METALS. and METALLURGICAL ABSTRACTS. . y * * fh\ /' 'r, k^ ' i ' ' K* ' - ^ ' ' ' ' ^ ~ JA N U A R Y, 1934

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1 papers to be printed in the half-yearly volume: Journal o f the Institute o f Metals, 1934, Vol. LIV. V ol. 1 Part I. METALS p V ' 0 f. POUÎCCHNIKI and METALLURGICAL ABSTRACTS. y * * fh\ /' 'r, k^ ' i ' ' K* ' - ^ ' ' ' ' ^ ~ JA N U A R Y, 1934 WBSwHHaEabBf J, SSSBafiEsLi* [Entered at Stationtr tmajl T H E M O N T H L Y J O U R N A L N O W C O N T A IN S A D V A N C E C O P IE S OF P A P E R S T O B E P R E S E N T E D A T T H E G E N E R A L M E E T IN G S O F T H E IN S T IT U T E. N O O T H E R A D V A N C E G O P Ie I W ILL B E IS S U E D.

2 EMPIRE 'AZ' BRAND CADMIUM 99-96% GUARANTEED THE BRITISH METAL CORPORATION LT? PRINCES HOUSE, 93 CRESHAM STREET, 'Phone : M ET R O P O LIT A N LONDON EC2 BIRMINGHAM SW ANSEA 'Phone: C EN TRA L 'Phone: SW A N SEA ELTON, LEVY & Co. Lt d. METAL AND ORE MERCHANTS SMELTERS' AGENTS 18 ST. THOMAS STREET LONDON BRIDGE, S.E1 SPECIALITY The utilization o f Waste Products and C om plex Materials and the purchase fo r dismantling o f obsolete w orks and plant, in particular closed-down smelting plant. Unique E xperience Business-like M ethods Straightforward Dealing. Propositions invited from any part o f the world. Telegram s Eppenleco, Boroh, London. T elephone- Hop 2S2S

3 Aluminium and its Alloys are (I) LIGHT The lightness of aluminium and aluminium alloys, which is most frequently their first commendation, is of particular advantage to road transport. The 3-way tipping waggon illustrated, with A.E.C. "M am m oth " oil-engined chassis and Bromilow & Edwards Gear, gains 2 0 % in payload capacity by the use of aluminium and aluminium alloys for bodywork. (Bodybuilders The Duramin iiee ra a R E W ys B It I flk æ Engineering Co. Ltd., # IAU M I N I U M Hythe Road, W illesden j h A \ AND JLICHT ALLOYS Junction, London, N.W.10.) B I J r S lh e BRITISH ALUMINIUM* CO.Lt'd. HEAD OFFICE! A D E L A I D E H O U S E,K IN G W ILLIA M ST..L O N D O N. E.C.4 -. TELEPHONE: MANSION HOUSE SSCI t»074 (5 UNIS) TiLECMMS'-CftYUUTE, BILCATE, LONDON. The BRITISH ALUM INIUM COM PANY Ltd. 3 j i m. I. 3 4

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6 UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SWANSEA. ( A Constituent College of the University of Wales.") P r i n c i p a l : C. A. E d w a r d s, D. S c., F.R.S. Professor. Assistant Professor Lecturers. Assistant Lecturer APPLIED S C IE N C E D EP AR TM EN TS. M ETALLU R G Y. C. A. E d w a r d s, D.Sc. (Manchester), F.R.S.. L. T a v e r n e r, A.R.S.M., D.I.C., M.I.M.M.. R. H ig g i n s, Ph.D. (Glasgow). R. G r i f f i t h s, M.Sc. (Wales).. A. E. W. S m i t h, Ph.D. (Birmingham). ENG IN EERIN G. Professor.. F r e d e r i c B a c o n, M.A. (Cantab.), A.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M ech.e., M.I E.E. Lecturer in Electrical Engineering. Lecturer in Civil Engineering R. G. I s a a c s, M.Sc. (Bristol), B.Sc. (Lond.), A.M.I.E.E. A. A. F o rdh am, B.Sc. (Lend.), A.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Struct.E. Lecturer..... J. S e l w y n C a s w e l l, M.Sc. (Wales), A.M.I.M ech.e. The College oilers a number of exceptional advantages to students who aim at entering upon prohich pi fessional careers in Metallurgy or in Engineering. It is situated in the heart of an industrial area whic* includes a large number of works of very varied character, and presents an unrivalled variety of metalhirgical practice. 1 he Manufacturers of the district, who contribute largely to the support of the College, give the Stall and Students of the Applied Science Departments everv access to the W orks, and the Managers, Engineers, and Technical Officials co-operate with the Staff of the College in making visits to Works of practical educational value to the Students. Courses of Study arc provided (i) for the B.Sc. degree of the University of W ales in (a) Metallurgy; (i>) Civil Engineering; (c).mechanical Engineering; (rf) Electrical Engineering; and (2) for Diplomas of the College in (a) Metallurgy; (b) Civil Engineering; (c) Mechanical Engineering; ( ) Electrical Engineering. are not desirous of studying for Degrees or Diplomas m ay attend selected College classes provided they satisfy the authorities of the College that they are qualified to benefit bv such classes. Entrance Scholarships will be offered for competition in April, Particulars concerning admission to the College, and of the Entrance Scholarships, m av be obtained from the undersigned. Singleton Park, Swansea. E D W I N D R E W, Registrar. APPOINTMENTS REQUIRED By Members of the Institute of Metals. Enquiries in connection with these advertisements should be addressed to the Box numbers given, Institute of Metals, 36 Victoria Street, London S.W.i. E xperienced C hem ist- M etallurgist desires post. Particulars of education and references available. Would consider post as laboratory attendant, where knowledge and experience would be useful. Opportunity for study and further experience desired. (Box No. 12.) M e t a l l u r g ic a l C h e m is t, aged 27, open for engagement. Wide experience in analysis of all metals and alloys. Specialist in non-ferrous metals, particularly Aluminium and its Alloys. Also experienced in corrosion testing, microscopic examination, and research. (Box No. 14.) S p a c e in this section o f the Monthly Journal will infuture be made available to members o f the Institutefor the purpose o f setting forth details o f posts which they have to offer, or particulars o f their training and qualifications with a view to securing suitable appointments. For particulars o f rates apply to : T. G. Sco tt & So n, L t d. 63 Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.4

7 B R IG H T A N N E A L IN G F U R N A C E S R E C E N T L Y IN S T A L L E D E l e c t r i c R e s is t a n c e F u r n a c e C o. Ltd. P r o p r i e t o r s : E l e c t r i c F u r n a c e C o., L t d. 17, V IC T O R IA STR EET, LO N D O N, S.W.1 t e l e p h o n e : V ic t o r ia T e l e g r a m s : e l e c t r if u r, p h o n e. L ondon

8 AMSLER TESTING MACHINES All Over the World The picture shows a 100 tons A M S L E R Universal Testing Machine at the Melbourne University, Australia. A M S L E R Testing Machines are used extensively in every civilized country in the W orld. They are renowned for their accuracy and their reliability. Machines with a World-wide reputation are worth a thorough investigation. Send for catalogue 31E. ALFRED J. AMSLER & Co. SCHAFFHOUSE, SWITZERLAND British Agents T. C. HOWDEN & CO. 5-7 Fleet Street Birmingham VITREOSIL (Pure fused quartz or silica) T he hard smooth surface o f V IT R E O S IL, its constancy o f weight and its com plete indifference to extreme changes o f temperature, are a few o f the properties which cause it to be used in most industrial laboratories. M ay we send you our list? THE THERMAL SYNDICATE LTD. WALLSEND-on-TYNE London Depot: Established over a quarter of a century THERMAL HOUSE, OLD PYE ST., S.W.l.

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11 ARE YOU INTERESTED IN ANNEALING Or other heat-treatment of BRASS, COPPER, ALUM INIUM OR A N Y NON-FERROUS METALS? Send for this N EW C A TA LO G U E (I H H 83 3), which will give you the most up-to-date information on this subject. The section dealing with U N IFO RM ITY O F TEM PER ATURE will appeal to all Metallurgists and others in charge of heat-treatment. WILD<BARFIELD ELECTRIC FURNACES LTD,» ELECFURN WORKS * NORTH ROAD * HOLLOWAY +LONDON * N*7

12 JOHNSON MATTHEY & COMPANY LIMITED Specialists in GEN ERAL CONTACT M ATERIALS PRECIOUS M ETALS where the resistance to tarnish, wearing and electrical properties are superior to the ordinary < 0 Let us quote for your next requirements. Our assistance and service are at your disposal. 78 H A T T O N G A R D E N LO N D O N, E.C.i. 12

13 E d it o r ia l O f f ic e : 36 Victoria Street, London, S.W.I. T e l e p h o n e : Victoria Editor: G. SHAW SCO g fiv '', F. c. i. sßiaiiffr««lsi?. I H T H E M onthly Journal o f the N ST IT U T E OF ADVERTISING DEPARTMENT: T. G. Scott & so n, L td. 63 Ludgate H ill, London, E.O.4. T e l e p h o n e : C ity 4211 (2 lines). Assistant Editor: S. O. G U IL L A N. V olum e I v* frjínuary, X934 P a r t 1 CONTENTS Institute News and Announcements: The Institute s Publications Annual General Meeting, London Letters to the Editor Personal N otes... Obituary... Local Sections N e w s... Transformations in the Copper-Palladium Alloys. By R. Taylor, B.A B.Sc... "A lloys of Silver and Beryllium. By H. A. Sloman, M.A. " The Diffusion of Zinc and Iron at Temperatures Below the Melting Point of Zinc. By Gilbert Rigg..... Author Index to A b s t r a c t s... M E TALLU RG ICAL A B STR A C T S I. Properties of Metals.. II. Properties of Alloys III. Structure (Metallography; Macrography; Crystal Strue ture) IV. Corrosion.... '. V. Protection (other than Electrodeposition) VI. Electrodeposition.... VII. Electrometallurgy and Electrochemistry (other than Electro deposition and Electro-refining) VIII. Refining (including Electro-refining). IX. Analysis..... X. Laboratory Apparatus, Instruments, &c. X I. Physical and Mechanical Testing, Inspection, and Radiology X II. Temperature Measurement and Control X III. Foundry Practice and Appliances X IV. Secondary Motals : Scrap, Residues, &c. X V. Furnaces and Fuels X V I. Refractories and Furnace Materials X V II. Heat-Treatment X V III. Working.... X IX. Cleaning and Finishing. X X. Joining..... X X I. Industrial Uses and Applications X X II. Miscellaneous X X III. Bibliography.... X X IV. Book Reviews 1 I Metallurgical Abstracts may be cut up for card indexes, as mombors will receive early in 1935 the year s abstracts in bound form. Papers will bo reprinted with discussion, if any, in the bound half-yearly Journal. 13

14 What are Your Heat Treatment Requirements r" Tell us the results you w ant and let us suggest th e equipm ent you should use. BIRLEC.,. the m ost modern Electric Furnace has solved, successfully, hundreds o f divergent Heat Treatm ent problem s. Birlec B R Y T R E A T " Furnaces give t r u e BRIG H T A N N EA LIN G w ith rem arkable sim plicity and econom y. BIRMINGHAM ELECTRIC FURNACES LIMITED, Blrlec Works, Tyburn Road, Erdington, BIRMINGHAM.

15 INSTITUTE NEWS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS THE INSTITUTE S PUBLICATIONS. Changes of Title and Volume Numbering. S in c e the introduction o f the monthly Journal and tho issue of our Metallurgical Abstracts and Tndox as a separate annual volumo, tho title Journal o f tho Institute of Metals has been applied to each of theso three main publications o f tho Institute. _In order to avoid inconvenience which may bo caused by the adoption of this system o f nomenclature it lias been decided that tho following modified titles will be used as from January, 1934 : (1) Journal oi the Institute of Metals. Two half-yearly volumes per annum, containing tho papers in permanent form, together with tho discussions and other matter,.the numbering o f the volumes being continuous with the previous volumes o f the Journal. Vol. LIV will bo issued in Juno, (2) Monthly Journal o the Institute ol Metals. Tho present issue begins tho now series, being January, 1934, Vol. 1, No. 1. (3) Metallurgical Abstracts. Vol. 1 will appear early in 1935 and will contain, in bound form, tho abstracts printed in tho Monthly Journal throughout tho year 1934, with complete index to these abstracts. This publication, hitherto bound in the Journal series, will in future bo considered and bound as an entirely separate publication. Attention should be given to tho notices appearing on tho cover of this issue and at the foot o f the first pago o f each paper which it contains, to avoid any difficulty or confusion in quoting references to papers, &c., appearing in tho Institute s publications. A N N U A L G E N E R A L M EETIN G, LONDON MARCH 7-8, Tho Twenty-Sixth Annual General Meeting will be held in the Hall o f tho Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Storey s Gate, Wostminster, S.W.l (by kind permission of tho Council o f the Institution), on March 7 and 8. Tho following is a time-table o f tho Mooting : Wednesday, March a.m.- General Meeting. Tho Report of the Council and tho Report of p.m. tho Honorary Treasurer will bo presented. Tho results o f the election of tho Council for the year and of now members will be declared. The new President will be inducted into the Chair and will road his Presidential Address. Papers will be road and discussed p.m. Members who so desire will lunch together at St. Ermin s Restaurant (table d hôte meal, 2s. 0d.). 2 p.m.- 4 p.m. Papers will be read and discussed. 7 p.m. for Annual Dinner and Dance at the Trocadero Restaurant, 7.15 p.m. Piccadilly Circus, W.l. Thursday, March a.m.- Papers will be read and discussed p.m. 3 p.m. A visit will bo mado to the Post Office Engineering Research 4.30 p.m. Station, Dollis Hill, London, N.W.2. n 1

16 Institute News and Announcements Certain o f the papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Meeting have already been published in the Monthly Journal (beginning with the November issue). In the next issue o f the Monthly Journal other papers will be given, together with a completo list o f the papers to be presented. Thero will be circulated to members, in due course, a form which may be used to apply for tickets for the Annual Dinner and Dance. Annual Dinner and Dance. The Annual Dinner will be followed by a Dance, which will be continued until 1 a.m. : Pilbeam's Band has again been engaged. The price o f tickets for the Dinner and Dance exclusive o f wines is 15s. Application for tickets may be mado now by members who desire to reserve seats or tables for the Dinner. Members who have paid for tickets and, later, find that they are unable to use them, may obtain refunds if their applications for such refunds are in the Secretary s hands not later than first post on Monday, March 5. Election of Council. As only sufficient nominations to fill the vacancies announced at the last General Meeting have been made, no ballot will bo necessary, and the following members, who have been nominated for election on the Council, will be declared duly elected at the Annual General Meeting ; President: H. M o o r e, C.B.E., D.Sc., Ph.D. Vice-Presidents A. G. C. G w ter, Ph.D... P r o fe s so r D. H a n s o n, D.Sc.. H. C. L a n c a s te r..... E. L. M orco m, M.A. Warrington. Birmingham. London. Birmingham. J o h n F r y Treasurer : London. Members of C ouncil: P r o fe s so r J. H. A n d r e w, D.S c. E n g in e e r V ic e-a d m ir a l H. A. B r o w n, C.B. H. W. B row nsdon, M.Sc., Ph.D. H. H. A. G r e e r..... J. L. H au g h t o n, D.S c. P r o fe s so r R. S. H u t t o n, D.Sc., M.A.. K e n n e t h G r a y Sheffield. London. Birmingham. Glasgow. Teddington. Cambridge. Sheffield. May Lecture. Professor E. K. B id e a l, F.R.S., has accepted the Council s invitation to give the next May Lecture. This will bo delivered in the Hall o f the Institution o f Mechanical Engineers, Storey s Gate, Westminster, on v i -v - "> at p.m., when Professor Rideal will lecture on Metals and Gases. Membership. F oitos of application for membership (one of which will bo found attached to the Secretary s circular letter dated January 1, 1934) received by the secretary by noon on January IS will be considered by the Council on that day, and the election of members approved by the Council will be completed before the Annual General Meeting on March 7. Candidates so elected will Voir privilege f membership for the extended period ending June 30, ' l e f r ^ e usual twelve months, an arrangement that applies

17 Institute News and Announcements also to candidates whose forms aro received before noxt month s Council Meeting on February 15, and who aro subsequently elected. Members are invited to acquaint friends who are qualified for membership of this concession. Newly Elected Members. Tho following persons were duly electod on December 14, 1933 : As Members. N am e. A y c k b o u r n, Philip John, B.Se. B a l l, Arthur Cyril E a t w e l l, Henry Thomas. G r a n t, Ivan Stanley. H a r t ig a n, Thomas Joseph K am ieński, Erwin, Dr.-phil. M e l v in, Sir Martin J., Bart., J.P N a o a o, Major Takoo. N ic o s ia, Captain Beniamino P r ie s t m a n, Robert Thomas R a o, Mannigay Umanath, M.Sc. Sim p so n, Joseph Gordon W illiam s, Leslie Ballesat, B.A., B.E. As Student Members. B o o th, Leonard T. Colm ax, Geoffrey William. C o w l e y, Charles Leonard Marshall, B.S c. M a c e, Cyril William.... R o b in s o n, John Herbert. T iio m a s, Ivor Henry, B.Sc. Original Members of the Institute. Town. Now Plymouth, New Zealand. Nottingham. London. Port Talbot. Sydney, N.S.W., Australia. Olowno k/lowicza, Poland. Olton. London. Milano, Italy. Birmingham. Jodhpur (Rajputana), India. London. Matlock. Birmingham. Birmingham. Birmingham. Napier, New Zealand. Sydney. N.S.W., Australia. Bankyfelin. On December 31, 1933, which year marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the foundation of tho Institute, the names of the following 122 Original Members o f the Institute remained on tho list o f subscribers, who had numbered 355 on December 31, A d a m s, G e o r g e, Leytonstone. A l l a n, Jas. M cn., Sheffield. A n d r e w, J. H., Sheffield. B a k e r, T., Rotherham. B a m f o r d, C. C., Birmingham. B a n n is t e r, C. O., Liverpool. B a r c l a y, W. R., London. B a r n a r d, G. W., Birmingham. B a w d e n, F., Liverpool. B e a r e, Sir T. H., Edinburgh. B e l l, Sir T., Clydebank. B e n g o u g h, G. D., Teddington. B ib b y, J. H., Liverpool. B il l -G o z z a r d, G Birmingham. B il l in g t o n, C., Stoke-on-Trent. B o lt o n, T., London. B r a b y, C London. B r id g e s, F. W., London. B r o w n s d o n, H. W., Birmingham. Ca n n in g, T. R., Birmingham. Ca r p e n t e r, Sir H. C. H., London. Cl a m e r, G. H., Philadelphia. Cl a r k, Henry, Sunderland. Co o k so n, Clive, Nowcastlo-on-Tyne. Co r f ie l d, R. W. G., Swansea. Co r s e, W. M., Washington. D a vies, Peter, Liverpool. D esc ii, C. H., Toddington. D in g w a l l, F. W., Liverpool. D o b b s, E. W., Birmingham. D r u r y, H. J. H., Sydney, N.S.W. D u g a r d, H. R., Birmingham. E ccles, E. E., London. E c h e v a r r i, J. T. W., London. E d m is to n,' J. A. C., Hamilton, Lanark. E d w a r d s, C. A., Swansea. E v a n s, S., Hornchurch, Essex. F a r l e y, D. H., Sheffield. Fi;RON, A., Brussels. F r a s e r, K., Leeds. G a r d n e r, H., London. G a r f ie l d, A. S., Paris. G a k n h a m, F. M., London. G ib b in s, W. W., Brockworth, G los. G o o d w in, Sir G., Havant.

