: Indirect labor.. Rent on the building. Utilities Repairs and maintenance.... Total overhead costs. Total manufacturing costs. Beginning work in process inventory Ending work in process inventory. Cost of goods manufactured. 3. The cost of goods sold section of the income Statement: \$23, , ,000 (13,000) 40,000 30,000 85,000 65,000 \$ 200, , , ,000 35, ,000 (30,000) \$575,000 Cost of goods sold: Finished goods inventory, January 1, 19x7.. \$44,000 Cost of goods manufactured ,000 Goods available for sale ,000 Finished goods inventory, December 31, 19x7. (69,000) Cost of goods sold... \$ 550,000

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