Cost Allocation: Joint Products and Byproducts Chapter 16

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1 Cost Allocation: Joint Products and Byproducts Chapter

2 Learning Objective 1 Identify the splitoff point(s) in a joint-cost situation. 16-2

3 Joint-Cost Basics Joint costs Joint products Byproduct Splitoff point Separable costs 16-3

4 Joint-Cost Basics Raw milk Cream Liquid Skim 16-4

5 Joint-Cost Basics Coal Gas Benzyl Tar 16-5

6 Learning Objective 2 Distinguish joint products from byproducts. 16-6

7 Joint Products and Byproducts Main Products Joint Products Byproducts High Low Sales Value 16-7

8 Learning Objective 3 Explain why joint costs should be allocated to individual products. 16-8

9 Why Allocate Joint Costs? to compute inventory cost and cost of goods sold to determine cost reimbursement under contracts for insurance settlement computations for rate regulation for litigation purposes 16-9

10 Learning Objective 4 Allocate joint costs using four different methods

11 Approaches to Allocating Joint Costs Two basic ways to allocate joint costs to products are: Approach 1: Market based Approach 2: Physical measure 16-11

12 Approach 1: Market-based Data Sales value at splitoff method Estimated net realizable value (NRV) method Constant gross-margin percentage NRV method 16-12

13 Allocating Joint Costs Example 10,000 units of A at a selling price of \$10 = \$100,000 10,500 units of B at a selling price of \$30 = \$315,000 11,500 units of C at a selling price of \$20 = \$230,00 Joint processing cost is \$200,000 Splitoff point 16-13

14 Allocating Joint Costs Example A B C Total Sales Value \$100,000 \$315,000 \$230,000 \$645,000 Allocation of Joint Cost , , , ,000 Gross margin \$ 68,992 \$217,326 \$158,682 \$445,

15 Sales Value at Splitoff Method Example Assume all of the units produced of B and C were sold. 2,500 units of A (25%) remain in inventory. What is the gross margin percentage of each product? 16-15

16 Sales Value at Splitoff Method Example Product A Revenues: 7,500 units \$10.00 \$75,000 Cost of goods sold: Joint product costs \$31,008 Less ending inventory \$31,008 25% 7,752 23,256 Gross margin \$51,

17 Sales Value at Splitoff Method Example Product A: (\$75,000 \$ 23,256) \$75,000 = 69% Product B: (\$315,000 \$97,674) \$315,000 = 69% Product C: (\$230,000 \$71,318) \$230,000 = 69% 16-17

18 Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example Assume that Oklahoma Company can process products A, B, and, C further into A1, B1, and C1. The new sales values after further processing are: A1: 10,000 \$12.00 = \$120,000 B1: 10,500 \$33.00 = \$346,500 C1: 11,500 \$21.00 = \$241,

19 Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example Additional processing (separable) costs are as follows: A1: \$35,000 B1: \$46,500 C1: \$51,500 What is the estimated net realizable value of each product at the splitoff point? 16-19

20 Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example Product A1: \$120,000 \$35,000 = \$85,000 Product B1: \$346,500 \$46,500 = \$300,000 Product C1: \$241,500 \$51,500 = \$190,000 How much of the joint cost is allocated to each product? 16-20

21 Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example To A1: \$200,000 = \$29,565 To B1: \$200,000 = \$104,348 To C1: \$200,000 = \$66,

22 Estimated Net Realizable Value (NRV) Method Example Allocated Separable Inventory joint costs costs costs A1 \$ 29,565 \$ 35,000 \$ 64,565 B1 104,348 46, ,848 C1 66,087 51, ,587 Total \$200,000 \$133,000 \$333,

23 Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method This method entails three steps: Step 1: Compute the overall gross-margin percentage. Step 2: Use the overall gross-margin percentage and deduct the gross margin from the final sales values to obtain the total costs that each product should bear

24 Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method Step 3: Deduct the expected separable costs from the total costs to obtain the joint-cost allocation

25 Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method What is the expected final sales value of total production during the accounting period? Product A1: \$120,000 Product B1: 346,500 Product C1: 241,500 Total \$708,

26 Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method Step 1: Compute the overall gross-margin percentage. Expected final sales value \$708,000 Deduct joint and separable costs 333,000 Gross margin \$375,000 Gross margin percentage: \$375,000 \$708,000 = % 16-26

27 Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method Step 2: Deduct the gross margin. Sales Gross Cost of Value Margin Goods sold Product A1: \$120,000 \$ 63,559 \$ 56,441 Product B1: 346, , ,973 Product C1: 241, , ,587 Total \$708,000 \$375,000 \$333,000 (\$1 rounding) 16-27

28 Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method Step 3: Deduct separable costs. Cost of Separable Joint costs goods sold costs allocated Product A1: \$ 56,441 \$ 35,000 \$ 21,441 Product B1: 162,973 46, ,473 Product C1: 113,587 51,500 62,087 Total \$333,000 \$133,000 \$200,

29 Approach 2: Physical Measure Method Example \$200,000 joint cost 20,000 pounds A 48,000 pounds B 12,000 pounds C Product A \$50,000 Product B \$120,000 Product C \$30,