18 Institute News and Announcements G r e e n w o o d, H. W., London. G r e e n w o o d, T., London. Gr e e r, H. H. A., Glasgow. Gu lliver, G. H., London. G w y e r, A. G. C-, Warrington. H a d f ie l d, Sir B., London. H a r b o r d, F. W., London. H a r l o w, B. S., Stockport. H a r t l e y, R. F., London. H ig h t o n, D. C., London. H ir s t, T. G., Leigh, Lancs. H o l t, H., B u ry. H u d s o n, O. F., London. H u g h e s, J., Birmingham. H u m p h r e y s, T. C., Birmingham. H u n t e r, Summers, Stocksfield-on- Tyne. H u r r e n, F. H., C oventry. H u t t o n, R. S., Cambridgo. J o h n s o n, F., Birmingham. J u d e, A. A., Birmingham. K a m p s, H. H., Tervueren. K em p, J. F., Birmingham. K in g, E. G., London. K l e in, C. A., Enfield. L a n c a s t e r, H. C., Woking. L a n g, 0. R., Glasgow. L a n g d o n, P. H., Now York. L a n t s b e r r y, F. C. A. H., New York. L a w, E. F., London. L o r d, F. A. B., London. M ck e c h n ie, A. M., Widnes. M e r r e t t, W. H., Wallington. M il l in g t o n, E., Derby. M o rcom, E. L., Birmingham. M o r r is o n, W. M., London. N is b e t t, G. H., Prescot. O r a m, Sir H. J., Hale, Sussex. P a r k e r, W. B., Rugby. P e t a v e l, Sir J. E., Teddington. P r e s t o n, Sir F., Salisbury. P r im r o s e, H. S., Pershore, Worcs. P r im r o s e, J. S. G., Manchester. R a d l e y, W. A., London. R e id, A. T., G lasgow. R h ead, E. L., Manchester. R id g e, H. M., London. R ig b y, R., Birmingham. R o b e r t s o n, W. H. A., Bedford. R o g e r s, H., Birmingham. R o s e n iia in, W., London. R u s s e l l, C. A., B irm ingham. Sc o tt, A. A. H., London. Seligm an, R., London. Sil v e s t e r, H., Birmingham. Sm ith, E. A., Sheffield. S m it h, H. D., N ew castle. Sm it h, P. W., London. S p it t l e, A., Smethwick. St a n l e y, G. H., Johannesburg. Stan sfield, A., Montreal. Steven, J., Glasgow. Su l m a n, H. L., London. Sum ner, L., Manchester. T a w a r a, K., T o k y o. T e e d, H. R., London. T h o r n e, E. I., London. T it l e y, A., Birmingham. T o m lin so n, F., Manchester. T u r n e r, T., Leatherhead. W e b b, A. J., London. W e b s t e r, W. R., Bridgeport. W e e k s, H. B., London. W e ir, the Rt. Hon. Lord, Cathcart. W il l ia m s, H. W., Salop. W il l o t t, F. J., Swansea. W il s o n, J. H., Smethwick. W r ig h t, R., Simla. Papers for Autumn Meeting. Members are invited to offer papers for the Autumn -Meeting. In accordance with the new scheme for printing advance copies o f papers in the Monthly Journal, it will be possible to begin the publication of the Autumn Meeting papers in the May issue..manuscripts should be submitted in duplicate. Drawings for reproduction must bo submitted in india ink on Bristol board, tracing or good drawing paper. All lettering must be in pencil to enable the Institute s draughtsman to add this to conform to the style adopted throughout the Journal. Photomicrographs must be trimmed to one o f the following sizes, preferably the former : 2 in. X 2J in.; 3 in. x 2J in.; 3 in. X 4 in. Magnifications should be given in all cases. A brief synopsis should be given at the head o f each paper submitted, and the MS. should be accompanied by a declaration of originality, the form for which may be obtained from the Secretary. The Editor should be advised as soon as possible by intending authors o f papers when their MSS. may be expected. 4

19 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Educational Tours. Readers o f the Monthly Journal will remember that in tho issue for April, 1033, a letter appeared from Mr. Roosevelt Griffiths suggesting that the Institute should organize educational tours to foreign countries, for Student and other members of the Institute. This suggestion is ono o f many which lias already received tho close attention of tho Meetings and Papers Committee, and it was decided to recommend its adoption. in 1833 obtained a patent, which he himself worked. His process bccame I am glad to be able to announce universal. Silver o f quite low content was concentrated by a series of that tho Council has now approvod of the scheme, and has appointed a crystallizations up to 500 oz. per ton, small committee of which I am and was then cupelled. Luce and Chairman to organizo the first Rozan improved the process, using Education Tour of tho Instituto of steam for stirring, and Tredinniek in Metals, if possible during the forthcoming Easter vacation. advances, although tho principle the United States made further Tho Committee has already got remained the same. to work, and hopes to bo able to Although the Pattinson process is mako a detailed announcement now almost entirely superseded by shortly. the Parkos zinc process, in which In the meantime, it can be stated both the purity of the lead and that the tour is not to be confined to recovery o f silver are much greater, Student Members, but is to bo open the immenso advance which it represented and the important part to all junior members of tho Instituto who think that they would benefit which it played for so many years in thereby. the desilverization o f lead bullion Expenses are to bo kept to the establish it as an outstanding metallurgical achievement. lowest possiblo limit to suit the class of member to which it is hoped the Pattinson s procoss is one of those opportunity will appeal. Tho duration of the tour is to bo approximately ono week. The Committee hopes that those responsible for tho training of metallurgical students will direct the attention of junior members, and potential members to the proposed tour, and will suggest to thoso who are interested that they send in their names at once, either to the Secretary or to me, so that detailed information can be sent to them direct as soon as this is availablo. R ic h a k d S e l ic m a x. Lincoln House, Parkside, Wimbledon Connnon, London, <S.Tr.l9. Centenary of the Pattinson Process. Previous to Pattinson s invention, silver present in lead was recovered by tho wasteful process o f eupolling tho ontiro lead. This had been the practice o f tho ancient Greeks and Burmese, who left thousands of tons of litharge (oxide o f lead) in dumps, which have boon worked up in recent times. Mr. Hugh Leo Pattinson o f Alston, Cumberland, a lead-assayer, discovered by accident that the liquid portion from a partly solidified mass contained notably more silvor, and cases in which practice anticipated theory by many years. It was not until 1884 that Guthrie (the centenary o f whoso birth was celebrated last year), in tho courso o f his studies of alloys o f low freezing points, recognized in those having the lowest freezing points in certain series the analogues o f tho cryohydrates of salt solutions to which he had given much attention. Ho proposed tho name eutectic for such alloys, and he recognized the significance of his work in relation to the Pattinson process, and the limit to which this operation can bo carried before cupcllation o f tho enriched lead becomes necessary'. The subsequent work o f Heycock and Xevillo (1897), Friedrich (1906), and Petrenko (1907) established the freezing-point curve for the alloys of lead and silver, from which it is seen that the eutectic point lies very near

20 Letters to the Editor to the oncl of tho curve corresponding with pure lead, the actual position being at 2'25 per cent, o f silver by weight. This composition is the theoretical maximum to which concentration o f silver could bo effective by the Pattinson process, the actual figure to which the concentration can be taken in practice being, of courso, much less. Tho practical use which was mado by Pattinson of what in present-day metallurgical parlance would be called tho separation o f the firstformed lead primaries should be of considerable interest to students of metallurgy. The fact that these primaries are discrete and freemoving crystallites is not without significance in regard to the various explanations which have been put forward from time to time to explain tho mechanism of segregation during solidification, and the resulting inequalities of distribution of the constituents which are found not only in lead alloys containing silver and gold, but in many others of similar constitution. H a r r y C. L a n c a s t e r. S. W. Sm it h. London. Council and Committee Meetings. The following meetings have been hold during the past quarter Council: October 26 December 14. Publication Committee : October 26. November 23. December 21. Membership Committee: October 26. December 14. Meetings and Papers Committee: November 23. Journal Printing Costs Committee: November 28. Autumn Meetings Committee : November 28. Finance and General Purposes Committee : December 7. ACHEM A ANNUAL, There will be issued in connection with the forthcoming Exhibition of Chemical Apparatus and Plant, to be held in Cologne on May 18 27, 1934, an Achema Annual. This publication, to appear early this year, will contain advance information with regard to the Cologne Exhibition; also particulars concerning the present position and development o f chemical apparatus and plant. Members interested may obtain gratis, upon payment o f postage (two international prepaid postal coupons), a copy of the above publication, the ordinary price of which is M. 10. Applications should bo addressed to : Dechema, Achema-Geschaftsstelle, Seelze-bei-Hannover, Germany. 6

21 PERSONAL NOTES The Editor requests that his attention be directed to items of interest to members that might be included under the Personal Notes heading. All contributions for the February issue of the Monthly Journal should rcach the Editor not later than January 25. Mr. N o r m a n P. A l i j e n, M.Met., received the degree of D.Se., at the December Congregation of the Univorsity of Birmingham. Miss S. B a l l, Assistant to Mr. Shaw Scott, completed twenty-five years' service with tho Instituto on January 14. Sho was tho first to be appointed to a staff that now numbers nine keen and hard-working members, to whose loyalty and enthusiasm tho Secretary and Editor is glad to bo able to pay this slight public tribute. P r o f e s so r K o t a r o H o n d a, President of tho Tolioku Imperial University and Director o f the Research Institute for Iron and Steel and other Metals, Sendai, has been mado a honorary doctor of the Mathematical-Natural Science Faculty o f the University of Gottingen. D r. A r t h u r D e h o n L it t l e, on the occasion of his 70th birthday, on December 15, was presented by his staff with a specially bound and inscribed volumo of the Morse Collection of Japanese Potteries. The presentation was made by Mr. Roger C. Griffin, Director of Tests, and a member of tho Board of Directors of Arthur D. Little, Inc. Mr. Griffin is a son of Mr. Roger B. Griffin, Dr. Little s original partner when the organization was formed as Griffin & Little in D r. Ca r l o S o n n in o has loft tho Tonolli Metallurgical works of Milan to open an Office of Metallurgical Engineering (aluminium, lead, tin, copper, and residues) in Milan Corso Italia G8. Mr. E. V. W a l k e r, B.Sc., A.R.S.M., has joined the staff o f the Post Offico Engineering Research Station at Dollis Hill, London. L ord W e ir was appointed a G.C.B. in the New Year s Honours List. Obituary. Mr. J o h n B r ig h t H o b l y n died suddenly on December 24, 1033, in tho Bute Nursing Homo, Luton, Bedfordshire. Ho was metallurgist to Messrs. Vauxhall Motors Limited, and joined the Institute in He had read papers before Local Sections of tho Instituto and was keenly interested in tho Institute s work. During December The Times published tho following obituary notices of two former members who took a prominont part in tho activities of tho Institute prior to their retirement from activo professional work. Mr. E l l io t t Cu m b e r l a n d died on Decomber 8 at Coombo Hill Golf Club, Kingston Hill, Surrey, after a long illness, at tho ago of 61. He had held tho lease of tho club since 1918 and lived there. After cremation at Woking, the ashes were beneath the silver birch trees near the ninth green at Coombe Hill, always a favourite spot with him. Mr. Cumberland, who was born in Melbourne, invented an electrolytic system of preventing the corrosion of ships boilers and condensers, which proved successful and was widely adopted. At tho Coombe Hill Golf Course ho made a Japanese garden reputed to have cost 5,000. He was an excellent shot, and bred podigree setters, golden retrievers, and Cairn terriers. Dr. T. J. M il t o n, an engineering authority in his day and for several yoars chiof surveyor to Lloyd s Register, died in his sleep at his house at Emsworth, Hants, on December 13 a few' hours beforo the funeral at Emsworth of his brother, Rear-Admiral William Milton. Dr. Milton was 83, and was a prominont spoaker at societies such as the Institute o f Naval Engineers. His wife died some years ago, and he leaves three sons, two of whom are in tho inodical profession, and three daughters. Both brothers were natives of Portsmouth. Rear-Admiral Milton was ono of the few remaining survivors of the Samoa hurricane of 18S9. He was aboard the Calliope, which steamed out of harbour in the teeth o f the storm.

22 LOCAL SECTIONS NEWS SYNOPSES OF PAPERS TO BE READ IN FEBRUARY.* Birmingham Section. Electric Welding. By C. A. Hadley. (Jan. 16.) Tho following will be dealt with : the basic, principles o f resistance welding ; characteristics of various metals under welding condition ; comparison of methods employed ; types of resistance welding machines ; automatic welding ; recent developments, and examples of welded work. Open Discussion on The Metallurgical Inspection of Engineering Materials. (Feb. 1.) Age-Hardening Copper Alloys. By Maurice Cook, Ph.D., M.Sc. (Feb. 13.) The principles underlying ago-hardening are briefly reviewed as an introduction to tho paper and roferonce is made to the various copper-rich alloys in which hardening occurs on reheating after quenching from high temperatures. A few selected alloys, notably copper alloys containing additions of nickel and aluminium, copper alloys containing nickel silicide and coppor-beryllium alloys, are treated in greater detail and the changes in properties resulting from suitable thermal treatment aro described. Possiblo applications o f such alloys aro discussed, and a short comparison is made between their properties and thoso o f oxisting commercial copper alloys. London Section. Electric Annealing and Heat-Treatment Furnaces. (Feb. S.) By A. G. Lobley, M.Sc. A general review of the present position o f electric furnaces in relation to the industrial heat-treatment o f metals, with examples of a number of modern installations. Reasons are given for the rapidly growing interest in electric heat-treatment, and the following are described : mechanically-oporatod furnaces o f various types ; continuous wire and strip annealing ; improvements in furnaces for low-temperature processes, such as the tempering o f steel; treatment of aluminium alloys, and the annealing o f various metals and alloys. Batcli-type and continuous furnaces for the bright-annealing of metals, with special reference to recent installations are discussed. North-East Coast Section. Chairman s Address. By J. E. Newson, M.Met. (Feb. 13.) The Address will deal with tho effect o f aluminium on the 60 : 40 and 70 : 30 brasses. It is proposed to review the previous work on melting and casting, and to consider tho effects o f varying amounts o f aluminium on the mechanical properties, the hot- and cold-working properties, and the microstructure. Brief reference will also be made to the influence of aluminium in conjunction with the other hardening elements usually found in the high-tensile manganesobrasses. Under the heading o f theoretical considerations may be included some notes on the volume changes in these alloys and the relationship between physical properties and constitution. N.B. Mr. C. E. Pearson s paper on The Flow o f Metals in tho Extrusion Process, originally announced to be read on February 13, will bo delivered instead on March 13 when the Chairman s Address now to bo given on February 13 had been expected. * For places and times of meetings the green folder programme, as already issued to all Local Section members, should be consulted. 8

23 Local Sections News Scottish Section. Combustion Efficiency. By J. A. C. Edmiston. (Feb. 12.) The paper affords an opportunity to study tho principles of combustion which are sometimes not thoroughly understood by practical boiler-firemen and furnacemen. A few tables are given to indicate clearly the main points to bo observed, if truly economical results are desired, together with certain practical results, which illustrate the author s argument. Sheffield Section. Recovery and Refining of the Precious Metals. By H. G. Dalo. (Feb. 9.) Sources o f precious metals. Sampling and assay o f materials containing precious metals. Smelting and concentration o f precious metals into lead. Refining o f lead ingots up to 99 per cent, precious motal. Separation o f precious metals by (1) olectrolytic treatment; (2) acid treatment. Preparation of very pure silver. Treatment o f electrolytic slimes. Preparation of pure platinum, palladium, iridium, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium. By-products : copper sulphate and refinod lead. Collection o f fume. Treatment of furnace slags. Preparation o f fine silver ingots and shoot. Preparation of standard silver ingots and sheet. Preparation of gold alloys. White gold. Preparation of platinum ingots and sheet. Preparation of platinum alloys. Swansea Section. Cracking and Fracture of Metals, with Special Reference to Service Breakages. By Professor F. Bacon, M.A. (Feb. 20.) Failures of machine parts in service are mostly o f fatigue type in which cracks gradually spread inwards, leaving conclioidal markings which registor successive contours. It is of importance to decipher from those markings all that can be reliably inferred regarding the causes of failuro. In laboratory fatigue tests, however, the fractured faces of the broken specimens are rarely regarded as of any interest, largely because they are battered and featureloss. The author has evolved a technique whereby the salient features of servico fractures can be faithfully rej^roduced in the laboratory. Consequently, the analysis of conspicuous objective ovidence available in post-mortem examinations need no longer remain unverified conjecture, bocause it can now be mado the subject of systematic experimental study. Progress already made along this lino of inquiry is reviewed. The paper includes observations on the problem o f deciding whether or not conjoint corrosive action has stimulated fatigue. Finally, reference 8 mado to failures brought about by tho conjoint action of cyclic stress and surface abrasion, for which the term, crosion-jatigue is suggested. REPORTS OF DECEMBER MEETINGS North-East Coast Local Section.* The Addition of Non-Ferrous Metals to Cast Iron. By J. E. Hurst. (Dec. 12.) In introducing his paper, tho author directed attention to the great development which had taken place since 1926 in the application o f those materials known as alloy cast irons to industry, where they are now firmly established. They fall into several main groups : (a) high-duty irons. The most important addod element in this class is nickel, the specific effect o f which is the elimination o f chill, grain-refinement, and the production o f uniform machining properties. When present to the extent of 1-5 per cont., with 0-5 per cent, chromium, nickel gives good strength and heat resistance. A recent development is the * Joint Meeting with tho Neweastlo Branch of tho Institute o f British Foundrymon. 9

24 Local Sections News production of irons with tensile strength in the cast condition of 30 tons in.1, by the addition o f nickel and silicon to n baso iron which itself normally casts white. Chromium alone is o f service in stabilizing carbides, and irons containing per cent, have found application in motor cylinder work. In greater amounts chromium confers important heat-resisting qualities, for which purpose molybdenum, titanium, and vanadium are often also added; (6) irons eapable o f undergoing hardening and tempering. The importance of theso is that they may be machined in the soft condition and hardened subsequently for service. They are frequently air-hardening, and contain 3 0 per cent, nickel and per cent, chromium; (c) irons which have a martensitic structure in the cast condition for uso where hard-wearing surfaces aro required. Those usually contain 5-6 per cent, nickel; (d) irons suitable for nitriding. In the presence o f small amounts o f aluminium and chromium, very satisfactory surface hardening can be obtained by treatment in ammonia gas at 500 C.; (e) austonitic irons. A number o f combinations serve to preserve the austenitic structure, typical examples o f which are found in Niresist (nickel, 13; copper, 6 ; chromium per cent.); Nomag (nickel, 10; manganese, 5 per cent.); Nicrosilal (nickel, IS; silicon, 5-6 ; chromium, per cent.). In the production o f austenitic alloys, copper is now frequently used to replace part o f the more expensive nickel, the effect o f which it resembles to some extent. Scottish Section. The Use oi Flaxes and Slags in Non-Ferrous Foundry Practice. By T. Tyrie. {Dec. 11.) In the course o f the discussion it was pointed out that the adoption o f the proper.lux treatment had not only resulted in the use o f a very much larger percentage o f scrap metal, but had also ensured an improved quality of castings. It should now be possible and profitable to use much scrap material which hitherto had gone direct to metal refiners. An analogy was drawn between the ordinary processes o f solution and precipitation which take place in the laboratory and the precipitation o f impurities by the correct addition of suitable fluxes. Mr. Tyrie referred to the deleterious effect o f phosphorus on both ordinary brass and on gun-metal, porous castings being a possible result in the one case, and reduced mechanical properties in the other. One drawback to the use o f slags was the cutting action which they had on the crucible, this necessitating a gradual reduction in the amount o f metal melted in order to obtain a good life o f the crucible. The successful application o f fluxes did not depend on a large quantity of chemical additions, but entirely on the attainment o f the correct equilibrium between the slag, the temperature, and the composition of the metal. At a fairly rimgh estimate, the cost o f fluxing is about 12s. to 13s. per ton o f metal melted, t he amount o f flux used being approximately between 3 and 4 per cent, o f the weight o f the metal. lo c a l Sections Papers in Archives. The following Local Section papers, as read during the past quarter, have been deposited in the Institute's archives- They can be borrowed from the Library by members under the usual conditions attaching to Library loans : Aldridge. D. \V- " The Copper Refinery of Prescot." Annan, R. " Gold : Sources and Production." Ballard. W. E. Metal Spraying. Batley. G. L. Deoxidizers and Fluxes. Handforth. J. R. A Metallurgist's Outlook on Modem Foundry Productions.' Hurst. J. E. The Addition of Non-Ferrous Metals to Cast Iron. Tyrie, Thos. The Use of Fluxes and Slags in Non-Ferrous Melting Practice. 10

25 P A P E R No Tills paper Is n ot to lie reprinted, w h o lly or in part, then on lv w ith due acknowledgm ent) at a m eeting to be held on M arch 7 8, 1934, in the H all of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Storeys Gate, Westminster, I^ndon, S W 1 T h e Institute as a b o d y is n o t responsible for the statem ents or opinions expressed in this p a i w, on which written discussion m a y be sent to the Secretary n ot later than M arch 19, This paper will not be C W ' 01 TRAN SFO RM A TIO N S IN T H E C O P P E R - P A LLA D IU M A L LO Y S.* By R. TAYLOR,t B.A., B.Sc., M e m b e r. Syn o psis. Copper-palladium alloys up to 55 atomic per cent, of palladium have been examined by thermal, micrographic, and electrical resistance methods. The determination of the olectrical rosistance-temperaturo curves has been carried out with a much slower change of temperature than had previously been used. The occurrence of two transformations at atomic pcv cent, and atomic per cent., respectively, and associated with different types of electrical resistance curve has been confirmed. The results are compared with thoso of earlier workers and the mechanism of the transformations is discussed. I ntrodu ction. T h e transformations which occur in the copper-palladium alloys have been previously examined by many methods.1 8 The X-ray work of Holgersson and Sedstrom 2 and of Johansson and Linde 3>4 makes it clear that at high temperatures alloys of all compositions possess a facecentred cubic lattice, but no regular arrangement of the two kinds of atoms has as yet been detected. On cooling to lower temperatures, alloys containing between 10 and 30 and between 38 and 50 per cent.4. of palladium undergo transformations. The lattice in the former range is unchanged, but the atoms take up a regular distribution based on the ratio 3 Cu : 1 Pd, with the palladium atoms occupying the cube corners, and the copper atoms the centres, of the faces. According to Borelius, Johansson, and Linde,5 the super-lattice lines in the X-ray photographs, which indicate the regular atomic distribution, are strongest at about 17 per cent. In the range per cent, at low temperatures there is a change to a body-centred cubic lattice, with a regular arrangement of the atoms based on the 1 : 1 ratio, each component being at the points of a simple cubic lattice, as in CsCl. * Manuscript received October 13, t Downing College, Cambridge. X Compositions are throughout expressed in atomic percentages and alloys are referred to by their nominal palladium content. Note to Abstractors and Other Readers. This paper will be published, in permanent form, in the Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol. LIv, Reference should accordingly be as follows J. Inst. Metals, 1934, 54 (Advance copy). 11

26 Taylor : The electrical resistance measurements carried out at room temperature by Sedstrom,1 Johansson and Linde,3»4 and Svensson 6 show that a low value of the specific resistance is associated with the ordered arrangement of the atoms. The minimum values in the two ranges are displaced from the simple atomic ratios, occurring respectively at per cent, and at 47 per cent. The values of the specific resistance for alloys with an irregular distribution of atoms lie on a comparatively smooth curve and attain a maximum at about 60 per cent, o f palladium. Experim ental. Preparation o f Alloys. The alloys were prepared from electrolytic copper (the only impurity found was per cent, iron) and palladium sponge of approximately the same purity. They were made up at 5 per cent, intervals from 5 to 55 per cent, of palladium., except that, for the micrographic and electrical resistance work, additional alloys were prepared near 40 per cent. T jlb le I. Composition o f Alloys. Xom iliai Atom ic Per Cent. PaJlaaimn. Weight Per Cent. bv XnaiTsis. FiL Ctu. Atom ic Per Cent* Palladium. 5 S I5-1S S-04; S' * " * tj'59 * 43* S i> * 3S-0S « Atom ic weights : Palladium... 10!)'7 Copper.. 63'57 * By analysis (ini other cases only copper was estimated). The alloys were made in high vacuo, using a high-frequencv induction furnace, and were twice remelted before the final cooling. The crucibles used, were made from ijunduxn. tube and tbe ingots obtained, were cylindrical, I L-5 cm. long and 0-8 cm. in diameter, and weighed about 12 grin. These ingots were used directly for the thermal in vestigia

27 Transformations in the Coftper-Palladinm Alloys ation after holes liad been bored in them to take the necessary thermocouples, with the exception of the 25 per cent, alloy, which had to be softened by quenching before it could be drilled. The same ingots were afterwards used in the micrographic investigation. Specimens similarly prepared were drawn down, first through Widia dies and then through diamond dies, to suitable wires for the electrical resistance work. The compositions of the alloy wires are given in Table I. Samples from different parts of each wire were analysed and the results were in close agreement. Thermal Investigalion. The specimens were heated in an electrical resistance tube furnace controlled by a thermo-electric thermostat, in an atmosphere of hydrogen or nitrogen. In taking heating curves a steady current was maintained through the furnace of such magnitude as to give a change of temperature of l-5-3 C. per minute over the critical range. Cooling curves were, in general, taken with no current passing, and the rate of cooling was therefore greater the higher the temperature; over the critical ranges it varied from 2 C. to 4 C. per minute. It was found necessary to use a differential method in order to detect the evolution or absorption of heat accompanying the changes in the alloys. The neutral was a short piece of pure copper rod of the same size as the specimen. A Chromel-Alumel differential couple was used in conjunction with a water-dropper. The short wire of this couple was of Alumel, which had periodically to be renewed, as it was embrittled by nitrogen in the absence of oxygen. The temperature of the alloy specimen was measured with a platinum/platinum-rhodium thermocouple and a millivoltmeter. In tracing the temperature difference-time curves on the screen, the time was calibrated by marking the position of the spot of light every 2 minutes : the millivoltmeter was read every 4 minutes. The temperature difference-temperature curves could then be constructed if desired, although in most cases the temperature of a change was determined directly from the experimental tracings. The specimens were usually given a preliminary anneal between 600 and 700 C. for some hours before cooling and heating curves were taken. Reproducible results could then be continuously obtained without further annealing. Micrographic Analysis. The specimens were annealed in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the furnace used for the heating and cooling curves, with the exception that, towards the end of the investigation, a triple furnace 9 with hydrogen 13

28 was employed. A thread recorder was used to detect any irregularity in the temperature control. Two sets of very slowly cooled specimens were obtained by using an aluminium block furnace heated by gas, the flow of which was controlled by a crude form of thermostat. Cooling from 500 to 300 C., at which temperature one set was quenched, was spread over 23 days, and the further cooling to room temperature took 16 days. In this experiment the specimens were sealed in evacuated Pyrex tubes. The initial heat-treatment of nearly all the specimens was an anneal for at least 2 hrs. in the neighbourhood of 800 C. The temperature was then lowered to that required, and was maintained for several hours before the specimen was removed and quenched in cold water. A 1 per cent, solution of bromine in alcohol proved to be a satisfactory etching reagent for the alloys with more than 30 per cent, of palladium. A more dilute solution was used for the other alloys, which were rather easily stained and pitted. On the advice of Mr. E. M. "Wise,* a mixture of equal volumes of 10 per cent, solutions of ammonium persulphate and potassium cyanide was tried. This was somewhat slower in action, and produced the same result on the higher palladium alloys as the bromine reagent. Taylor : Electrical Resistance Measurements. In order that several alloys might be examined together, a large tube furnace was constructed. This furnace was wound in five sections with Nichrorne tape, and, by arranging external resistances in parallel with the inner sections, a length of 15 cm. was obtained in which the temperature variation was less than 3 C. The furnace was fitted with a triple Chromel-Alumel couple for the thermostat control. The alloys were examined in vacuo by the following arrangement : copper wires, about 33 cm. in length, were joined to the ends of about 45 cm. of alloy wire by means of small beads of silver. Tungsten wires, 7-8 cm. long, were brazed to the free ends of the copper wires, and copper leads were similarly joined to them. The tungsten wires were cleaned, oxidized slightly in a flame, and coated with a film of Pyrex glass. The alloy wire was wound, in the form of a spiral, round narrow Pvrex tubing, one lead passing up the inside of the tube. The specimen was then placed in a wider Pyrex tube, one end of which was sealed by pinching the hot glass round the tungsten wires. After the other end had been drawn down, the tube was evacuated and sealed os. For each * Private communication. See also E. M. Wise and J. T. Eash, The Rôle of the Platinum Metals in Dental Alloys. III, Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Met. Eng., 1933, 104, Inst. Metals Div., p. 303! 14 \

29 Transformations in the Copper-Palladium Alloys alloy a similar specimen was prepared, but with only 6-10 cm. of alloy wire. By this means it was possible to eliminate the resistances of the leads. It was possible to get twelve of these tubes in the furnace together, and six alloys could thus be examined at one time. The tubes were placed so that the whole of each alloy was within the range of constant temperature; the inside copper-tungsten junctions were then near the end of the furnace and the seal was just outside it. The resistances of the specimens were measured by a potentiometric method. A lead accumulator and a 200-ohm coil were connected in series with a standardized Manganin coil and with a specimen. The fall of potential across the specimen was compared with that across the Manganin coil using a Pye potentiometer. The current through the specimen was then reversed and the readings were re-taken. The average value was used. The examination of a specimen was followed immediately by that of the corresponding subsidiary specimen. Measurements were made at various temperatures, the furnace being kept at each temperature until the resistances ceased to change. Outside the range of transformations, 3-6 hrs. was sufficient for this, but about 2-i hrs. was given when a transformation was in progress. The result of longer annealing is considered on p. 25. The temperature was changed in steps of C. at low temperatures and 8-15 C. through the transformation ranges. A Foster quadruple strip recorder was used to follow the changes in the temperature and in the resistances of three of the alloys. This gave an indication of the approach to equilibrium. The recorder was also used in two series of experiments to determine the temperatures of the transformations during continuous heating and cooling. The chart was calibrated for temperature by taking readings of the millivoltmeter at intervals, and the transformations were indicated by marked changes in direction on the resistance curves. R esu lts. (a) 0-30 Per Cent, of Palladium. Satisfactory evidence of a transformation in this range was obtained in only three of the six alloys which were examined by the thermal method. For the alloys containing 15, 20, and 25 per cent, palladium, curves were obtained similar to those shown for that containing 15 per cent. (Fig. 1 (I, II)). These curves have been derived from the experimental tracings by changing the time ordinate to a temperature ordinate (p. 13), and the scale of the alloy/neutral temperature difference has been reduced to one-third in reproduction. (Curves III, IV have been obtained similarly.) It should be noted that the alloys containing 20 and 25 per 13

30 Taylor : cent, palladium gave no indication of the smaller change point sliown in the heating curve for that containing 15 per cent., nor did this point appear on cooling curves of that alloy. The curves for the alloy containing 5 per cent, palladium showed no transformation, whilst evidence with those containing 10 and 30 per cent, was indefinite. The effect of the gas in contact with the specimens was examined with the 20 and 25 per cent, palladium alloys. With the temperature of the furnace steady, a curve was traced while nitrogen was removed from the tube and hydrogen was admitted. No indication of any heat change was obtained ; further, results obtained in hydrogen were in good agreement with those in nitrogen. The temperatures at which the transformations commenced and where the temperature difference was greatest are given in Table II. Where only one value is given, two or more experiments gave results to -j- 3 C. The temperature-composition curves are irregular, and will be considered with the results of the work on electrical resistance. A micrographie examination of these alloys yielded no results. Both the slowly cooled specimens and those quenched from 580 C. showed

31 Transformations in the Copper-Palladium Alloys the typical polygonal grains of a solid solution. The alloy containing 25 per cent, palladium was examined at intervals of 20 C. from 520 to 460 C., and no indications of a duplex structure were obtained. Examples of the electrical resistance-temperature curves are shown in Fig. 2 (I, II). The typical curve for this range is made up of three TEMPERATURE, C. Fig. 2. Electrical Resistance Curves. I, 20 per cent. Palladium ; It, 10 per cent. Palladium ; III, 41 per ccnt. Palladium; IV, 48 per cont. Palladium. parts : (a) a linear increase of resistance with temperature to about 300 C. (AB); (b) a more rapid increase, with a continually increasing temperature coefficient, over a range of C. up to a sharp peak (C ); (c) a small but definite decrease in resistance to a flat minimum (D), followed by a slow but steady increase. The changes in specific resistance between B and 6 and C and D, respectively, are given in c 17 ^ ' 01 g POLITECHNIK!

32 Taylor: T a b l e II. 1 0 % Pd. 1 6 % Pd. 20% Pd. 2 5 % Pd. 3 0 % Pd. Thermal investigation : Change on heating : began ( C.). maximum ( C.) Change on cooling : began ( C.). maximum ( C.) i ii 48S i ii Electrical resistance : T b ( C.). Tc ( C.). Td ( C.). p20 (olmi-cm. x 10-6) P c~~p b (ohm-cm.x 10 c) pc po (ohm-cm. x 10 8) 300 H 357 C 372 H 430 C ^ o - i o P A L L A D IU M, ATO M IC P E R C E N T. F ig. 3. Table II The values of the specific resistances at 20 and 600 C. are plotted against composition in Fig. 3 : * the values are probably correct 1 to about 2 per cent. The s o temperatures of the characteristic points are given in Table II and are plotted in Fig. 4.* T& is not in all cases easy to fix, but the values given are probably correct to ± 10 C. Tc is more definite and, except in the 10 per cent, alloy, the difference between the values obtained on heating and cooling is less than i 3 C. In the alloys containing per cent, palladium the minimum extends over a considerable range of temperature, the upper limit of which is plotted in the figure. There is no discontinuity of any kind on the curve for the alloy containing 5 per cent, palladium and whilst the heating curve for that containing 10 per cent. (Fig. 2, II) seems to indicate a departure from the typical * In order to gave space, the results for all the alloys are shown in these figures. 18

33 Transformations in the Copper-Palladium Alloys curve described above, the cooling curve conforms. The comparatively sharp rise from the minimum to the peak occurs again in the 15 per cent, palladium alloy. The specimens were usually annealed for at least one day at C. and then cooled slowly in the furnace before an investigation was commenced, but one group of specimens was examined from the start, the results in this case for the 20 per cent, alloy being indicated in Fig. 2, I. The resistance was comparatively high at the start (/!') and increased along the broken line until the temperature reached 300 C. (B'). There was then a fall, probably due to the removal of the workhardness introduced in preparing the wires, followed by a rise to the peak C at 500 C. From this point to the end of the examination, which included (a) heating to 630 C. and cooling to room temperature, (6) determining Tc with the recorder, and (c) heating from 330 to 616 C. and cooling to room temperature, all the readings for which the heat-treatment had been sufficient (nearly 50) lay very close to the curve ABCD. The decrease of resistance from the peak on cooling was found to be a comparatively slow process; for example, in the curve obtained with the recorder for a rate of cooling of 0-25 C. per minute there was a depression of 6 C. in the value of Tc for the 15 and 20 per cent, palladium alloys. The resistance of the 20 per cent, palladium alloy wire at room temperature was ohm and ohm, respectively, after the treatments (a) and (c) above. The difference was even greater in the alloy containing 25 per cent, palladium. As the only difference in the treatments was that the furnace had cooled freely from 350 C. in (a) and from 210 C. in (c), it seems probable that the more rapid cooling from the higher temperature had some quenching effect. The results of the thermal investigation do not bear a very close 19 1 \ A < 1 / /... N ---- i 3 O 0 = X C = -4-0 = 0INTS G X \ Ij R '= PO a = PALLADIUM.ATOMIC PE.R CENT. F ig. 4. NTS

34 Transformations in the Copper-Palladium Alloys relation to those oi the work on electrical resistance. It will be seen from Table II that in the heating curves the absorption of heat com mences between the B and C points and the maximum deflections correspond satisfactorily with the C points if allowance be made for slight superheating. The changes as shown by the cooling curves start between the D and C points, and the maximum deflections occur 10 ~20 C. below the C points. As this may be entirely due to the rate of cooling employed, it is reasonable to conclude that the greatest change of energy occurs at about the C point, whilst both the B -C and D -C changes of electrical resistance are accompanied b y small energy changes. (b) Per Cent, o f Palladium. Five alloys in this range were examined by heating and cooling curves, and only two gave definite results. The types of curve obtained with the 45 per cent, palladium alloy are shown in Fig. 1 (III, IV). The occurrence of the double points is difficult to explain. Thp alloy containing 40 per cent, palladium gave a very large and sharp peak both on heating and cooling. The temperatures at which the changes commenced and where the deflection was greatest are given in Table III. T a b l e III. 35% Pd. 40 % Pd % P d -j-i:% Pd. 50 % Pd. 55% Pd. Thermal investigation: Change on heatirg: began (3 C.) maximum ( C.). Change on cooling: began ( C.) maximum ( C.). Micrographic analysis : Limits of upper phase boundary ( C.) The results of the micrographic examination can be divided into two parts, dealing respectively with the determination of the upper phase boundary and with the changes at lower temperatures. Except where one phase was present in only a small quantity, it was often difficult to distinguish between the phases under the microscope. In the alloys containing 35, 50, and 55 per cent, palladium the separation of the second phase in the grain boundaries could be detected readily and the temperature of its appearance was obtained within satisfactory limits, which are given in Table III. Fig. 12 (Plate II) shows the separation of the second phase in the 50 per cent, alloy about 2 0 ' C. below the boundary, where it has begun to appear in the grains 20

35 Fig per cent. Palladium. Quenched F io per cent. Palladium. Quenched from 600 C. x 150. from 594 C. x ; ' * - Fic '5 per cent. Palladium. Quenched Fic per cent. Palladium. Quenched from 594 C. X 75. from 590 C. X 75. F ig per cent. Palladium. Quenched F i g per cent. Palladium. Quenched from 599 C. x 150. from 598 C. x

36 v;~^ ; Bp*,! kswwf». >* ** m ta

37 Transformations in the Copper Palladium Alloys as well as along the grain boundaries. Early experiment«placed fcbo boundary between the one-phase and two-phase areas at 5!)8" (K)2 0. for both the 40 and 45 per cent, palladium alloys; Fig. 10 (I'latc 1) shows the presence of the second phase at in the alloy containing 45 per cent, palladium and Fig. 11 (Plate II) the marked increase in quantity at only 4 C. lower. A 42-5 per cent, palladium alloy was therefore prepared to determine the course of the curve between 40 and 45 per cent, palladium, specimens of all three compositions being annealed and quenched together. Considerable difficulty was experienced in interpreting the structures shown by the specimens quenched from the neighbourhood of 600 C. and, discrepant results being obtained, the following experiment was carried out: nine specimens, three of each composition, after being annealed for 18 hrs. at 870' 0., were heated to 900 C., quenched in cold water, and then hammered. The specimens, in sets of three, were then annealed in the triple furnace at 004, 600, and 594 C., respectively, for 43 hrs., and quenched. The specimen«of the alloys containing 40 and 42-5 per cent, palladium showed two phases at all temperatures, the quantity of separating phase being greater the lower the temperature and, at a given temperature, being Greater in the 42-5 per cent, palladium specimen. The effect of temperature is shown in Figs. 5, 6 (Plate I), and of composition in Figs. 6, 7 (Plate I ) ; in the latter case, the predominant phase is believed to be that separating with fall of temperature. Fig 8. (Plate I) shows thin at a later sta^e of development. Two of the specimens containing 45 per cent, palladium were uniform (Fig. 9, Plate I) and that quenched from 594 C. showed only traces of a second phase. The limit* given in Table III are based on the above results. In order to determine what happens when the alloys are cooled to lower temperatures, specimens were quenched from ", and 300 C.. and one set was slowly cooled to room temperature, the two last beino- treated in the aluminium block furnace. Figs (Plate II) show the structures of the 35, 40, 45, and 50 per cent, palladium aliovs quenched from 300? C. Fig- 13 shows the largest quantity of second phase seen in any 35 per cent, palladium alloy, and even here there are only traces of it. Only the 40 per. cent, palladium alloy showed a uniform structure at low temperatures. In the alloys containing and 55 per cent, palladium the quantity of the second pha** seemed to increase and then to decrease a» the temperature W o w e r e d. The greatest amount observed for each composition was at 556, 521 and 4QO :.. respectively.... The type o f electrical resistance-temperature curve obtained m tfaa ranae- differs from that in the copper-rich alloys (Fig- 2 ), 2:1 C a rr» I f f

38 Taylor : was obtained for the 41 per cent, palladium alloy and curve IV for the 48 per cent, palladium alloy. The characteristics of these curves are. (a) a steady increase of resistance over a considerable range of temperature (PQ)', (b) a large increase of resistance over a comparatively short range of temperature (QR); (c) a further steady increase with a very small temperature coefficient (RS). The curve is not completely reversible on cooling. The retardation, RR', varied from 6 to 50 C. in the alloys examined, and while in some alloys the resistance then fell to, and continued along, the line QP (curve III), in others it fell only a fraction of its rise, and then smoothed out to a curve Q P almost parallel to QP (curve IV). The temperatures of the Q, R, R', Q' points and the changes in resistance between these points are given in Table IV, T a b l e IV. 35% Pd. 38-5% Pd. 40% Pd. 41% Pd. 42*5% Pd. 45% Pd. 48% Pd.- 50% Pd. 55% Pd. Temperatures ( C.): Tq? « S S j y U? y Specific resistance (ohm-cni. x 10* ): Pm before. p!0 after 12-7 fi S Pr Pq' 2-5 1S together with the specific resistances at 20 C. before and after the experiments. The lower values at 20 C. and the values at 600 C. are plotted in Fig. 3, and the Q, R ' points in Fig. 4. The effect of continuous heating and cooling on the temperatures of the transformations was examined with the 40 and 45 per cent, palladium alloys. The results are collected in Table V, and comparison with T a b l e V. Allov Palladium Per Cent. Rate of Change of Temperature 0 C. per Minute. Transformation Began 0. Ended a C. 40 Heating 0' Cooling 1-0 5S Heating S Cooling 0'4 51S below

39 Transformations in the Copper-Palladium Alloys Table IV shows that the method of long-time annealing is almost essential for obtaining stable equilibrium during a transformation, especially in alloys away from 40 per cent, palladium. During the transformation of a 50 per cent, palladium alloy wire,, its resistance increased from to ohms in the first 24 hrs. and to ohms after a further 20 hrs., the temperature being kept constant. Annealing for only 24 hrs. thus yields a result about 3 per cent, too low, which has the effect of extending the temperature range of the transformation. Owing to the steepness of the curves in these experiments, it is unlikely that errors greater than 3 C. have been introduced as the result of insufficient annealing. The resistance of the 55 per cent, palladium alloy increased by 1-5 per cent, on heating from room temperature to 250 C., and then remained constant to ± 0-5 per cent, up to 620 C. On cooling, the resistance was constant down to 200 C., and then decreased by 1-5 per cent, to the value at room temperature. The low resistances of the 35, 48, and 50 per cent, palladium alloys after the preliminary anneal, in contrast to the high values after cooling slowly from above the transformation range, led to an investigation of the effects of quenching and rolling the wires. The resistances of the as received wires were respectively 7, 29, and 3 per cent, higher than the resistances of the slowly' cooled wires given in Table IV (p20 after) for these compositions. (a) Rolling. 35 and 50 per cent, palladium alloy wires in the slowly-cooled state were reduced by about a third, and their resistances were examined as before at various temperatures. There was little sign of a decrease in resistance due to the removal of the work-hardness, and the increases due to the transformation were only 14 and 5 per cent., respectively, of the increases obtained with the annealed alloys. (b) Quenching. 35, 48, and 50 per cent, palladium alloy wires in the slowly-cooled state were heated to 620 C. for 1-1 hrs. and quenched in cold water. The resistances were then 2-3 per cent, higher than in the as received condition. After treatment similar to the preliminary anneal, the resistances had decreased by amounts equal to 12, 14, and 3 per cent., respectively, of the corresponding decreases with the as received wires. (c) Quenching and Rolling. A length of the 48 per cent, palladium alloy wire was annealed at 615 C. for 1 hrs., quenched, and then rolled to a 66 per cent, reduction in thickness. On annealing, the resistance fell 49 per cent., compared with 77 per cent, for the as received wire. It appears, therefore, that to produce a wire of low resistance requires both quenching and cold-work. It is probable that in the preparation 25

40 Taylor : of the alloys the cooling was comparatively fast and that the cold-work in preparing the wires w a s considerable, but since this treatment may not have been the ideal, it is possible that still lower values for the resistance of these alloys in the ordered arrangement may be obtained, in which case the transformations will commence at a lower temperature. D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s. The general form of the electrical resistance-temperature curves is in agreement with the work of Borelhjs, Johansson, and Linde, who used a rate of change of temperature of C. per hr., a rate which the present work has shown to be much too great for the maintenance of equilibrium conditions. As a result, they found the B points in the copper-rich range indefinite with T n about 50 C. above the values given here, and the resistances below the B points considerably too high. Similarly in the per cent, range the temperatures of the changes on heating were much higher than those given here. In this connection it is to be noted that the results of the present thermal investigation, obtained with a greater rate than the above, are, with one exception, in good agreement with the present electrical resistance work Borelms, Johansson, and Linde obtained a considerably sharper transformation, but the hysteresis was much more pronounced. The resistance of their 49-8 per cent, palladium alloy decreased from the high v a lu e right down to the values on the heating curve at low temperatures whilst m the present work only partial falls were obtained with both the 48 (by analysis 49-24) and 50 per cvint, palladium alloys. Svensson 6 states that he was unable to obtain the regular arrangement of the atoms in a 49 per cent, alloy in spite of annealing it for several weeks between 700 C and 300 C and he considers that the 49-8 per cent, alloy, which Sedstrom and Johansson and Linde obtained in the ordered condition, was not completely homogeneous. The experiments with quenched and rolled wires suggest that the previous treatment may also have played a P aithe specific resistances (Fig. 3) corresponding with the ordered arrangement at 20 C. are all lower than values previously obtained, due, no doubt, to the treatment employed. In the copper-rich range t le differences are not appreciable except at 30 per cent., and the present results are not in disagreement with the occurrence of the minimum specific resistance at per cent, of palladium. Low values of the s p e c i f i c resistance have been obtained over a wider range of composition than before in the range per cent, palladium, but the position of the minimum is in agreement with the work of Svensson. The specihc resistance-composition curve at 600 C. shows two breaks at 32-o and