30 Learning Objective 5 Explain why the sales value at splitoff method is preferred when allocating joint costs

31 Choosing a Method Why is the sales value at splitoff method widely used? It measures the value of the joint product immediately. It uses a meaningful basis. It does not anticipate subsequent management decisions. It is simple

32 Choosing a Method The purpose of the joint-cost allocation is important in choosing the allocation method. The physical-measure method is a more appropriate method to use in rate regulation

33 Avoiding Joint Cost Allocation Some companies refrain from allocating joint costs and instead carry their inventories at estimated net realizable value

34 Learning Objective 6 Explain why joint costs are irrelevant in a sell-or-process-further decision

35 Irrelevance of Joint Costs for Decision Making Assume that products A, B, and C can be sold at the splitoff point or processed further into A1, B1, and C1. Selling Selling Additional Units price price costs 10,000 A: \$10 A1: \$12 \$35,000 10,500 B: \$30 B1: \$33 \$46,500 11,500 C: \$20 C1: \$21 \$51,

36 Irrelevance of Joint Costs for Decision Making Should A, B, or C be sold at the splitoff point or processed further? Product A: Incremental revenue \$20,000 Incremental cost \$35,000 = (\$15,000) Product B: Incremental revenue \$31,500 Incremental cost \$46,500 = (\$15,000) Product C: Incremental revenue \$11,500 Incremental cost \$51,500 = (\$40,000) 16-36

37 Learning Objective 7 Account for byproducts using two different methods

38 Accounting for Byproducts Method A: The production method recognizes byproducts at the time their production is completed. Method B: The sale method delays recognition of byproducts until the time of their sale

39 Accounting for Byproducts Example Main Products Byproducts (Yards) (Yards) Production 1, Sales Ending inventory Sales price \$13/yard \$1.00/yard No beginning finished goods inventory 16-39

40 Accounting for Byproducts Example Joint production costs for joint (main) products and byproducts: Material \$2,000 Manufacturing labor 3,000 Manufacturing overhead 4,000 Total production cost \$9,

41 Accounting for Byproducts Method A Method A: The production method What is the value of ending inventory of joint (main) products? \$9,000 total production cost \$400 net realizable value of the byproduct = \$8,600 net production cost for the joint products 16-41

42 Accounting for Byproducts Method A 200 1,000 \$8,600 = \$1,720 is the value assigned to the 200 yards in ending inventory. What is the cost of goods sold? Joint production costs \$9,000 Less byproduct revenue 400 Less main product inventory 1,720 Cost of goods sold \$6,

43 Accounting for Byproducts Method A Income Statement (Method A) Revenues: (800 yards \$13) \$10,400 Cost of goods sold 6,880 Gross margin \$ 3,520 What is the gross margin percentage? \$3,520 \$10,400 = 33.85% 16-43

44 Accounting for Byproducts Method A What are the inventoriable costs? Main product: 200 1,000 \$8,600 = \$1,720 Byproduct: 100 \$1.00 = \$

45 Journal Entries Method A Work in Process 2,000 Accounts Payable 2,000 To record direct materials purchased and used in production Work in Process 7,000 Various Accounts 7,000 To record conversion costs in the joint process 16-45

46 Journal Entries Method A Byproduct Inventory 400 Finished Goods 8,600 Work in Process 9,000 To record cost of goods completed Cost of Goods Sold 6,880 Finished Goods 6,880 To record the cost of the main product sold 16-46

47 Journal Entries Method A Cash or Accounts Receivable 10,400 Revenues 10,400 To record the sale of the main product 16-47

48 Accounting for Byproducts Method B Method B: The sale method What is the value of ending inventory of joint (main) products? 200 1,000 \$9,000 = \$1,800 No value is assigned to the 400 yards of byproducts at the time of production. The \$300 resulting from the sale of byproducts is reported as revenues

49 Accounting for Byproducts Method B Income Statement (Method B) Revenues: Main product (800 \$13) \$10,400 Byproducts sold 300 Total revenues \$10,700 Cost of goods sold: Joint production costs 9,000 Less main product inventory 1,800 \$ 7,200 Gross margin \$ 3,

50 Accounting for Byproducts Method B What is the gross margin percentage? \$3,200 \$10,700 = 29.91% What are the inventoriable costs? Main product: 200 1,000 \$9,000 = \$1,800 By-product:

51 Journal Entries Method B Work in Process 2,000 Accounts Payable 2,000 To record direct materials purchased and used in production Work in Process 7,000 Various Accounts 7,000 To record conversion costs in the joint process 16-51

52 Journal Entries Method B Finished Goods 9,000 Work in Process 9,000 To record cost of goods completed Cost of Goods Sold 7,200 Finished Goods 7,200 To record the cost of the main product sold 16-52

53 Journal Entries Method B Cash or Accounts Receivable 10,400 Revenues 10,400 To record the sale of the main product Cash or Accounts Receivable 300 Revenues 300 To record the sale of the byproduct 16-53

54 End of Chapter

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