41 Transformations in the Copper Palladium Alloys 42 per cent, of palladium, respectively, differing from the smooth curve up to 50 per cent, given by Borelius, Johansson, and Linde, and fiom Svensson s curve for quenched alloys, which has a point of inflection between 30 and 35 per cent, of palladium. In the temperature-composition diagram (Fig. 4) the curve of the D points differs essentially from that of Borelius, Johansson, and Linde in placing the maximum at 22 per cent, instead of at the simple atomic ratio 3 Cu : 1 Pd. The course of the curve for the B points is tentative. In the range per cent, palladium, only the beginnings of the transformations on heating and cooling are plotted (Q, R points), representing the upper limit of existence of the pure body-centred cubic phase and the lower limit of the pure face-centred cubic phase, respectively, when the previous treatment of an alloy has ensured that the stable phase is alone present. The maximum near 40 per cent, palladium and the R' points above the Q points are in marked contrast to the earlier results, and emphasize the deficiencies of the method. The composition limits of the two transformations cannot be accurately fixed by the present work. The copper-rich transformation probably begins very little below 10 per cent, and ends above 30 per cent, palladium. There is probably a region with no transformation between 30 and 35 per cent, palladium although there is at present no experimental proof available. The upper limit of the second transformation is very close to, but definitely above, 50 per cent, palladium. This indicates, as has been noted previously,4 that the palladium atoms are unable to replace the copper atoms in the ideal body-centred cubic lattice of the CsCl type to any appreciable extent. Theoretical Considerations. The occurrence at 17 per cent, of palladium of the minimum specific resistance and the maximum intensity of the super-lattice lines in the X-ray photographs of slowly-cooled alloys was explained by Borelius, Johansson, and Linde in terms of the splitting up of the crystallites into small zones during the ordering of the atoms. So far as the electrical resistance is concerned, there is another explanation for the displacement of the minimum away from 25 per cent. Two opposing factors combine to determine the value of the specific resistance : the regularity of the atomic arrangement favours a low resistance; the dilation of the copper lattice by the addition of palladium atoms produces an increase of resistance. As the 600 C. isotherm (Fig 3) shows, this latter effect is very considerable atom for atom, palladium is nearly twice as effective as gold in increasing the resistance of copper. As a result, the first factor is outweighed by the second, and, while the decrease of resistance 27

42 Taylor : due to the ordering of the atoms (pc Table II) is greatest at 25 per cent., the minimum resistance is displaced to the copper-rich side. The temperaturc-composition diagram for the copper-rich alloys does not have the same significance as the usual equilibrium diagram, since it represents stages in a uniphase rearrangement of atoms which, even at the composition of the simple atomic ratio, takes place over a considerable range of temperature. An interpretation of the resistancetemperature curves is necessary to determine the stages associated with the B, C, and D points. From the X -ray work, the structure of the alloys at low temperatures is considered to be ordered in terms of the Cu3Pd structure (p. 11). Thus the 25 per cent, palladium alloy should have the ideal arrangement; in alloys richer in copper, the excess atoms should occupy cube corners; on the other side, the excess of palladium atoms should go to the centres of the cube faces. The high-temperature arrangement is an irregular distribution of the atoms on the points of a face-centred cubic lattice. The following suggestions are based mainly on the results for the per cent, palladium alloys. From A to B (Fig. 2, 1) the resistance increases steadily with temperature as in a pure metal, due to the normal expansion of the space-lattice. At B the change of slope is taken to indicate that the ordered arrangement of the atoms has begun to be upset. If it be assumed that, away from the 25 per cent, palladium alloy, the ordered arrangement of the atoms consists of small groups with the Cu3Pd structure distributed throughout the whole, then in the production of the uniform irregular distribution the local change of composition is less at 25 per cent, palladium than on the copper-rich side. The transformation should therefore be completed there more readily, i.e. at a lower temperature. The C point may thus correspond with the conclusion of the atomic redistribution. It is suggested that this process produces a distortion of the lattice, the rectification of which, taking place between C and D, causes the observed small decrease in resistance. The values of pc-pz> for the per cent, palladium alloys indicate that the greatest distortion is at 25 per cent., and the range of temperature -of the change supports this. Above D the normal increase of resistance is resumed. In the case of the 10 per cent, palladium alloy, where only 40 per cent, of the atoms need be concerned in the ordering, it is conceivable that the resistance when these atoms are arranged statistically among themselves in groups is greater than when the palladium atoms are distributed uniformly at random. There is thus the possibility of a two-stage process, which would also account for the lag on cooling. On the palladium side of the simple ratio, the conditions differ, in that the excess atoms are the larger (atomic rad ii: copper 1-28 A., pallad- 28

43 Transformations in the Copper-Palladuwi Alloys ium 1-38 A.). In the ordered state, these larger atoms must go to the centre of a cube face, and thus be closer to a neighbouring palladium atom than on the copper-rich side. With the lattice spacing larger, the palladium atoms may conceivably be able to move more freely, and the change begin and end at a lower temperature : the distortion too W'ould be correspondingly reduced. The temperature-composition diagram may now be construed, (i) The D line marks the lower limit of the undistortcd face-centred cubic lattice with the atoms irregularly arranged; (ii) between the G and D lines the lattice is distorted, with an irregular arrangement of atoms; (iii) between the B and C lines the diffusion of the atoms from the ordered to the irregular arrangement is taking place, accompanied by a distortion of the lattice; (iv) the B line marks the upper limit of the ordered face-centred cubic structure. The hysteresis obtained, in the resistance-temperature curves of the range per cent, palladium seems to be a definite characteristic of these alloys. The loop is small in the alloys near 40 per cent, of palladium, and it is only some 50 C. wide at the limiting compositions. It is therefore possible that a modified, form of under-cooling is responsible for its occurrence. The thermal and electrical resistance results with alloys near the limiting compositions indicate that the difference in energy content of alloys in the twro states is small. Thus quite small factors should be able to retard the change. Su m m a r y. 1. In the range per cent, of palladium, the electrical resistancetemperature curves for the transformation from an irregular to a regular distribution of the atoms on the points of a face-centred cubic lattice are explained on the assumption that a lattice distortion, which produces a small increase in resistance, is followed by the ordering of the atoms which causes a large diminution in resistance. 2. The highest temperature for the commencement of the first stage is about 570 C. at a composition near 22 per cent, of palladium. The corresponding figures for the second stage are 500 C. and 15 per cent. 3. The minimum specific resistance in the ordered state is 8-1 X 10~6 ohm-cm. at 20 C. in the 15 per cent, palladium alloy. The increase due to the transformation is greatest at 25 per cent, palladium. 4. In the range per cent, palladium, the transformation from a face-centred cubic lattice with the atoms arranged irregularly to a body-centred cubic lattice with an ordered distribution of the atoms takes place completely near 40 per cent., but only partly on cooling in alloys near the limiting compositions. The change in the latter case 29

44 Transformations in the Copper Palladium Alloys can be made more complete by quenching from 600c C., cold-rolling, and then annealing at 450 C., In no case has the transformation been found to take place at constant temperature, the range being smallest and the temperature highest at 40 per cent, palladium.... ' 6 The specific resistance in the ordered state is a minimum at 4i per cent, of palladium (3-1 X 10*6 ohm-cm. at 20 C.). 7. There are two breaks in the specific resistance-composition curve for the irregular arrangement of the atoms, at 32-5 and 42 per cent, palladium, respectively. A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s. The author wishes to express his thanks to Messrs. the Mond Nickel Company, Ltd., for a grant which enabled this work to be started, and to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research for a grant which enabled it to be continued for a second year. The alloys were made and analyzed at the Acton Refinery and Research Laboratory of Messrs. the Mond Nickel Company, Ltd., and much valuable assistance was obtained from the Acton staff, in particular from Major C. Johnson, M.B.E., M.A., Captain R. H. Atkinson, M.A., and Mr. A. R. Raper, M.A. The author also wishes to thank Dr. D. Stockdale, M.A., for his advice and encouragement. R e f e r e n c e s. 1 E. Sedstrom, Dissertation. Stockholm : S. Holgersson and E. Sedstrom, Ann. Physik, lou.jiv], <5, s C. H. Johansson and J. 0. Linde..-Inn, Physik, 19- >> [}vl> 8, 439. * C. H. Johansson and J. 0. Linde, Ann. Physik, 1927 [iv]. 82, G. Borelius. C. H. Johansson, and J. 0. Linde, Ann. Physik, 19-8, livj, 8b, -Ji. 8 B. Svensson, Ann. Physik, 1932, [v], 14. t>99. * J. 0. Linde,.4nn. Physik. 1932, [v], 15, H. F. Seemann, Z. Metallkunde, 1932, 24, 299. * D. Stockdale, J. Inst. Metals, 1932, 49, 276. The Go ldsm iths' L aboratory, T h e U n iversity of Cam brid g e. September

45 P A P E R No T his paper is n o t to be reprinted, w h o lly or in p art, u ntil presented (and then o n ly w ith due acknow ledgm ent) at a m eeting to be held on March 7-8, , in the H all of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Storey's Gate, Westminster, London, S.W. 1. The In stitu te as a bod y is n ot responsible for the statem ents or opinions expressed U J U in this paper, on which written discussion m a y be sent to the Secretary n ot later than M arch 19, This paper will not be reissued in the form of a separate Advance Copy, a method of publication which has been discontinued. A L L O Y S OF S IL V E R AND B E R Y L L IU M.* By H. A. SLOMAN.t M.A., M e m b e r. S y n o p s i s. The constitution of the whole range of alloys in the silver beryllium system has been redetermined by thermal and micrographic analyses, and tlie results are recorded. Modifications and amplifications of Oesterheld s original constitutional diagram are proposed. A description is given of new tarnish-resisting silver alloys obtained by the addition to silver and to some standard silvers of very small quantities of beryllium. I n t r o d u c t i o n. A n investigation of the effects of the addition of beryllium to silver and its alloys was undertaken in the Metallurgy Department of the National Physical Laboratory as part of the work on beryllium and its alloys which has been carried out for the Minor Metals Committee of the Metallurgy Research Board, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. The investigation was to include the addition of beryllium to high- and low-grade silver alloys, particularly those containing copper. The results of the work on high-grade alloys are described in Part II of the present paper. In the case of low-grade silver alloys containing copper, no advantages were found by the introduction of beryllium, but it was observed that within certain ranges of composition separation into two liquid layers occurred. This immiscibility disappeared on the addition of nickel. These observations, which are collected in Table I, led to an investigation of the constitution of the silver-beryilium system, the results being described in Part I of the present paper. * Manuscript received October 26, t Scientific Officer, Department of Metallurgy and Metallurgical Chemistry, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington. Note to Abstractors and Other Readers. This paper will be published, in permanent form, in the Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol. L1V, Reference should accordingly be as follows J. Inst. Metals, 1934, 54 (Advance copy). 31

46 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium T a b l e I. Number ol Alloy. Composition, by W eight. A g.» Cu. Be. N i. Colour. ABC1. ABC2. ("Top layer +ABC3I ^Bottom layer ABCN4. ABCN Yellow- Light yellow Yellow (about same as ABC1) Pale yellow Dark yellow Very pale yellow >> >» * All alloys were made up to contain approximately 50 per cent, by weight silver. t In ABG3 the volumes of the two layers were approximately equal. In ABC4 the volume of the top layer was approximately twice that of the bottom layer. Various attempts were made to obtain homogeneous castings from ABC3 and ABC4, but without success. The sharpness of demarcation between the two layers is illustrated in Fig. 4 (Plate I), which shows a typical meniscus. P a r t I. The Constitution of the Silver-Beryllium System. The unexpected immiscibility found in the case of certain of the ternary alloys of silver, copper, and beryllium led to a critical examination of the constitutions of the three binary systems, silver-copper, copper-beryllium, and silver-bery Ilium. The following question naturally presented itself. Does this immiscibility occur in one or other of the binary systems, or is it confined to a range of compositions in the ternary series? The constitution of the silver-copper system has been investigated and confirmed by many workers, whilst Masing and D a h l1 have recently re-determined the constitution of the copper-beryllium series, particularly in the copper-rich range. Their proposed equilibrium diagram differs from that given by Oesterheld,2 but the evidence is undoubtedly in favour of the later work of Masing and Dahl. With regard to the silver-beryllium system, it will be noticed that, in the ternary alloys shown in Table I which exhibited immiscibility, the beryllium content in the silver-rich layers was always very small, suggesting that a peculiarity might exist in the silver-beryllium series. The only available information about this system was contained in the paper by Oesterheld, referred to above, whose work was carried out in 1916 on very small specimens, owing to the scarcity of beryllium at that time. Oesterheld s diagram is reproduced in Fig. 1. In the region atomic per cent, beryllium, the liquidus is 32

47 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium comparatively flat. It appeared possible that in this region the true liquidus might be as suggested in Fig. 2, indicating immiscibility in the liquid state, which might persist in the presence of a third metal. Moreover, a more accurate knowledge of the silver-rich alloys of the SILVER BERYLLIUM BERYLLIUM, WEIGHT PER CENT. F ig. 1. series was desirable in view of the investigation described in Part II of the present paper. The constitution of the whole system was accordingly investigated by thermal and micrographie analyses. Owing to the enormous difference in the atomic weights of the two metals (silver, 108; beryllium, 9), all percentages are given as atomic, as these give a much clearer idea of the true composition of a particular alloy than do d 33

48 the weight percentages. X = Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium The following formulae are included to facilitate conversion of one to. the other. v 12* where y atomic per cent, beryllium. 12 O l'î ÿ y = 1 + O llæ and x = weight per cent, beryllium. Preparation. of the Alloys. The materials employed were fine silver (99-99 per cent, purity) and beryllium, prepared by the author,3 of the following com position : Per Cent. Beryllium O xygen Iron s c h y u w h, A r o n s p / < ccitr Carbon Nitrogen F ig. 2. Silicon and aluminium. truce Three master alloys, having the compositions silver 90, beryllium 10; silver 40, beryllium 60; and silver 10, beryllium 90 per cent., were prepared by melting together the two metals, in beryllium oxide crucibles in vacuo, using a high-frequency induction furnace. After cooling, in situ, examination revealed considerable differences in composition between various parts of the same ingot, owing to the large difference in the densities of the two metals (silver, 10-5; beryllium, 1-8). This is a direct contradiction of the findings of Oesterheld, who reported that no segregation occurred in any of his alloys despite the fact that stirring was not employed during either the preparation or the subsequent thermal analysis of the alloys. This may have been due to the very small size of his specimens (10 grin, for alloys containing from 0 to 70 atomic per cent, beryllium and 2-5 grm. for those containing atomic per cent, beryllium). In the present case, the following method was adopted to overcome segregation. The master alloys were remelted, stirred, and cast into cofd moulds, the alloy containing 10 atomic per cent, beryllium being held in a graphite crucible under graphite, whilst the other two alloys were contained in beryllia crucibles under a sodium fluoride-beryllium fluoride flux. The difficulty was, in this way, almost completely overcome, chemical analysis revealing only negligible differences in composition in different parts of individual castings. The above procedure was adopted for the preparation from the master alloys of a series covering the whole composition range, the silver-rich alloys being melted in graphite crucibles under graphite, whilst beryllia crucibles and the flux were employed for those rich in

49 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium beryllium. The alloys were cast in the form of cylinders about 2 cm. in diameter and 2 cm. in height, the weights varying from about 80 grm. (silver-rich) to about 10 grm. (beryllium-rich). Thermal Analysis of Alloys. In general, the relationships in the system are simple. The addition of beryllium to silver causes a very marked depression of the freezing point, the liquidus curve falling steeply until a beryllium content of lo-'l- atomic per cent, is reached. This is the composition of the eutectic alloy, and its melting point is 881 C. With increasing beryllium, the liquidus first rises very sharply, then flattens out, and afterwards again rises rapidly to the melting point of beryllium. The eutectic horizontal (solidus) at 881 C. can be traced on the beryllium side to about 85 atomic per cent, beryllium, where the arrest becomes very feeble and occurs at a lower temperature. It disappears altogether above 90 atomic per cent, beryllium. On the silver side, it was followed down to a beryllium content of about 3 atomic per cent,, below which the arrest becomes ill-defined and occurs at a higher temperature. An interesting observation noted by Oesterheld was confirmed. This is the occurrence in the beryllium-rich alloys of an arrest point at a temperature of 750 C. As one proceeds towards the silver end of the system, this point becomes more and more feeble, and cannot be found experimentally, in spite of many attempts, in alloys containing less than 50 atomic per cent, beryllium (Oesterheld traced it down to 65 atomic per cent, beryllium). In alloys in the range atomic per cent, beryllium, this arrest occurs at lower temperatures. It is undoubtedly due to a solid transformation, and will be discussed later. Attention may be directed to the practical difficulties which were encountered. These were entirely due to the serious effects of segregation. The actual analyses were carried out in vacuo, and in most cases it was impossible to obtain consistent results for the liquidus temperatures after the alloys had been twice melted. A very sharp arrest was always given by the first heating curve, and a somewhat diffuse one by the first cooling and second heating curves. By this time segregation had had sufficient opportunity to occur, and the results of the second cooling curve were quite inconsistent. Usually two arrests merging into each other occurred, which corresponded more or less with the true liquidus points of two alloys the compositions of which were one on each side of the particular alloy under consideration. The liquidus temperatures were therefore based on the results given by the first heating and cooling curves. In most cases confirmation was 35

50 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium BERYLLIUM, ATOMS PER CENT. b e r y l l i u m

51 P l a t e I. F ig

52 P la t e I I. F ig. 6. AB 3 (2-43 atom ic-% Bo). X 100. F ig. 7. AB 5 (3-44 atom ic-% Be). X 100. ' V - o C b ' - V V =. v v ^. ^ v n ' : * '-';V ' ' *- V.V*,>*. \-,> *. ;V : ^ >' H', -...n -v '- -»* - ' * r. \ r ' *** <» ' *1 F w S AB 10 (10-40 atomic-% Be), x 50. F ig. 9. AB 10 {10-40 atomic-% Be). X 75 38

53 P l a t e I II. [ F i g. 10. AB 13 (19-80 atomic-% Be). X 75. Fic. 11 AB 19 (65-78 atomic-% Be). X 75. Fig. 12. AB 21 (75-10 atom ic -% Be). X 75. F ig. 13. AB 24 (86-83 ato m ic -% Be). X

54 P l a t e IV. Fic. 15. AB 3 (2-43 atomic- '» Be). Annealed at 810 C. Quenched. X

55 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium obtained by using other specimens of the same composition with which thermal analysis had not up to that time been carried out. In order to ensure that the incipient segregation, which occurs even on once melting, should not stultify the subsequent chemical analyses, the specimens were sectioned vertically through the centre, and millings were taken from the whole surface thus exposed. Table II gives the compositions of the alloys investigated, together with the temperatures at which thermal arrests occur. Fig. 3 shows the proposed constitutional diagram. Micrographie Analysis in the Solid Stale. The silver-rich alloys containing less than 10 atomic per cent, beryllium were examined in order to determine the limit of solid solu- T a b l e II. Percentage, by W eight. Temperature of Number of Alloy. A g. Be. Atomic Percentage Be. Primary Solidification, c. Eutectic Solidification, C. Solid Transformation, C. AB * S * This point was somewhat vague, overlapping with the initial thermal arrest, 41

56 Slpman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium bility of beryllium in silver at various temperatures. The specimens were held at 875 C. for 24 hrs. The temperature was then altered to that required, and maintained for 24 or 48 hrs., after which the specimens were quenched. The maximum solid solubility was then established by micrographie analysis to be 3-5 atomic per cent, beryllium at the temperature of the freezing point of the eutectic. The solubility SILVER B E R Y L L IU M, ATOMS P E R CENT. F ig. 5. decreases slowly with decreasing temperature, which was confirmed by slight age-hardening which could be obtained by suitable lieat-treatment of these alloys. Investigation of the limit of solubility was not carried out at temperatures below 750 C. Fig. 5 shows this portion of the diagram on a larger scale, whilst Table III gives the results on which Fig. 5 is based. The a-phase is a saturated solid solution of beryllium in silver and the [3-phase is a corresponding solution of silver in beryllium. 42

57 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium At the beryllium end of the series, the relationships in the solid state were not so exhaustively investigated, as it was considered that such alloys were unlikely to possess other than a purely academic interest. It was found, however, that in alloys containing more than 90 atomic per cent, beryllium, lieat-treatment at temperatures up to 900 C. followed by quenching led to the production of a single-phase alloy ( 3), and in the absence of other evidence it is suggested that the solidus curve in this portion of the constitutional diagram is as indicated by the dotted line in Fig. 3. There still remains, however, the consideration of the arrest point found at 750 C. during the thermal analysis of certain alloys in the K series. In spite of several attempts, sa no micrographic, X-ray, or other 5 evidence could be found to confirm E-1 or disprove its existence. The author is forced to conclude, with Oesterheld, that it is due to a polymorphic change in the (3-phase, and since the thermal effect of the heat of transformation is small, it cannot be detected in the silver-rich alloys of the series containing this phase. If this explanation be accepted, the logical consequence is that pure beryllium itself must possess a change point occurring at a temperature below 750 C. (In view of the fact that the thermal arrests occur below 750 C. in the range atomic per cent, beryllium, it is reasonable to suppose that the transformation temperature in pure beryllium is below 43 s c Ö 0 a O ' rs to "3 g H s cl "a s 0 c tn Number of Alloy. d 0 ei 0 d a O r < O d d CO r CO d OO 0 00 d 0 O CO d Ci 00 d 0 00 d 0 0 d 0 t - & + ' : : : : : b a (traces of liquid) ; + : : : : 0 0 * 0 * o4 ' : : B B B : 0 : 0 : 0 03 Ö : + ö B «+ Ö aa. b CQ_ J- B a (traces of y3) 0 + ß o a. + B CXXQQ.QCL B B B CQ.QXCQ B B B : : + : : B oa. + : B «0 0 r -

58 Sloman : Alloys o f Silver and Beryllium and not above 750 C.) This consideration again raises the question of allotropy in pure beryllium, a question which has already been discussed in a previous publication,4 in which it was pointed out that although the author and other investigators had found considerable evidence in favour of the existence of allotropy in beryllium, no confirmation could be obtained over the temperature range in question by the use of the most sensitive form of thermal analysis of the pure metal, using a differential thermo-couple. It was stated that an allotropic change might be more readily found in. beryllium-rich alloj s than in the pure metal." The present investigation strongly suggest«that allotropy does exist in beryllium, but that it is of the type w hich is largely inhibited in the pure metal, and can thus be detected only by methods which are more sensitive than thermal analysis, and that it is only in the presence of another metal that the transformation proceeds to completion and permits of its ready detection. The simplest constitution which accords with the ascertained facts is shown in Fig. 3 by the dotted lines which continue at both ends of the horizontal continuous line at 750 C. Allotropy in beryllium is accepted. This is supported by the most recent work of Jaeger, who gives the transition temperature as between 600 and (00 C. Structure o f Alloys. Except for special purposes, the microstructures of the alloy s are quite clearly visible without etching. Figs illustrate the structure of alloys representative of the whole series. Ihe eutectic alloy, Figs. 8 and 9 (Plate II) is of interest, as it contains only 10-4 atomic per cent, bervllium, and its structure is typical of eutectics with a large preponderance of one metal over the other. Figs. 6 (Plate II) and 15 (Plate IV) are typical of the structures obtained during the determination of the limit of solid solubility of beryllium in silver. On the beryllium side of the eutectic, it will be seen (Fig. 12, Plate III) that the ground mass consists largely, not of the eutectic, but of the pure a-phase. This impoverishment of the eutectic of one of its components is not uncommon. Again, the primary beryllium solid solution ( 3-phase) is quite different in appearance, depending on the temperature of initial solidification and on the solidification range. In Fig. 10 (Plate III), which shows the structure of the alloy in which solidification begins at 1003 C., the crystal boundaries are straightlined polyhedra. At higher temperatures the surfaces begin to round off as shown in Fig. 11, whilst Fig. 12 illustrates the complete rounding.

59 Sloman: Alloys of Silver and Beryllium The hardness of the alloys increases with the beryllium content, whilst the colour ranges from the white of pure silver to the steel grey of beryllium. Conclusions. In the liquid state, all the alloys of the series are completely irascible, so that the immiscibility noted in the introduction above in certain ternary silver-copper-beryllium alloys cannot be definitely accounted for by peculiarities in any one of the three binary systems involved. I t appears probable, however, that the almost horizontal central portion of the liquidus curve in the silver-beryllium series is an indication that, in these alloys, the maximum temperature at which liquid immiscibility can exist is only slightly lower than t ie temperature at which they become solid; that is to say, were it possible to supercool them, liquid immiscibility would occur. This cannot be achieved directly', but its effects can be obtained by the addition of a third metal which lowrers the solidification temperature to an extent such that they remain liquid below the maximum temperature at which immiscibility can exist; thus the addition of copper leads to the phenomenon noted above. Similar reasoning explains why the addition of a fourth metal, nickel, which raises the solidification temperature again, Jesuits in the reappearance of homogeneous alloys.* In general, the constitutional diagram proposed by Oesterheld was confirmed and amplified except in the following particulars : (a) There is a definite solid solubility of beryllium in silver, which reaches a maximum of 3-5 atomic per cent, at the temperature of the freezing point of the eutectic alloy. (b) The composition of the eutectic alloy is 104 atomic per cent, and not 15-3 atomic per cent, beryllium. (c) The freezing point of the eutectic alloy is 881 C., and not 878 C. The latter tw o differences may be accounted for by the use in the present work of purer materials and larger specimens. The constitutional diagram has been completed except for the alloys containing more than 90 atomic per cent, beryllium, on which further work is desirable in order to determine the exact shape of the solidus curve and transformation in this region. * A case analogous to the above is cited by Koozeboom : Die lieterogenen Gleiehgewichte, Vol. 3, Part 2, pp. 6 and 12, in connection with the components, water-phenol-acetone. Below 68 C. water and phenol are only partly miscible. Above they are miscible in all proportions. The systems acetoaephenol and acetone-water are completely miscible at all temperatures. In the ternary system, however, immiscibility occurs at temperatures well above 68 C. 40

60 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium P a r t 2. Tarnish-Resisting Silver-Beryllium Alloys.* The tarnish-resisting properties of beryllium which arc due to the formation of a very tenacious self-healing surface oxide film had already led some previous workers to consider the possibility of its application to silver and its alloys in order to render them stainless. The available data were, however, very contradictory. Jordan and his collaborators,6 who investigated the effects of the additions of various metals to silver, stated that beryllium actually seems to decrease the tarnish resistance of silver. Ray and Baker 7 found that beryllium made silver alloys containing more than 90 per cent, by weight of silver hard and brittle, and decreased the tarnish resistance. Cooper,8 on the contrary, found that alloys containing more than 90 per cent, by weight of silver and from 3 to 5 per cent, by weight of beryllium were immune to the action of sulphur and its compounds. Such alloys were said to be brittle in the chill-cast state, but, by suitable heat-treatment, could be rendered almost as ductile as silver itself. The chief application of tarnish-resisting silver alloys is to the silverware industry, in which at present the alloy chiefly in use is standard or hall-marked silver containing 92-5 per cent, by weight silver and 7-5 per cent, by weight copper. Investigation was accordingly confined to those alloys which contain per cent, by weight silver, and particularly to those containing 92-5 per cent, by weight silver. The chief considerations which had to be borne in mind were that if tarnishresisting alloys could be produced by the introduction of beryllium, such alloys should differ as little as possible in melting and casting temperatures, in working properties, and in appearance, from the materials already in use and for which a well-established technique has arisen. Preliminary examination of the alloys advocated by Cooper confirmed his results, but the alloys were unsatisfactory owing to the comparatively high beryllium content. They were not only brittle, but were also very different from pure or standard silver in appearance. Reference to Pig. 3 will show that in these alloys the primary constituent is a hard beryllium solid solution. If the surface of such an alloy be polished, this hard primary stands in relief and gives the surface an almost macro-etched structure, which is very undesirable in most polished silver-ware. This is true not only in the binary silverberyllium alloys, but also in ternary alloys containing more than 90 per cent, by weight silver, 3-5 per cent, by weight beryllium, the remainder being copper, in which the limit of solid solubility of the beryllium and * The alloys described below form the subject of British Patent, No. 399,261,

61 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium the percentage above which beryllium or a beryllium-rich solid solution begins to separate as a primary constituent are not materially different from the values found in the binary system silver-beryllium. Moreover, these alloys have a very long solidification range, which leads to serious inhomogeneity and to a coarse structure. These considerations imposed a further limitation to the useful range which could be investigated, and the beryllium content was accordingly kept below 1-2 per cent, by weight throughout. It soon became apparent that considerably less than the 3 per cent, by weight beryllium advocated by Cooper was required to produce immunity to the action of sulphur compounds. The first alloy prepared had an approximate composition silver 92-5, copper 6-5, and beryllium 1-0 per cent. A comparison was made between the effect of sulphur compounds on this alloy and on standard silver. A very remarkable difference was found. Whereas the standard silver specimen became coated with a dark violet tarnish film, the new alloy was practically unchanged in colour. The actual test used throughout this work was as follow s: The specimens were rolled and cut to a standard size, I in. square and 0-02 in. thick. After being annealed, they were polished, weighed, and suspended, for periods up to 72 hrs., in an air thermostat maintained at 25 C., in an atmosphere of purified air containing a constant concentration of hydrogen sulphide and moisture. In different experiments the hydrogen sulphide content and humidity of the atmosphere could be varied within wide limits. The increases in weight of the specimens were noted together with the colours of the tarnish films. A series of alloys ranging in composition from 90 to 100 per cent, silver, 0 to 1-2 per cent, beryllium, and 0 to 10 per cent, copper was then subjected to this test. Examination of the results revealed that two opposing factors were in operation. Increase in the beryllium content led to more complete immunity, whilst decreasing the silver or, rather, increasing the copper, led to less complete protection. In all cases the maximum immunity was obtained when the beryllium content had reached about 0 4 per cent, by weight. Further additions of beryllium seemed to have very little effect. It is to be noted that the solid solubility of beryllium in alloys of this type is approximately 0 4 per cent, by weight, and it appears that once the alloy is saturated with beryllium in the form of a solid solution, that is to say, once the beryllium is uniformly and finely dispersed throughout the whole mass, any excess, present either in the eutectic ground mass or as a primary constituent, has no further influence on the tarnish-resisting properties of the alloy. 47

62 Three alloys of the series were finally selected for more exhaustive teste. Their compositions are given in Table IV, and a comparison of their behaviours nncler the above test conditions, in T able. a nes fot Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium standard silver specimens ate also included. t a b m r v. "Nmnbnr of Alloy. PiTccntiure, fcy Weight. Silver.! Onpper. Tl cry Ilium. SAT Z 3 St-iiwlaTd 1SS 1. silver VSS < It will be seen that under tbe conditions oi tbe experiments these alloys are practically completely immune to the tarnishing effects of sulphur compounds..,. *A point of some interest is raised b y a consideration of the increase» in weight of the various specimens. It will be seen frona tbe figures that tbe increase in weight is somewhat larger tban migbt be expected to correspond with the very small colour changes associated with tbe films. I t is suggested that the increases in weight are largely due to the formation of a colourless beryllium oxide film which protects the -whole surface from sulphur tarnish. ^ ^ _ The alloys were then subjected to the action of vinegar, fruit juices, and vegetable liquors. W hilst n ot com pletely resistant, the new alloys w ithstood these conditions mote satisfactorily than did specimens o standard silvet. In appearance and colour, the new a l l o y s a r e almost indistinguishable from pure ot from standard silver. In melting temperature, casting, and general working properties they resemble " standard silver very closely. Small age-hardening effects can be obtained b y suitable heattreatmente. Moreover, control of composition, at any rate on the scale of the present experiments, presents no additional difficulties, whilst serat) metal can be Teadily remelted. A suggested method of preparation is as follows. A beryllium copper ailov containing the correct proportions as required in the final ternary allov is prepared directly by electrolytic deposition of beryllium on to a molten copper cathode. This alloy is then melted with the. correct weight of silver. I t has been found that graphite crucibles and graphite protection for the surface of the melt are Satisfactory for the production of sound eastings. This method does not necessitate

63 Sloman : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium T a b le V. Atmosphere. Period of E x posure, Hours. Number of Alloy. Weight Increments, Mg. E x p t.l. E xpt. 2. Appearance after Exposure. 0*005% H ydrogen Sulphide. 10% Relative humidity temperature 25 C. 24 SAB SS 1 2 0*001 0*017 0*022 0*10 1 0*095 0*004 0*022 0* *123 Practically unaltered. Steel-blue film with purple edge about 2 mm. wide. 72 SAB 1 3 SS 1 0*028 0*039 0*046 0*133 0*143 Practically unaltered pale yellow edge about 3 mm. wide. Pale yellow film extending nearly halfway from edge to centre. Pale yellow film. Purple film. 0*005% Hydrogen Sulphide. 75 % Relative humidity temperature 25 C. 24 SA B 1 o 3 SS 1 2 0*020 0*022 0*036 0* *019 Practically unaltered slight yellow edge about 1 m m. wide. 0*026»> jj»> 0*030 Pale yellow film extending nearly half-way from edge to centre. 0 * 111 Purple film with steel-blue centre. 0*113 I increasing the temperature of the silver very much above its own melting point, as the binary copper-beryllium alloys which are used have comparatively low melting points (between 950 and 1000 C.).9 This greatly facilitates control of composition and prevents loss of silver by volatilization. Very little trouble due to gassing is experienced, owing to the deoxidizing action of the beryllium. The beryllium oxide so formed rises to the surface. From the point of view of control of composition, it is desirable that as little oxygen as possible should come in contact with, or be contained in, the molten alloys, in order to avoid loss of a portion of the beryllium as oxide. The question of inhomogeneity in different portions of a casting was examined, and it was found that, provided the melt was stirred just before pouring, segregation was negligible under the best conditions. The following analyses of the top and bottom of a small casting 1 in. square by 6 in. high are typical: Top, Per Cent. B ottom, Per Cent. Silver Copper Beryllium f. 49

64 Slonian : Alloys of Silver and Beryllium It is hoped that, at this stage of their development, these alloys may be investigated under production conditions, so as to bring to light difficulties which, so far, have not been found, but which may occur in their manipulation on a large scale. A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s. The work described above was commenced under the direction of Dr. W. Rosenhain, F. Inst.Met., F.R.S., until 1931 Superintendent of the Metallurgy Department of the National Physical Laboratory, and completed under that of Dr. C. H. Desch, F.R.S., the present Superintendent of the Department. The author wishes particularly to thank Dr. Yt. II. J. Vernon, of the Chemical Research Laboratory, who carried out the tarnish tests, and Mr. W. H. Withey, B.A., of the Metallurgy Department of the National Physical Laboratory, who carried out many of the chemical analyses. Thanks are also due to Mr. W. E. Carrington for his valuable help as assistant throughout. R e f e r e n c e s. 1 Xasing and Dahl, B'is». Yeroff. Siemens-Kmxem, 1929, S, Oesterheld. Z. anorg. Chevi., 1916, 97, 1. 3 Sloman, J. I " -'. Metals, 1932, Sloman, loc. cit. 5 Jaeser. Prec. A". AJbcid. IFif. Anisterdatii, , o3t> 644. * Jordan. Grenell and Herschman, P ro e. Inst. Metals Dir., Amer. Inst. Min. Met. Eng r Rav and Baker. Indust, and Eng. Chem jS. * Cooper. British Patent. No. 257,473. Sept., U.S. Patent Masing and Dahl, Inc. cit.

65 PAPER No This paper is not to be reprinted, wholly or in part, until presented (and in this paper, on which written discussion m a y be sen t to the Secretary n o t later than M arch 10, This paper will not be reissued in the form of a separate Advance Copy, a method of publication which has been discontinued. T H E D IFFU SIO N OF ZINC AND IRO N A T T E M P E R A T U R E S BELO W T H E M E LTIN G PO IN T OF ZINC.* By GILBERT RIGG,f M e m b e r. S y n o p s i s. When clean rolled zinc sheet is heated in close contact with clean iron diffusion commences at below 300 C. and is fairly rapid at above 380' C.; it proceeds by the formation of cones of diffusion products which spread out from isolated points where the contact between the metals is most perfect, and gradually penetrate into the zinc and across its surface. The progress of the diffusion is governed to a large extent bv the nature and smoothness of the iron surface, and does not seem to be dependent on the vapour pressure of the zinc. Two well-defined layers of diffusion products are formed, a thin layer of constant thickness (about 0-08 mm.) containing about 17 per cent, iron being next to the iron, and a thicker layer containing 0-11 per cent, iron outside this. On continued heating, the thin layer moves towards the zinc, being continuously converted into the zincrich layer; this would seem to indicate that the principal diffusing constituent is the iron. The rat«of penetration depends on timé and temperature, and is independent of the grade of zinc, but the thickness of the zinc-rich layer is less with electrolytic than with pure zinc. The mechanism of the diffusion process is discussed. Some preliminary experiments carried out about eighteen years ago showed that when pieces o f zinc and low carbon steel with sm ooth surfaces were clam ped together and heated to a temperature somewhat below the melting point o f zinc for about 48 hrs., the tw o metals becam e strongly adherent to one another. During the last twelve months the present author has studied the matter in considerable detail in order to elucidate this action, the o b je ct o f the present investigation being to study the diffusion o f zinc and iron at such temperatures with special reference to the structure and com position o f the product of diffusion. In all these experiments the surfaces o f the tw o metals, m ore or less polished, were brought together cold, and, with few exceptions, were kept in contact with a clam p. * Manuscript received September 9, t Metallurgical Engineer, Melbourne, Australia. The heating was carried out in Note to Abstractors and Other Readers. This paper will be published, in permanent form, in the Journal of the Institute of 51 (MU, YoL LIV, Reference should accordingly be as follows J. Inti. MelaU, 1934, 54 (Advance copy). 51

66 Rigg : The Diffusion of Zinc and Iron, etc. an electrically-heated oven, the temperature of which was controlled to ± 10 C. The temperatures used varied from 390 to 300 C. At the latter temperature, which is 119' C. below the melting point of zinc, the diffusion was small in amount and slow, but quite recognizable. The zinc used was mostly in the form of rolled sheet. With cast zinc the action was usually, but not invariably, imperfect, and soon stopped, the same being true of electrolytic zinc cathode, although rolled electrolytic zinc worked well. The thickness of the zinc sheet varied from 0-01 to 0-1 in., and the area from 1 to 1-5 in.2. The steel generally used had a carbon content of not more than 0-04 per cent. Various degrees of polishing were tried on the steel, ranging from grinding wet with emery (0*01 in. diameter grains) to a metallographic polish. The degree of smoothness had a marked effect on the structure of the layer of diffusion product. In general, a surface obtained by grinding wet with fine emery (Wellington knife polish) gave good results. The zinc was cleaned by rubbing with whitening and water. The surface acquired during rolling was smooth enough for the purpose. In order to obtain adhesion it is essential that the metals should be in perfect contact with one another, either over the entire surface or else at points sufficiently close together to start an action which can spread laterally and so become confluent. When adhesion starts from a number of isolated points, cones of diffusion product begin to form at each centre from which growth continues from the steel into the zinc and radially along the surface of the steel. Pig. 1 (Plate I), taken from a specimen in which the action has just begun, shows a large number of small rough cones of diffusion product. The background is the surface of the steel plate which was ground with fine emery and water. The scratches due to grinding and general roughness of the surface are easily seen in the photograph. It will be noticed that the cones have a tendency to develop along scratches in the steel. As these scratches would be raised at the edges, the contact with the zinc would be good. The zinc surface showed pits corresponding with the cones on the steel. Pig. 2 shows the result of an experiment in which the development of the cones has progressed considerably further. In this case a Belgian common spelter, rolled to in., was used. The steel was of the same quality as used in the preceding experiment, and the surface of the metals was prepared in the same way. The zinc plate was sandwiched between two steel plates and the whole placed in a clamp and heated at an average temperature of 388 C. for 21 lirs. A corner was sawn off by' two cuts at right angles and the sawn surface polished and etched with 5 per cent, concentrated nitric acid in water.

67 P l a t e I. F ig. 1. Steel Plate Heated for a Short Time at 380 C. in Contact with Zinc. Zinc Plate Removed, x 28, Oblique Illumination. F i g. 2. Rolled Zinc. Belgian Common Spelter, Heated for 24 hrs. at 3883C., between Steel Plates, x 30, Vertical Illumination. Etched with 5% HNOj in Water. Fig. 3. As Fi". 2. Another Part of the Same F ig. 4. Zinc- Sheet between Polished Steel Specimen. Plates. Heated for 71 hrs. at 354 C. X

68 P l a t e II. F ig 5 Zinc Sheet between Steel Plates Fic. 6. Pure Electrolytic Zinc Heated in Con- Ground with Coarse Emery. Heated for 91 tact with Polished Steel P r e f e r 40 hrs. at hrs at 35S* C x 2S..345 c - Showing Cones on Steel, x 21. F ic 7 Same as Fi?. 6. Showing Pits in Zinc. F ic. S. Same Specimen as Fig. 2. Section ot Two Cones. X 140.

69 P la te I II. Fig. 9. Zinc Sheet Heated between Steel Plates. Showing Band between the Two Alloy Layers on Either Side of Central Dark Band of Unaltered Zinc. F ig. 10. Zinc Sheet Heated between Steel Plates. Showing Thick Outer Layer, Thick Inner Layer and Additional Thin Layer next to Steel, x 80. Fig. 11. Six Sheets of Common Zinc Foil F ig. 12. Same as Fig. 11. Beginning of Heated between Steel Plates, x 44. Diffusion. 53


71 Rigg : The Diffusion o f Zinc and Iron, etc. This reagent was generally used with all polished specimens. The metals were strongly adherent and showed no signs of separating under the stress of sawing. The white areas at the sides of the photograph are the steel, and the dark area in the middle is the zinc. A t the top of the photograph the zinc has not been attacked at all. On the lefthand side is a row of cones, sharply marked off from the steel on the one hand and from the zinc on the other. It will be noticed that the bases of the cones show a curve convex to the steel. On the right-hand side the action is less marked and more irregular, probably owing to the contact being less perfect than on the left. Fig. 3 shows another part of the same specimen, where the action has progressed much further than that exhibited in Fig. 2. The contact between the diffusion product and the steel is a straight line, which is clearly seen on the left side and is somewhat broken on the right. The diffusion product now consists of two layers separated by a nearly straight line, the inner one, which is in contact with the zinc, showing a tendency to cone formation, particularly on the right-hand side of the specimen. This formation of cones on the contact between the inner layer and the zinc is not by any means of general occurrence. Fig. 4 shows a specimen similar in most respects to that in Fig. 3, but the steel plates received a metallographic polish and the specimen was heated for 71 hrs. at a temperature of 354 C. This photograph shows a remarkable regularity in the development of the two layers. The parallelism of the layers of diffusion product and of the residual zinc is very marked. In Fig. 5 (Plate II) there is the absolute reverse of this condition. The same grades of steel and zinc were used and the heating was carried out at 388 C. for 91 hrs. The preparation of the steel surfaces, however, was done by grinding wet with coarse emery (0-01 in. diameter grains). The diffusion had taken place very irregularly, the rough irregular cones penetrating the zinc from opposite sides and leaving unattacked zinc between them. This result doubtless follows from the rough surface of the steel. It has already been remarked that complete metal-to-metal contact is essential to the diffusion process. Apparently in these experiments this contact does not occur near the edges of the sheets. There is always a selvage of unattacked zinc surrounding the area of disusion product. Inside this is a zone of more or less isolated cones, and inside this again a continuous layer of the product. This reduced activity at the margin of the metal plates may be due to a slight bevelling of the steel plates during grinding and polishing, or to oxidation of the surfaces owing to penetration of air, or to both. In some cases, again, diffusion may take place almost entirely from one 57

72 Rigg : The Diffusion of Zinc and Iron at steel plate, the zinc being subsequently attacked from one side only. In these circumstances, individual marginal cones may grow to such a size as to pass almost through the zinc plate. This is shown in Jigs. 6 and 7 (Plate II). A possible explanation of these structures is as follows : Diffusion begins at a number of points of contact between zinc and steel which are more perfect than in the areas between. As the iron diffuses into the zinc a depression is formed in the steel surface, the diffusion product remaining adherent to it and drawing down with it the zinc to which it also adheres, so that as the process continues the surface of the zinc surrounding the original projecting point comes into contact with the steel, and the iron begins to diffuse into it. The depression, consequently, increases in area, but is always deeper at the centre, as the process of diffusion has been going on longer at the centre than at the periphery. In Fig. 8 two cones are shown in vertical section, photographed from the same specimen as in Fig. 2 (Plate I). The magnification is 140 diameters. It will be noticed that at the base of the cone there is a curved depression in the steel, so that the cone is standing on the surface of the segment of a sphere. In all specimens examined this condition is present. When two adjacent depressions have come into contact, the ridge between them will soon be eaten away, and the final result will be a flat depressed surface which gives the straight line of contact seen in the cross section (Figs. 3 and 4, Plate I). Zinc vapour does not apparently play any part in this action between the metals. A thin piece of paper laid between the steel and the zinc plates completely inhibits it, although the paper is reduced to a charred condition by the heat. The structure of the layers at higher magnifications is illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10 (Plate III). In both of these photographs the different structure of the two layers is well shown, and in Fig. 9 the dark band of separation between the two layers is seen to have a granular structure. The outer layer shows a columnar structure oriented at right angles to the steel surface, and the inner layer a finer and less regularly oriented one. In Fig. 10, magnified 80 diameters, the columnar structure of the outer layer i(here very thick relatively to the inner one) is well defined. In this specimen there is an additional thin layer present between the outer layer and the steel. This is not always shown, probably owing to imperfect preparation of the polished and etched surface (see Fig. 5). The dark band between the outer and inner layer of diffusion product is probably due to the effect of difference in hardness of the two layers 5S

73 Temperatures Below the Melting Point of Zinc affecting the polishing and etching. These differences are accentuated by the etching, owing to the difference in solubility of the various layers in the etching reagent. In the photographs of cross-sections the relative thickness of the two layers of diffusion product shows great variability. In Fig. 9, for example, the inner layer is slightly thicker than the outer, whilst in Fig. 10 the inner layer is only about one-fifth the thickness of the outer. If, however, the actual thickness of the inner layer in different specimens be compared, a considerable degree of uniformity is found, as is shown in Table I, which shows that in spite of large differences in the thickness T a b le I. Fig. Xo. Thickness, mm. Outer. Inner. Time, lire. Temperature, C. Grade of Zinc Common Common Pure electro Common. of the outer layer, in the time and temperature of the heat-treatment, and in the quality of the zinc used, the thickness of the inner layer varies but little. In order to obtain some light on the cause of this double layer and the difference in structure between the outer and inner layers, it was decided to make a series of extractions with dilute hydrochloric acid and compare the iron : zinc ratio in the series of solutions so obtained. For this purpose the specimen shown in Fig. 11 Plate III (X 44 diameters) was chosen. In this experiment six sheets of common zinc foil were used, sandwiched between two low carbon steel plates. The aggregate thickness of the zinc sheets was 1-16 mm. The arrangement is shown in Fig. 12, where the action has not made much progress. The specimen was held in a clamp. Fig. 11 shows the condition of the specimen which was used in the extraction experiment. The aggregate thickness of the layers of diffusion product was 0-61 mm. The specimen was removed from the clamp and the plates were pulled apart at a surface of contact between two unattacked zinc foils. The unattacked zinc foils were peeled off the surface of the diffusion product, and the steel was painted with acid-proof enamel, the enamel covering the thin layer of diffusion product and isolated cones round the periphery of the area of diffusion product. Five extractions were made, the acid used being cold dilute hydro- 59

74 Rigg : The Diffusion of Zinc and Iron, at chloric acid, 5 c.c. of concentrated acid in 50 c.c. of water. Both sides of the specimen were used, the first to work out a technique and the second for the final result. After tlie fifth extraction the layer had become so thin that there was a risk of iron being dissolved from the steel. The sixth extraction was made, therefore, by chipping, the chips being treated with a magnet to remove the steel. Ihe thin bottom layer coating the steel was not removable. The specimen was exposed to the cold acid for 10 minutes on the first extraction and for 15 minutes on the four succeeding ones. The results obtained arc shown in Table IT, from which it will be seen that T a b l e II. Fraction. Iron, mg. Zinc, mg. Iron, Ter Cent. Zinc, Per Cent (chips) there is a steady increase in the iron content of the diffusion product except in the last item. This variation is probably due to the dissolution of the enamel before the chipping was done, thus exposing some of the low iron product round the margin, some of which no doubt got into the final sample. There was no sign, under the microscope, of free zinc on the original surface of the diffusion product. In order to test the possibility of the fractions being contaminated by iron from the steel, a specimen of the latter, having a total surface area of 1 in.2, was prepared and cleaned with a file free from grease. After exposure to the cold 5 per cent, hydrochloric acid for 15 minutes, only 3 mg. of iron were dissolved. As this area is vastly greater than any area of exposed steel which could have been present during the extractions (none was visible under the microscope), contamination from this source would appear to be negligible. The surface exposed by the first extraction was of a different character from that shown in the later ones. It had a silvery-white appearance, and under the microscope the white material showed as an irregularly-corroded surface with here and there a smooth grey surface showing through from below. After the second extraction the white material was in very small amount. Its appearance, however, was quite distinct from the underlying layer, which maintained a uniform appearance throughout the subsequent extractions. 60

75 Temperatures Below the Melting Point of Zinc Bearing in mind the fact that the thickness of the inner layer was only one-fifth that of the outer, it would appear that the white material corresponded with the inner layer. In order to obtain a figure for the composition of the layers as a whole, four specimens were chipped and their iron contents determined. The results were as follows : Iron, Per Cent. Specimen A 8*5 B C 9-1 D 11-5 These figures are of the same order as those found in the fractions. The differences shown probably depend on the relative proportions of the outer and inner layers, which vary with different specimens, the inner layer being lower in iron than the outer, as shown by the extraction test. So long as the iron content remains above a certain critical figure the structure is that of the outer layer; below it, of the inner layer. As long as the diffusion continues, the boundary line between the two continually advances towards the zinc, the inner being progressively converted into the outer. It is possible that there is some diffusion of the zinc into the inner layrer, but the constancy of the thickness of this layer suggests that the principal diffusing constituent is the iron. For the grade of steel used, the rate of penetration depends on time and temperature. The grade of zinc, whether of high purity as the electrolytic, or impure as the common spelter, seems to have little if any effect. Following Arnemann,1 the alloys of iron and zinc fall into three groups : (a) per cent. iron. Two structural elements: (1) Solid solutions of FeZn. and zinc, containing a maximum of 7-3 per cent, iron ; (2) Pure zinc. (b) per cent. iron. Homogeneous alloys (one structural element) consisting entirely of the solid solution of FeZn7 and zinc. (c) per cent. iron. Two structural elements : (1) FeZn3, (2) FeZn;. In composition the inner layer of diffusion product corresponds with a in the above classification; the inner part of the outer layer up to 11 per cent, iron would correspond with b, whilst the outer part (17 per cent, iron) would correspond with c ; whether, however, FeZn3 is actually present seems doubtful. Tammann and Rocha 2 carried out experiments on the diffusion of electrolytic iron and zinc. In this case, however, the iron plates Gi

76 Rigg ; The Diffusion of Zinc and Iron at were dipped into molten zinc at temperatures up to 535 C., and after a fixed time the specimens were quickly cooled, cut through at lig t angles to the surface, and etched with alcoholic picric acid. They describe two examples prepared in this way. In the first the iron plate was kept in the molten zinc for 5 minutes at 450 C. Next to the zinc they found a layer of mixed crystals FeZn, and zinc, and next to that a further layer which they ascribe to the alloy FeZn3. Between this latter and the iron there was a third layer much thinner than the other two and of unknown composition. In the second example the duration of the immersion was 10 minutes and the temperature 535 C. The sequence was similar to the first. The experimental conditions here, however, are very different from those obtaining in the present author s experiments. In the latter the diffusion took place in the solid metals at temperatures never exceeding 400 C., and in some cases at 350 C. or less. From Arnemann s diagram it seems scarcely likely that FeZn3 could form at such low temperatures, and there is no change in structure in the outer layer recognizable under the microscope from 8 per cent, iron to 17 per cent, iron^ On the other hand, in the figures yielded by the fractional extractions there is a sudden break in the continuity of the percentages of iron between fractions 4 and 5, the figures being 10-6 and 17-7 per cent. This certainly suggests that two distinct compounds are present in the outer layer of diffusion product. Further work on a larger scale is now being commenced in order to clear up this question. It has been already stated that there is no evidence of the zinc diffusing into the iron under the conditions of the author s experiments. In this connection a recent paper by G. von Hevesy and W. Seith,3 on the diffusion of metals in the solid state, may be mentioned. The authors compare, for example, the rate of diffusion of gold into lead and vice versa, the diffusion constant of gold into lead being given as 4 x 10-3 cm.2 per day at 150 C., and that of lead into gold as only 3 x cm.2 per day at 141 C. They say further: When we substitute in lead alloys other metals than gold, whose properties approximate more and more to those of lead, then these elements show a continuously diminishing diffusion rate. The interval between the rate of diffusion of these elements and that of lead becomes, therefore, less and less and the one-way diffusion becomes less and less marked. ' It would appear, therefore, that with solid iron and zinc one-way diffusion takes place at the iron-zinc and iron-diffusion product contact, but with the inner layer in contact with the zinc, and low in iron, zinc may diffuse into it. ^

77 Temperatures Below the Melting Point o f Zinc In this connection tlie curved bases of the individual cones become of interest. If the explanation of cone formation which has been put forward earlier in this paper is correct, then the volume of the circular depression in the steel (see Fig. 8) is equal to the volume of the iron which has diffused into the zinc, and the volume of the cone above is that of the zinc into which it has diffused. By multiplying these volumes by the specific gravities of iron and zinc, respectively, the proportions by weight of the two metals can be obtained. The results are, of course, only approximate, as neither cone nor segment is mathematically perfect, but they are nevertheless sufficiently close to be of interest. Three cones were taken at random and measured, with the following result :... Per Cent. Cone A. Cone B. Cone C. Fe Zn These figures are well within the limits obtained in the various analyses already quoted. As the inner layer of diffusion product which is low in zinc is at the apex of the cone, and therefore small in amount, the percentage of iron in the cone would be expected to be on the high side. In the conditions existing during these experiments the zinc plates show recrystallization, and where several are clamped together they become mutually adherent and show, when pulled apart, bright streaks where welding has taken place. These experiments are now being extended to include high-carbon steels and alloy steels, and various classes of cast iron and also to zinc-bearing alloys. R e f e r e n c e s. 1 F. T. Arnemann, Jlelallurgie, 1910, 7, G. Tammann and H. J. Rocha, Z. anorg. Chcm., 1931, G. von Hevcsy and W. Seith, Z. Eleldrochem., 1931, 37,

78 " I

79 ACCAHDO, A., 27. Alexandra, lt., 12. Alten, F., 26. Anderson, E. A., 20, 21. Anderson, J. S., 45. Anderson, It. J., 55. Aoyam a, S.-I., 3. Archer, W. E., 40. Arndt, H., 51. Aschehoug, V., 45. Austin, (Sir) H., 53. Azzareilo, E., 27. Baader, E. W., Gl. Bailey, G. L., 34. Bändel, G., 12. Bannuih, Z. S., 11. Bardtke, P., 54. Barratt, S., 10. Bastien, P., 33. Bauer,, 18. Bauer, 0., 54. Beck, F., 32. Becker, E., 30. Becker, K., 50. Behrens, O., 54, 02. Beisel,, 19. Bekk, JM 5. Belani, E., 37. Belonogov, P. S., 32. Berl, E., 35. Beriet, H., 22. Bem ardy, G., 15. Berraz, G., 4. Bertrand, G., 45. Bhagvat, R. N., 52. Bitö, K., 31. Blackall, A. C., 35. Blanc, M. lc, 10. Blue, R. D., 22. Blundell, J., 6. Bolm, D. I., 38. Bohner, H., 12. Borchers, I I., 23, 58. Borin, F. A., 35. Botchvar, A. A., 27, 35. BozhovskiT, V. K., 31. Bragg, (Sir) W. H., 54, 60. Bragg, W. L., 54, 60. Breariey, H., 54. Breien, H., 45. Brenner, P., 46. Brett, C. W., 41. Brookes, D. C., 47. Bryan, J. M., 16. Bugakov, V., 7. Buianow. V i. I., 54. Burchfield, V '. F., 39. Burgers, W. G., 13. Bunneister, E., 11. Callendar, G. S., 6-1. Campbell, C., 54. Carlsson, E., 28. Chaplet, A., 49. Charley, V. L. 17. Chariton, E. E., 50. Chanasse, P., 17. Christen, C., 4. Christoph, K., 2». Churchill, H. V., 45. Clapp, C. W., 6. Clarke, I L, 32. AUTHOR INDEX TO ABSTRACTS Classen, A., 13. Coker, E. G., 39. v. Conradv, IT., 43. Coolidge, W. D., 50. Cournot, J., 18. Critchett, J. IL, 44. Damianovich, ü., 3, 4. Debar, A., 34. Debve, P., 54. Dembo, I., 49. Demmer, A., 58. Deville, II. S.-C., 55. Dick, J. B., 20. Dietert, H. W., 34. Dingwall, A., 3. Dingwall, E. J., 55. Dixit, K. R., 14. Doan, G. E., 30, 57. Dokt&r, B., 5S. Dorey, S. F., 51. Dorrät, J. A., 43. Downes, A. W., 2. Drozdov, B. V., 31. Dubrisay, R., 17. DulTendack, O. S., 10. Duval, R., 55. Dyraow, A. M., 55. Eckert, G., 18. Eicher, C., 55. Eichwald, E., 46. Einecke, W., 59. Elcliardu8, E., 9. Eldridge, C. II., 21. Eldridge, E. F., 22. EUiB, O. W., 9. Endö, H., 2. Engel, H., 49. Essin, O., 23. Estabrook, G. B., 3. Evans, U. R., 18. Eyles, A., 51. Faltus,, 40. Fawcett, L. II., 32, 33. Ferguson, L., 42. Fethcrston, T. C., 45. Fink, 0. G., 21. Foerster, E., 52. Forker, J. B., 34. Frankenberg, H., 55. Freeman, H., 55. Freude, F., 9. Friedrich, II., 44. Froboese, Y., 49. Fröhlich, K. W., 8. Froinian, A. I., 5, Gauthier, J. 15., 49. Gavrilenko, E. S., 25. Gehrmann, G. IL, 52, Gentzcke, F., 47. Gerlach, W., 25. Gervens, IL, 52. Geschełin, JM 37, 53. Godsey, Y. W., J r., 24, Gorey, K. V., 35. Gough, l i. J., 53, 56. Graf, D., 40. Graham, A. K., 21. Granjon, R., 42. Griffith, J. K., 40. Gri/oU, I., 17. Grimm, W 30, Gros, C., 5. GUntlier, G., 59. Gyles, T. li., 53. Haase, G., 31. Haase, L. W., 15. Habeland, F., 30. Ilagen, U., 3. Hagen-Torn, W. O., 33. Hampshlre, C. 1!., 50. Haneinann, 11., 02. Hansen, K. L., 43. Hansen, M., 13. Hardouln, M., 50. Hardy, 'I'. W., 10. Harris, D., 2(5. Hocht, II., 30. Hclsby, 0., 39. Hćnon, G., 34. Ilerasyrnenko, P., 15. Herbert, J. B. M., 51. Herlig,, 52. Hermann, F., 39. Herold, W., 50. Herrmarm, 53. Herrmann, I I., 38. Heublum, R., 48. Highducheck, J. M., 37. H ill, E. L., 5. Hilpert, A., 42. Hirakoso, K., 23. Ilirach, A., 21. Hoare, F. E., 54. Jloflgman, 0. D., 50. Hockutru, J., 23. Hoffmann, \S\, 29. Hoglund, G. O., 38. Holstein, E., 01. llolub, L., 12. Honda. K,, 3. Huntzicker, H. H., 3. Iscnbergcr, 1L R., 30. lsgarischev, N. A., 23. lwasć, K., 10. Jackson, L. F,f 45. Jakowlewa, E., 14. Jeleń, F. O., 20..Jellinck, K., 1 1. Jensen, E., 4. Jirneno, K., 17. Job, P., 55. Joliansson, A., 13. Jon*«, O. ( '., 41. Jones, 11,, 51. Juk kola, E. K 57. Jjjnger, A., 28. Kadaner, i. A,, 25. Kahlenberg, L., 2, 3. Kanazaw;»,. Kawał, T,, 0, Keel, C. F., 44. Kelłoe, J. J 36. K e lo u b, O,, 31, Kelly, M.,L, 48. Kemp, J, T,, 49, Kernp, P,, 63, Kermey, I i,, 54. Kenyori, J,,S\, 9, Kirnura, li., 2, Kling, A., 50. Kobzarf^iko, V, H,, 25, Kollref.p, W,, 8, Komar, A,, 5, Koroijor, S., 26. K ostrón, 11., 29, Kracht»,51. Krnuw>, W M 51. Krokoler, K., 30. Kringstnd, II., 50. Kronig, R. do L,, 0. Kurroin, H., 20. Kuznetzov, M. ()., 35. Lam te, P», 9. Laissus, J., II. Lambros, G. (., 21. Langerou, M., 57. Langkau, H., 41. Langmuir, 1., 5. Lasaruv, II., 5. Lassen, E, 1J., 42. Lavroff, H. I., 57. Lehmann, O., 44. Leo, 8.-T., 21. Lewis, K. ü., 30. Llddcll, D. M., 57. Livingston, O. W., 42. LÖhlein, F T.ohtnnnn, w., 17. Lömukln, B. A., 20. Lombard, v., 55. Loofmann, H Lord* H. W., 42. Jyoskutov, 1", M., 21. Lottmaun, -, 47. Lottner, G., 57, l»w o, M., 24. Ludwik, P., 0. Lunde, G., 45, 50. Lundin, 11., 20, Me Knight, G- H., 53. Mahle, E., 46» Mahui, J 15. Maiboroda, P. H., 33. Mul listone, P, A., 0. Mancher, w. L., 2 1. Marino, A..1., 49. Martine«, G Ma«iyaina, >., JO. Mason, It, It., 47. Mathers, F. C., 22, Mathleu, M., 41. Matsul, M., 31. Matthoes, K., 28,.Niederer, JM 48, Mecaw, H. \>,, 28. Melcher. K -, 40. Meller, K., 4 L M alier, K., 44. v. Migrar, K., 26. Miller, L, K., 36, Mitl/wky, A,. 29, Miyata, A., ÍH, Mo^'-gen, O 59, Moltkchanf^rłj, L J,# 52. Mo/wryrori, M., 4 L Morris, T,.VM 17, Mower, IL, 8, Müller, E., 24. Müller, G., 43, Mütter, it., r//, Möller, W.,L, 21, Nailler. C. K., 45, 10. ^anmanr«, K,, 16, Nettrriari/j, P., 1 8 / M. J2, Neabert, F., 24.

80 Author Index to Abstracts Newitt, D. M., 64. Newman, P. H., 50. Niemann, IT., 47. Nishikawa, M., 8. Ncxl lack, I., 61. Noddack, W., 61. Nohl,, 34. Oborin, V., 17. Oehler, G., 29. Oesterle, K. M., 59. Oka, Y., 3. Oku. M., 24. Olander, A., 9,1 1. Ósawa, A., 7. Otta, B., 12. Owens, J. W., 40. Tabst, W., 52. Pech, J., 15. Peddcr, J. S., 10. Perin, S. F., 52. Perlitz, IT., 13. Perry, E., 20. Piazza, J., 4. Piccard, J Pierscl, G. T., 38. Pier sol, 11. J., 29. Piwowarsky, E., 7. Plauz, N., 35. Pletnev, S. A., 23. Poboril, P., 8, 15. Podhorsky, It., 16. Polibin, P. A., 5. Popov, M. I., 26. Porfirov, P., 2. PosplSiJ, B., 7, 27. PotapoVa, A. M., 27. Promisel, N., 22. P y, G., 46. Quadrat, 0 -, 7, 27. B a b a ti, I I., 19. Baicbinschten, Z., 26. Itajnfeld, S., 59. Bandolph, D. W., 10. B aub, E., 8. Beinking, K., 15. Beiter, K., 43. Rice, O. K., 13. Bichard, L., 20. Bichards, E. T., 32. Bicbardson, I>., 41, 42, 45. Bichter, G., 51. Bidgwav, B., 52. Biedl, E., 25. Bietsch, E., 42. Bimarski, W., 44. Boast, 11. J., 33. ltoberts, I). E., 38. Boberts, P. L., 41. Bobertson, J. K., 6. Boentgen, P., 23. Bogers, B. B., 21. Bolland, P. Lc, 29. Bollason, E. C., 39. Bössler,, 22. B oth, E., 52. Bude, T. M., 38. Buehmling, G. A., 51. Buhl, P. D., 36. Bussell, B., 39. Sachs, G., 57. Salmang, H., 35. Sanderson, L., 18. Sandström, A., 28. Sarver, L. A., 26. Sauerwald, P., 12, 24. Sauter, E., 2S. Saxton, B., 36. Scalai, A., 27. Schack, A., 57. Schallbroch, H., 59. Scherbakov, 1. G., 23. Scher rer, lt., 16. Schmidmer, E. L., 57. Schmidt, B., 41. Schmitt, H., 52. Schöpel, H., 10. Schrader, A., 62. Schuftan, P., 45. Schulze, A., 2. Schwabe, K., 18, 24. Schwarz, F., 25. v. Schwarz, M., 28. Schwarz, E., 47. Schwarz, V., 27. Schweitzke, G., 59. Scribner, G. P., 37. Seemann, H. J., 8. Seibt, A., 64. Seifert, II. F., 32. Seitz, E. O., 31. Serbescu, P., 45. Setöh, S., 18. Sewig, B., 50. Shen, T. N., 21. Shepherd, W. M., 53. Shepley, L., 21. Shimizu, Y., 3. Shinoda, G., 6. Shubin, M. I., 26, 27. Siegel, S. L., 3. Sieverts, A., 3. Smith, E. A., 60. Soderberg, G., 20. Soehnchen, E., 7. Soleri, E., 47. Sorin, P., 29. Spieser, B., 3. Sprantsman, A., 4. Ssobolew, M. N., 57. Stay, T. D., 32. Steger, H., 57. Stein, H., 37. Stenzel, W., 13. Stillwell, C. W., 52. Stipp, C., 19. Tafel, W., 28. Taint on, U. C., 2, 21. Tammann, G., 11, 12. Taylor, A. I I., 21. Taylor, J. B., 5. Thewlis, J., 14. Thews, E. B., 3. Thompson, M. de K., 20. Tischtclienko, P. E., 7. Trapesnikow, A. K., 57. Tupholme, C. IT. S., 53. T u tt, E., 45. Ugniatchev, W. J., 25. Ulsamer, O., 15. Yalenta, E., 8. v. Vargha, G., 12. Veil, S., 55. Velichko, I. P., 35. Velten, A., 58. Yerigin, V., 23. Yerö, J., 58. Yestly, K., 50. Vilnyanskii, Y. E., 11. Vivian, A. C., 40. Vogel, F., 23, 60. Vogel, lt., 12. Volmer, M., 23. Wagner, IT., 5S. W asche*, H., 28. Wassermann, G., 12. W ebb, H. W., 30. Wehner, G., 59. Weiland,1H., 26. W eiss, T., 39. Westbrook, L. E., 2. Westgren, A., 13. Wiegner, A., 59. W ill ink, A., 20. Wogrinz, A., 19. W olfe, B. A., 10. W ong, O. Y., 21. W ood, B. W., 5. W ood, W. A., 14. Wülfert, K., 45. Wulff, F., 30. Zacharias, J., 3. Zakharov, P. A., 34. Zakharova, M. I., 12. Zalesinski, E., 50. Zarges, W., 46, 52., Zarubin, N. M., 6. v. Zeerleder, A., 58., Zielinski, E., 59. Zuhoenc, B., 26. Zürcher, M., 59. Zvctkov, V. N., )

81 METALLURGICAL ABSTRACTS (G EN ERAL AN D N O N -FE R R O U S) Volume 1 JA N U A R Y 1934 p 7 r7 l NEW SERIES Metallurgical Abstracts, published under this title since January 1931 and issued monthly as a supplement to the monthly Journal of the Institute of Metals, has boon bound hitherto as a part o f the Journal series. The present issue of Metallurgical Abstracts commences Volume 1 o f a New Series which will bo bound annually as an entirely soparate publication complete with its own index. SYMBOLS In order to facilitate the ready identification o f abstracts of certain types of papers, the following two signs will bo used in futuro and will appear immediately preceding certain of the titles o f articles abstracted: * Denotes abstract of a paper describing the results of an original investigation. f Denotes a first-class critical review. B

82 9 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. 1 I. PRO PERTIES OF M ETALS On the Single Potential o Aluminium. Endo and Sjggenon Kanazawa [Set. Hep. T6hotu Imp. Univ., 1933 [i]. 22, o3<-oo-, and_(m Japanese) Kinzoku no Kenhju, 1933, 10, p ).- [ I n electrode potential o aluminium m normal potassium chloride solution depends on the nature of the gas which is passed over the surface of the solution. X o effect is produced by hydrogen mtrogen, or carbon d W e, but the presence of oxygen produces a marked lowering of the a** *«potential, due probably to the formation of an oxide film. The influence of impurities in the aluminium is marked; the addition of iron steadily lowers the electrode potential, but that of silicon does not. The most probable value fo r pure alum inium is v. E. S. H. Characteristics and Uses o Beryllium. Anon. {Canad. Much.. 19Jo, «, S). A summary of the properties of beryllium, with some details as to its occurrence. Allovs briefly mentioned include berylkum-copper (beryllium up to 2-5% ), 1% beryllium steel, and an alumimum-beryllium alloy* P- M* G. R.. c,7»on Structural Anomalies of Bismuth and Antimony. Alfred fcchulze (Z. vhusihil. Chem [A], 165, 1SS-194). Very pure polycrystalline antimony exhibits a reversible discontinuity on the temperature-electncal resistance curve at 105M 10' C. even if tempered for several hours at 100 L-; the discontinuity is not observed in single crystals or after tempering at 600 C.. and cannot therefore be due to a transformation. The etrect is attributed to elastic displacements between neighbouring crystals and to the mechanical deformations thereby produced. The observations made by D nicter (J.lnst. Metals, ,113) on bismuth can be explamedjimilarly. *On the Elastic Constants of Single Crystals of Copper. R en'iu Kimnra (5c*. Hep. TShaku. Imp. Univ , [i], 22. '«3-564). [In English.] Cf. j. / Metals ,177. The elastic constants have been determined by a static method at room temperature. The results are not in agreement with Cauchv's relation. The following values are given for Young s modulus x> and for the modulus of torsion n in the directions o*. the principal crystau«>srraphic axes: X 10, X 10,. u u l-o-o_x It, n j, X 10, '< ;;,r 0-3S0 X 10, «tun X 10^ d W c m ^ - E S- H ' Chemistry o i Tnfiinm. Alfred \\. Downes and Louis Kahlenberg {Trans. Ele'-traehi-m. See $: discussion, 15S-159). For abstract of the paper see J. Inst. Metals. 1933, 53, 290. _ In the discussion U. C. XnirUon stated that the recovery of indium from rinc ores was difficult, since most of it passed into the iron oxide residues together with germanium, arsenic, and antimony. Leon H. if estbrooh gave details of the therapeutic uses of indium. A. R. P., *On the Question o f the Anodic Passivity of Lead. _ P- Porfirov (ZMtrnai Obschtcheu Khimii {Jaumai of General Chemistry), 1933, [A], o9o). i In Russian.] The' anodic passivity of lead has been studied by measuring the changes whieh occur in the anode resistance when dilute sulphuric acid ts eieetrolvied with a lead anode. The results indicate that passivation occurs in. two stages: first lead dissolves normally and the lead sulphate found is deposited on the anode, thus reducing the exposed area and increasing tne effective current density, which, in. turn, accelerates crystallization of the sulphate and causes colloid formation accompanied by a sharp increase m the *1 resistance and current density. The second stage of the process begins when the current density reaches a certain limiting value at which oxy-ien. is evolved ai the anode and the sulphate converted into peroxide,

83 1934 I. Properties o f Metals 3 thus rendering the anode insoluble. In the first stage the film resistance is high and the elcctrodo potential constant, hence the passivity is mechanical; in the sccond stage the film resistance is small and the potential markedly different from the original, hence the passivity is chemical. In anhydrous sulphuric acid only mechanical passivation occurs. M. Z. American Cable Practice. [Failure of Lead Sheathing.] R. Spieser (Bull. Assoc. Suisse Meet., 1933, 24, ). A summarized account of the 932 cases of failure in service submitted to the Testing Laboratory of the Electrical Supply Grid (U.S.A. and Canada) in Stress is laid on the comparatively frequent failures of lead sheathing; these arc stated to bo duo mainly to variations in temperature or to too low a radius of curvature at bends. P. M. C. R. *Oxidation-Reduction Equilibrium of Metallic Manganese. Shin-Ichi Aoyama and Yoshinaga Oka (Sci. Hep. Tdhoku Imp. Univ., 1933, [i], 22, ). [In English.] By heating manganese in an atmosphere of hydrogen and water vapour the existence of the reaction Mn - f H 20 = MnO + H, was confirmed. A linear relation holds between log H2/H 20 and 1/2'. The heat of formation and the free energy at 298 abs. in the reaction Mn -fi 0 2 = MnO are given by AH208 = 96,680 grm.-cal., AF2S8 = 96,240 grm.-cal. E. S. H. *Effect of High Electrostatic Fields upon the Vaporization of Molybdenum G. B. Estabrook (Univ. Pittsburgh Dull, 1933, (29), 65-77). A paper read before the American Physical Society, of which only an abstract has previously appeared. See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 483. S. G. fthe Strength and Ductility of Nickel Wires of Small Diameter. Edmund R. 1 hews (Draht-Welt, 1932, 25, ). Discusses investigations of the mechanical properties of nickel wires made in both England and America and cites the work of Ransley and Smithclls (J. Inst. Metals, 1932, 49, S) very largely. Tables of strengths and ductilities of commercial, pure, and alloyed nickel "»ires annealed at various temperatures are given. A. B. W. The Contamination of Nickel Crystals Grown in a Molybdenum Resistance Furnace. Andrew Dingwall, Jerrold Zacharias, and Sidney L. Siegel (Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1933, 63, ). See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 484. S. G. The Relation of Hydrogen to Nickel with Special Reference to the Catalytic Power of the Latter. Harry N. Huntzicker and Louis Kahlenbcrg (Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1933, 63, ). Sec J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 610. S. G. *The Electrical Resistance of Palladium Wires Charged with Hydrogen. II. Harro Hagen and Adolf Sicverts (Z. physikal. Chem., 1933, [A], 165, 1-11). Cf. J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 290. The electrical resistance of palladium wires has been measured in a hydrogen atmosphere at temperatures up to 470 C. and pressures up to 140 kg./cm.2. B. Bl. *Change of Magnetic Susceptibility of Platinum, Copper, and Silver Caused by Cold-W orking. Kotaro Honda and Yosomatsu Shimizu (Nature, 1933, 132, ). Eliminating effects due to ferromagnetic materials, the following magnetic susceptibilities have been determined : platinum x IO"6, copper X 10-«, silver X 10-. The susceptibility of cold-worked platinum is slightly less than that- of annealed platinum, whilst in the case of copper and silver cold-working increases the susceptibility. Although the effect of the volume change is considered, the change in susceptibility appears to be real. E. S. H. * Inertia and Chemical Activity of Rare Gases Action of Helium on Platinum under the Influence of Electric Discharge at Low Pressure and Determination o f Helium in the Product Formed. Horacio Damianovich (Anales Inst. Investigaciones cient. tecnol., 1932, 1, 30-37; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4993). An

84 4 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. 1 electric dischance is formed with platinum electrodes in the presence of helium at low pressure. The product formed is decomposed by heat, leaving metallic platinum and dissolves in aqua regia more easily than platinum and than the products obtained under similar conditions with oxygen, nitrogen,. hydrogen. In the action of helium on platinum a new product is formed with properties differing from its components. S, G. n...»properties o the Product Formed by the Combination of Helium with Platinum and an Excess of Platinum.-Comparison with the Properties of Products Obtained from the Action of Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen on the Same Metals under Similar Conditions. Horacio Damianovich (,4nales Inst. Investigaciones cient. tecnol , 1, ).-C f. preceding abstract.-s. G. Density of the Product Obtained from the Action of Helium on Platinum. Horacio Damianovich and Jose Piazza {Anales Inst. Investigaciones cient. tecnol., 1932, 1, 45-4S: C. Abs., 1933, 27, ).-T h e density of the product obtained in the above experiments (cf. preceding abstracts) is^ considerab ly lower than that of ordinary platinum; it approaches the latter if the product is heated to 3S0 C. for 2 hrs., supporting the theory of the existence ot chemical combinations with helium and platinum. S. G. * Action of Oxygen on Platinum under the Influence of Electric Discharge at Low Pressure: Horacio Damianovich and Jose Piazza M «*» hu*. Investigaciones cient. tecnol., 1932, 1, 49-o3; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4993). y the method previously described (cf. preceding abstracts) oxygen» made to combine with platinum under the influence of electric discharges at low pressure. The product obtained appears to be an oxide of the approximate formula Pt»0,- which is very stable at ordinary temperatures and decomposes only under strong heat. Its density is much lower than that of platinum or platinum-helium product and it does not absorb air. fe. U. * Action of Hydrogen on Platinum under the Influence of Electric Discharge at Low Pressure. Horacio Damianovich and Carlos Chnsten (. 4 ^ InsL Investigaciones cient. tecnol., 1932, 1, 54-o ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, continuation of the above investigations (cf. preceding abstracts). A deposit is obtained from the action of hydrogen on platinum which is similar to finely powdered platinum; under these conditions hydrogen does not combine '''"A c tio n o f Nitrogen on Platinum under the Influence of Electric Discharge at Low Pressure. Horacio Damianovich and GuiUermo Be^az (. 4» «* a ^ Investigaciones cient. tecnol., 1932, 1, 5S-6o; C. Abs., 1J33, 27, 4.93). the use of a technique analogous to that of the p r e v i o u s experiments (cf. preceding abstracts), nitrogen was found to combine with platinum; the product is relatively stable, and its properties, in particular density and solubility in aqua regia, are decidedly different from those of platmum or ot platinum combined with helium, oxygen, or hydrogen. S. G.»The Kongsberg Silver. Einar Jensen {Tids. Kjemi Bergvesen, , C 4bs , 5687). The first results of an extensive analytical research áre riven. Six samples of native silver and argentite have been analyzed for silver, mercury, bismuth, lead, copper, arsenic, antimony, iron, nickel, cobalt, zine. manganese, calcium, and sulphur. S. G.»Preparation of Macroscopic Thallium Crystals by Electrolysis. A. Sprantsman (Ada Commentationes Univ. Tartaensis, A24, 3-5 ; C. 1 Joo, ). The crystals were prepared by electrolysing aqueous 1 1. ^ by means of a platinum anode and a copper cathode covered with a film ot paraffin. The form of the crystals depends on the concentration and temperature of the solution, and on the product of the free acid and applied p.d., but is independent of current density between 0-01 and 0-10 amp./dm.-- ^

85 193-1 I. Properties of Metals *The Transformation of Single Crystals of W hite Tin into Grey Tin. A. Komar and B. Lasarev (Physikal. Z. Sowjetunion, 1933, 4, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5600). [In German.] The linear velocity of transformation can bo increased fold. S. G. Zinc as a Printing Surface. J. Bckk (Deut. Druck., 1932, ; Phot. Abs., 1933, 13, 178). A study of the physical and chemical properties of zinc used in the production of relief and lithographic plates has: particular reference to the influence of impurities on zinc etching. S. G. *The Evaporation of Atoms, Ions, and Electrons from Cæsium Films on Tungsten. John Bradshaw Taylor and Irving Langmuir (Phys. Rev., 1933, [ii], 44, ). Detailed experiments are described on the evaporation of neutral atoms, positive ions, and electrons from films of cæsium deposited on tungsten, and methods are given for determining 0, the fraction of the tungsten surface covered with cæsium. The results support the postulate that all properties of an adsorbed film on an underlying surface of given composition are uniquely determined by 0 and T (the temperature). At low temperatures and high pressures of cæsium vapour, the adsorbed cæsium atoms first form a true monatomic layer, the formation of a second layer beginning only at filament temperatures corresponding with a nearly saturated caesium vapour. A theory of the formation of further layers is discussed, the essential assumption being that an atom in the nth layer can exist only on a group of at least 4 atoms on the (n l)th layer. The absorption coeff. of atoms striking the tungsten surface is shown experimentally to be unity from 0 = 0 to 0 = nearly 1, and the bearing of this on the process of evaporation and condensation is discussed. W. H.-R. Remarkable Optical Properties of the Alkali Metals. R. W. Wood (Phys. Rev., 1933, [ii], 44, ). Thin films of the alkali metals deposited on quartz are opaque to visiblo light, but highly transparent in the ultra-violet region. The point at which transparency begins moves towards shorter wavelengths with decreasing atomic number, the critical values being cæsium 4400, rubidium 3600, potassium 3150, sodium 2100, and lithium 2050 A., the value for lithium being slightly uncertain: The transparency continues into the ultra-violet as far as the limits of the experiments (1860 A.), and the effect of the thickness of the film has been studied for potassium. Plane polarization by reflection was observed, and the reflecting powers for different wavelengths were measured for all these metals except lithium. The refractive index of a potassium film varied from 0-90 at 2147 A. to 0'50 at 3100 A., reflection was observed although the critical angle was not very sharply defined. These properties are shown only by coherent films deposited at liquid air temperature under thoroughly outgassed conditions, and details of preparation are given. (See following abstract.) W. H.-R. Remarkable Optical Properties of the Alkali Metals. R. de L. Ivronig (Nature, 1933,132,601). K. applies his quantum theory of metallic dispersion to the phenomena dcscribcd by Wood (preceding abstract). E. S. H. Optical Properties of the Alkali Metals. E. L. Hill (Rev. Sci. Instruments, 1933, [N.S.], 4, ). W ood s work on the optical properties of thin films of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cæsium of thickness about 3000 A., in the ultra-violet region between 3000 and 1860 A. is briefly referred to. Cf. abstract above. J. S. G. T. A Method for the Production of Single Crystals. A. I. Froiman and P. A. Polibin (Physikal. Z. Sowjetunion, 1933, 3, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27,4146). [In German.] By using a modification of Bridgman s method, it is possible to determine in advance where the crystal axes of the sample will be after the crystal is grown. This is done by means of a special apparatus that allows only that crystal nucleus to grow further which has, at the start of crystallization, the desired orientation. S. G.

86 6 Metallurgical A bstrads V ol. 1 The Behaviour of Metallic Materials under Static and Dynamic Deformation. P. Ludwik (Z. Metallkunde, 1933, 25, ). A lecture to tlio Deutsche Gesellschaft f fir Metallkunde. The phenomena of plasticity, strengthening by cold-dcformation and age-hardening, recrystallization, crystal recovery, internal stress, damping capacity, and sensitivity to notch effect are discussed. Results are given of determinations (previously published) of the endurance strength of notched test-pieccs in bending and torsion tests and of the corrosion fatigue of various ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Bccent work by Ludivik and Krystof (Z.V.d.I., 1933, 77, G29) on the relation between the applied stress and the endurance strength under bending and torsional stress of polished, notched, and corroded specimens is reviewed (cf. J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 4S7). M. H. *The Serrated Discontinuity on Load-Extension Diagram and Age-Hardening of Metals and Alloys. Tadashi Kawai (Sci. Rep. Tdhoku Imp. Univ., 1933, [i], 22, ). [In English.] A study of cold-drawn bars of copper, aluminium, nickel, 60 : 40 brass, 70 : 30 brass, 80 : 20 brass, 90 : 10 brass, phosphorbronze, manganese-brass, copper-iron alloys (0-5 and 1% iron), Delta metal, and Duralumin, wires of nickcl and Nichrome, as well as of many steels, shows that only metals which undergo age-hardening after stretching show a serrated discontinuity on the load-extension diagram, when they are tested at a temperature at which the age-liardening is significant. The phenomenon is explained by successive yielding and ageing. E. S. H. *X -R ay Investigations on the Thermal Expansion of Solids. I. Gunji Shinoda (Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., 1933, [A], 16, ). [In English.] Determinations of thermal expansion coeff. and lattice constants of some metals by the X-ray method have yielded the following results: expansion coeff. X 10"6, aluminium a 22-9; tin an 45-8, ocj_ 25*7; indium «n 45 0, 11*7; zinc am64-5, ax 10-8; thallium am72, a± 9; lattice constant, tin a A., c/a ; indium a A., c/a E. S. H. Some Notes on Fractures. J. Blundell (J. Inst. Locomotive Eng., 1933, 23, ). Descriptions, with 46 photographs, arc given of fractures in locomotive parts arising from unsuitable material, manufacturing faults, design faults, or improper ure. The danger of having sudden changes in section and of sharp edges in general is shown in a number of instances. J. C. C. *Determination of Size of Particles in Metallic Powders. N. M. Zarubin (Zavadskaya Lab., 1933, (2), 29-34). [In Russian.] The Stokes, the microscopic, and the chemical rate of solution methods were used to determine the size of particles in tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, and other powders. S. G. Removal of Metallic Deposits by High-Frequency Currents. J. K. Robertson and C. W. Clapp (Nature, 1933, 132, ). A mirror deposit of metal (especially silver) in a tube is removed when a high-frequency luminous discharge is passed in air, oxygen, or hydrogen at a pressure of a few mm. Little effect is obtained in the presence of nitrogen. E. S. H. *The Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Production of Frictional Electric Charges on Metals. P. A. Mainstone (Phil. Mag., 1933, [vii], 16, ). Prolonged heating of aluminium and nickcl at low pressures reduces considerably the normal negative frictional charge on the metal. A partial slow recovery of the charge occurs on re-cooling. A similar effect occurs with the metals in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Widely varying results are obtained if the metals are de-gassed and re-heated at about 300 C. in hydrogen or nitrogen. Re-polishing or etching restores the surface to its original state. The frictional charge on polished palladium changes sign from negative to positive when the metal is de-gassed and heated in hydrogen at about 250 C.

87 1934 I I. Properties of Alloys 7 II. PRO PERTIES OF ALLOYS Dilatometric Study o an Aluminium Alloy. Otakar Quadrat and Rudolf Pospisil (Chim. et Ind., 1933, Special No. (Juno), ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5703). Analysis of 6 samples taken from different parts of a commercial aeroplane engine piston made of aluminium-copper-nickel-magnesium alloy showed segregation of up to nearly 10% of the added elements, the thinner portions of the easting having higher copper, nickel, and magnesium contents. Variations in the coeff. of expansion of test-pieces taken from the same places as the portions used for analysis were only about 1%, which is practically within the limit of experimental error. S. G. On the Equilibrium Diagram o the Iron-Alum inium System. Atomi Osawa (Sci. Hep. T6hoku Imp. Univ., 1933, [i], 22, ). [In English.] See abstract from the Japanese, J. hist. Metals, 1933, 53, 616. E. S. H. On the Influence of Aluminium on Cast Iron. E. Piwowarsky and E. Soehnclien (Metallwirtschaft, 1933, 12, ). Data are given on the eastability, tensile properties, and corrosion-resistance of cast iron with up to 20% aluminium. v. G. On the Compounds ol Aluminium and Silver. F. E. Tischtchenko (Zhumal Obschtchey Khimii {Journal of General Chemistry), 1933, 3, ). [In Russian.] Cf. Petrenko, Z. anorg. Ghem., 1905, 46, 49. The system has been re-examined by thermal analysis. The 3-phase, Ag3Al, is formed at 771 C. and undergoes a transformation at 606 C. into 3'. Aluminium is insoluble in 3:, but is solublo in [3 to a maximum of 10-22% at 722 C., the eutectic point between (3 and Ag3Al2; the latter is stable only between 752 C. and 711 C. Below 711 C. Ag3Al2 decomposes into y ", which is a solid solution of aluminium in Ag2Al containing a maximum of 14-33% aluminium. Between 711 C. and 400 C. over a range of 13% there is a duplex field of /, and below 400 C. with % aluminium the structure consists of 3' and y. The results of Hoar and Rowntree (J. Inst. Metals, 1931, 45, 119) and Westgren and Bradley (J. Inst. Metals, 1928, 40, 576) are reviewed and compared with those of T. M. Z. On the Eutectoidal Decomposition of Alum inium -Zinc Alloys. V. Bugakov (Physikal. Z. Sowjetunicn, 1933, 3, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4512). [In German.] A study was made of the [3-phase of the zinc-aluminium system. Hardness, electrical conductivity, and specific volume were determined for samples subjected to a variety of heat-treatments at temperatures at which the 3-phase is unstable (i.e. temperatures below 256 C.). Decomposition of the 3-phase proceeds practically to completion at room temperature, but the process is accelerated by annealing at higher temperatures. When the rate of decomposition of the 3-phase is decreased by additions of small amounts (less than 1% ) of magnesium to the mixture, determinations of electrical conductivity indicate that the alloy passes through a metastable condition before the 3-phase changes to a state stable at room temperature. Hardness tests, on the other hand, seem to show that, even after electrical conductivity has become constant and a stable state apparently reached, a slow ageing continues for some time. S. G. The Resistance of High-Strength Aluminium Alloys to Axial Loading. Anon. (Alluminio, 1933, 2, ). Some data arc given on the buckling strength to axial loading of heat-treated aluminium alloys (and steel), and the mathematical means for calculating it. A diagram is appended. G. G. Non-Corrodible Aluminium [N.C.A. Alloy]. Anon. (Syren ami Shipping, 1933, 149, 244). It is claimed that N.C.A. metal, an aluminium alloy, resists sea-water corrosion exceptionally well, as shown by Admiralty tests over a period of 6-7 years. Sand-cast bars possess the following properties : ultimate tensile stress tons/in.2, yield-point 6-7 tons/in.2, elongation 5-7 % on

88 8 Metallurgical Abstracts V o l. 1 2 in., sclcroscopc hardness 12, Brincll hardness 63. The alloy is also available in extruded bars, tubes and angles, and as rolled sheet. P. M. C. R. Hydronalium. Anon. {Met. hid. (Lond.), 1933, 43, 85). A New Aluminium Alloy Hydronalium. Anon. (Metalluraia, 1933, 9, 31). See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 490. S. G. A New Alloy for High-Speed Automobile and Aircraft Engines. Anon. (Automobiltech. Z., 1933, 36, 517). A piston alloy of aluminium, with 14% silicon and small additions of nickel, copper, and magnesium, remainder aluminium. It is claimed to have a sp. gr. nearly equal to that of aluminium, with a higher thermal conductivity and a thermal expansion 18% less than that of other piston alloys. It is especially recommended for aircraft and niotor-boat engines. Details are given as to performance and working. P. R. The Future of Light Metals. W. Kollrepp (Z. ges. Giesserei-Praxis : Das Metali, 1933, 54, 34S-349). Gives a brief, general discussion of the mechanical properties and corrosion-resistance of light metal alloys and an indication as to how these will influence their application in the future. J. H. W. *Effect of Silicon on the Critical Points and the Constitution of Chromium Alloys. E. Valenta and F. Pobofil (Chim. et Ind., 1933, Special No. (June), S; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5704). The effect of silicon on the constitution of chromium alloys was studied on the 2 pseudo-binary sections of the ternary system : iron-carbon-chromium, the carbon content being 0-8% and the chromium content 25%, at the bases of the 2 sections of the quaternary system: iron-carbon-chromium-silicon with a constant silicon content of 2-5%, carbon 0-8%, and chromium 25%. Special study was made of the alloys having the characteristics of cast irons, which solidify as the eutectic forms. The methods of investigation were microscopic examination, thermal analysis, dilatometric analysis, and determination of the hardness after quenching. Silicon decreases the homogeneous zone of the y-phase and widens the zone of primary separation of the a-phase. By considerably raising the critical points it increases the zone of the alloys having no critical points. Moreover, silicon considerably reduces the carbon content of the eutectic. In order t<~ facilitate the visualization of the extent of the changes caused by the presence of silicon in the iron-carbon-chromium system, a diagram of the ternary crystallization was drawn which was made possible by using both the data in the literature, particularly those of Westgren, Phragmen, and Xcgrcsco, and the personal deductions of V. and P. S. G. *Copper-Lead Alloy System. M. Nishikawa (Suiyokai-shi, 1933, 8, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5702). [In Japanese.] The constitution of the copper-lead system has been investigated by thermal and microscopic analyses, and the equilibrium diagram has been constructed. A monotectic reaction : liquid - f Cu ^ liquid was found to occur at 957 C. and in 13-48% of copper. S. G- *The Electrical Conductivity of Cu.,Pd- and Cu5Pt-Alloys with Disordered and Ordered Atomic Distributions at Low Temperatures. H. J. Seemann (Z. Physik, 1933, 84, ). The specific electric resistance of Cu3Pd- and Cu3Pt-alloys with orderly atomic distribution at low temperatures, down to about 253 C., is found to decrease with decrease of temperature, only a little more than is the case with a disorderly atomic distribution, and in this respect the results are in marked contrast with results obtained with Cu3Aualloys, where a marked difference in the two cases was found to occur. The difference is discussed with reference to the systems of valency electrons in the several cases. J. S. G. T. Silver-Copper Alloys Containing Phosphorus. H. Moser, 12. Raub, and K. W. Frohlich (MetaUmrtschaft, 1933,12, ). An account of work the results of which have already been published by K. W. F. in Mitt. Forschungsinst, Edelmetalle, 1933, 7, 75. See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 696. v. G.

89 1934 I I. Properties of Alloys 9 Tests Several Possibilities o Tin-Free Leaded Bearing Bronzes. Anon. (Automotive Ind., 1933, 69, 678). A short account of recent researches carried out at the U.S. Bureau of Standards on copper-lead alloys containing small additions of other metals. See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 620. P. M. C. R. The Effect o the Addition o Lead on the Hardness of Certain Tin-Base Bearing Alloys at Elevated Temperatures. J. N. Kenyon (Met. Ind. (Loud.), 1933, 43, ). Road before the American Society for Testing Materials. See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 495. J. H. W. The Mechanism o Inverse Segregation. Alloy Group 3. Tin-Bronzes, 89 : 11 Type. Owen W. Ellis (Met. Ind. (Land.), 1933, 43, , ). An introduction to the Symposium on Deoxidation and Degasification of Bronze Foundry Alloys held by- the American Foundrymen s Association. J. H. W. Phosphor-Bronze. Anon. (Automobile Eng., 1933, 23, 387). A note on the analysis, characteristics, qualities, and applications of phosphor-bronzes, in which the alloy is divided into 3 groups: (a) phosphorus %; (6) phosphorus % ; (c) phosphorus %, and where the tin content of (a) and (b) varies from 8 to 10% ; (c) shows considerable hardness and much resistance to wear. J. W. D. Properties of Bronze Bearing Metals. Anon. (Machinist (Eur. Edn.), 1933, 77, ). The mechanical properties of Admiralty bronze, and of 80 : 10 : 10 : 0, 83 : 7 : 7 : 3, 70 : 10 : 20 : 0, 85 : 5 : 9 : 1, and 70 : 5 : 25 : 0 copper-tin-lead-zine bearing alloys are tabulated. J. H. W. The Effect of Cold-Working on the Strength o Bronze and the Possibility of Improvement by Suitable Heat-Treatment. F. Freude (Metallbörse, 1932, 22, ). The danger of season-cracking after very hard cold-working, e.g. drawing, of 70 : : 40 brass is illustrated, and the effect of low-temperature annealing in reducing internal stress is shown graphically. Annealing for 3 hrs. at 250 C. is sufficient to prevent all danger of season-cracking, but has no effect on the hardness or strength of the metal. A. R. P. *An Electrochemical Investigation of Brass. Arne Ölander (Z. physikal. Chem., 1933, [A ], 164, ). The potential of the cell: zincflithium, rubidium, zinc chloride (copper, zinc)*,,,,,, and its temperature coeff. have been determined for 46 alloys between 333 and 626 C.; the results confirm Bauer and Hansen s equilibrium diagram except that the left-hand boundary of the y-phase is more inclined to the left. The activity coeff. of zinc in the Y j-p h a s e is unity, the y-phase has the ordered structure Cu5Zn8, and the ß and ß' phases both have the ordered structure CuZn with a degree of disorder of 1%. The heat of transformation of ß into ß' is 87 grm.-cal./grm.-atom; apparently the transformation is not due to atomic changes, but to electronic movements which have no other action than to cause a slight lattice expansion, similar to that which occurs at the Curie point in iron. The heat of the transformation in the 8-phase is 195 grm.-cal./grm.-atom and the latent heat of fusion of zinc 28-4 grm.-cal./grm. B. Bl. *The Constitution of Magnesium-Rich M agnesium -Zinc-Silicon Alloys. E. Elchardus and P. Lafiite (Cornpt. rend., 1933, 197, ). The magnesium-rich alloys of the system magnesium-zinc-silicon have been studied by thermal analysis. It is confirmed that a definite ternary compound does not exist. The following stages are observed at each point in the region of immiscibility, beginning with a liquid alloy: (1) separation of two liquid phases; (2) deposition of a solid phase; (3) disappearance of one of the liquid phases; (4) deposition of the binary eutectic; (5) deposition of the ternary eutectic, corresponding with the composition : magnesium 53-3, zinc 43-5, silicon 3-2%, at a constant temperature (335 C.). The limit of the ternary solid solution is at the approximate composition: zinc 5-25, silicon 0-25, magnesium 94-5%. The constitution of the different zones was determined microscopically. J. H, W,

90 10 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. 1 *The Determination oi the Vapour Pressure of Amalgams by a Dynamic Method. John S. Pedder and Sidney Barratt (J. Chern. Soc., 1933, ). -An apparatus for the measurement of the vapour pressures of amalgams or alloys by the dynamic gas-streaming method at temperatures between 250 and 400 C. is described. The partial pressures of mercury above cadmium, zinc, and potassium amalgams of various compositions and at different temperatures have been measured. From the measurements of the partial pressures of mercury and potassium above potassium-mercury amalgams, containing mols.-% potassium at C., it is deduced that a considerable amount of a compound, probably KHg, is present in the vapour of these amalgams at that temperature. S. V. W. Electron Emitting Alloys of Nickel and Barium. D. W. Randolph, 0. S. Duffendack, and R. A. Wolfe (Electronics, 1933, 6, ). The addition of up to 0-20% barium to nickel greatly increases the thermionic emission of the latter. Alloys containing up to 10% barium are being studied. Small quantities of other elements influence the emission of the low percentage barium alloys. The electron emission increases with the amount of chromium up to a maximum at 3-5% chromium and then decreases again. The addition of chromium has been found to bo beneficial in other ways. The alloys containing chromium are more resistant to corrosion and have a greater tensile strength at C. The rate of evaporation is lower than for pure nickel, and when slightly oxidized they form a very suitable core metal for oxide-coated emitters. S. V. W. *0n the Magnetostriction of Nickel-Cobalt Alloys. Yosio Masiyama (Sci. Rep. Tdkoku Imp. Univ., 1933, [i], 22, ). [In English.] The longitudinal and transverse effects are in different senses and the total volume change is a differential effect. A marked discontinuity in the concentration curve occurs at about 75% of cobalt, which corresponds with the change from a face-centred cubic lattice to a hexagonal, close-packed lattice. E. S. H. The Mechanical Properties of Certain Samples of Monel Metal. T. W. Hardy (Canad. Dept. Mines, Mines Branch, Rep. No. 728, 1932, ; C. Abs., 1932, 27, 4198). Tensile properties, Izod impact tests, and Brinell hardness of 14 samples of Monel metal purchased in the open market agree with the trade data of the International Nickel Co. S. G. X-Ray Study of the Electrolytic Fe-Ni Alloys. Keizo Iwase and Nobuyuki Nasu (Sci. Rep. Tdhoku Imp. Univ., 1933, [i], 22, ). [In English.] Sec abstract from the Japanese, J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 190. E. S. H. Magnetically Permeable Alloys. Anon. (Arch, lecli. Messen, 1933, 3, (26), f22). An account of 5 proprietary alloys of high permeability; their composition and magnetic properties are tabulated. The alloys are : BR 50, and Hyperm 36, 50 A, 5 B, and 4. P. M. C. R. Anti-Friction Metals : Their Composition, Structure, &c. Anon. (Commonwealth Eng., 1933, 20, ). The chief characteristic of tin-base and lead-base anti-friction alloys and their fundamental properties are described. The formulas for friction at high speeds, at constant speed, and at constant load are given. J. H. W. Electrical Conductivity Measurements of the Systems Zinc-Cadmium and Lead-Antimony with Reference to the Attainment of Stable Equilibrium. M. le Blanc and H. Schopel (Z. Elektrochem., 1933, 39, ). The specific electrical conductivity of the zinc-cadmium and lead-antimony systems has been measured with reference to the attainment of stable equilibrium. In the zinc-cadmium system, the attainment of equilibrium occurs almost immediately in most alloys, except at the extremes of concentration (less than 10 atomic-%). In the lead-antimony system, the attainment of equilibrium is slower throughout the whole range. The limits of the single phase regions were determined by means of temperature-resistance curves. At

91 193-1 I I. Properties of Alloys C., the saturation limit of zinc in cadmium occurs at 97-5 atomic-% of zinc (95-8% by weight), and that of cadmium in zinc at 6 atomic-% of zinc (3-6% by weight). In the lead-antimony system, the saturation limit of lead in antimony occurs at 94-2 atomic-% of lead (96-5% by weight) at 249 C., and that of antimony in lead at 1-5 atomie-% of lead (2-5% by weight). Micrographic examination confirmed these points in the ease of the zinceadmium alloys and the point at 1*5 atomic-% of lead in the case of the lead-antimony alloys. On the other hand, the indication of the maximum electrical conductivity at 5 atomic-% of lead was not confirmed by micrographic examination. The lead side could not bo determined more exactly. J. H. W. On the Solid Diffusion of Metallurgical Products. J. Laissus (Ghim. et Ind., 1933, 29, ). A study of cementation processes in which various pairs of metals are considered under different conditions of temperature and time. The results are considered from the theoretical and practical aspects. The effect of cementation in offering resistance to oxidation and general corrosion in certain instances is studied. W. A. C. N. *The Crystallization of Eutectic Mixtures. G. Tammann (Z. Metalllcunde, 1933, 25, ). The linear rate of crystallization of eutectic mixtures depends on undercooling in the same way as that of chemically homogeneous melts. In tubes the linear rate of crystallization of the latter is determined only by the flow of heat from the ends of the crystal filaments, whereas in the former case the separation of the constituents into individual crystal filaments is an additional process which is performed by diffusion. By increasing the rate of the eutectic crystallization the thickness of the crystal filaments may bo decreased to submicroscopic proportions, lienee, the relatively slow diffusion process is sufficient to produce separation of the constituents ; this action is promoted by the close juxtaposition of the two kinds of crystal filament, as this causes more uniform diffusion. Since the separation of both constituents is necessary, the maximum linear rate of crystallization of binary eutectic mixtures is much less than that of either of the constituents. This has been verified by observations made on eutectic mixtures of organic compounds. M. H. *0n Vapour Pressures and Activities of Some Binary Alloys. Ernst Burmeister and Karl Jellinek (Z. physikal. Chem., 1933, [.4], 165, ). The activities of cadmium over cadmium-tin alloys at 540 C-, of zinc over tin-zinc alloys at 684 C., and of cadmium and zinc over cadmium-zinc alloys at 682 C. have been determined by vapour pressure measurements by an improved method; the values obtained agree closely with those determined by Taylor s electromotive method. B. Bl. Entropy in Intermediate Phases. Arne Olander (Z. physikal. Chem., 1933, [4 ], 165, 65-78). Intermediate phases which have an extended field of existence can have either a random or an ordered lattice orientation. In the latter case the variation in composition of the phase can occur either by substitution or by the introduction or removal of atoms from the lattice. To determine whether an intermediate phase is ordered or not a new method is given: the electrolytic dissolution potentials of the constituents of the compounds and their temperature cosff. are measured. Formulae of the partial molar entropy are derived and the calculated figures are compared with the experimental results for {3-CuZn, p'-agcd, y-zn18cu10, y-cdltag10, Au.,Cd, and AuCd3. B. Bl. Methods of Graphic Representation of Four-Component Systems. Ya. E. Vilnyanskii and Z. S. Bannuih (Kalii, 1933, (5), 23-35; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5625). The construction of diagrams for the graphic representation of the system MgCl 2-lvCl-XaC l-h,0 is discussed. Regular and right-angle tetrahedra are found best suited for the graphic solution of problems of a fourcomponent system. S. G.

92 12 Metallurgical Abstracts V o l. 1 I I I. STRUCTURE (Metallography; Micrography ; Crystal Structure.) Organization oi the Metallographie Section of the Trinec Steel W orks. Bohuslav Otta (Chim. et I iul, 1933, Special Xo. (June), ; C. Abs., , 5694). Descriptive, with examples of the practical application of metallography to the control of operations in steel plants and to the discovery of the causes of failure of metal parts in service. -S. G. Synthetic Metal Bodies. VII. Crystallization Between Surfaces in Structural Equilibrium. F. Sauerwald and L. Holub (Z. Elekirochem , 39, ). By pressing synthetic bodies, internal strains are produced which cause a fading of the AVdoublets in the X-ray photograph. Between unpressed surfaces in structural equilibrium in copper single crystals, crystal growth from one crystal to another was observed at 900 C., but not at 500 C. Such crystal growth therefore occurs at higher temperatures than recrystallization of mechanically deformed crystals. It is probably not the result of nucleus formation, but of grain boundary displacement. Even at 900" C., recrystallization between crystals from the melt seldom occurs. This crystallization inertia is similar to that which occurs in ordinary polycrystalline metals obtained from the melt. From these results it is concluded that the crystallization tendency of such substances the single crystals of which are formed out of the melt is generally smaller than that of substances the single crystals of which are produced, for example, in the solid state bv the reduction of oxides. J. H. W. On the Recrystallization and Crystal Recovery o Pure Aluminium and of Several A l-c a Basis Alloys Following Cold-W ork. H. Bohner and R. Vogel (Rjft-H 'afc-ilvf (Monthly Suppt. to Dmkt-hVelt). 1933, A paper read before the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Metallkunde. See J. last. Jletals , 12$. A. B. W. Influence o l the Initial Grain-Size on the Final Grain-Size o Crystals During Secrystaliizatioa. R. Alexandra (Bull. Sei. Polyteck. Timisoara, , ; f. Abs , 27, 52S5). Samples of electrolytic iron with srainsizes between 200 and 24 grains per mm.-were deformed by rolling, and allowed to reerystallize at 650' 750 C. An initial grain-size of approximately 157 grains per mm.- :avo a maximum grain-size in the product- S. G. tbecrystallisatioa or Metals. M. I, Zakharova Ztv.-; Me tatty (Tr.e Xon- Ferrvus Mit:;is' , : C. Abj ,419$}- [In Russian.] A review o f the modem conceptions of recrystallization of metals- 12 references are given. S. G. The Photographic Development o f Slip Lines on Deformed Crystals of Silver Chloride- G.Tam nanaand G. Bändel(Z. aa-orj. Cham S-40Ö). Treat «sent with a photographic developer of a bent cast plate of silver chloride reveals slip lines as darkened bands of metallic silver. These slip lines are not due to an increase in the reactivity of the silver chloride caused by the slip process but are produced by impurities with which the material is supersaturated- which accelerate the process of development. The separation of these impurities takes place preferably on. the slip planes just as is the case with deformed supersaturated metallic solid solutions. M. H. *On. she Kehiücn Between fee Crystal Orientation in Rolled Aluminium Sheet and fee Thiciness of fee Sheet. G. v. Vargha and G- Wassermann (JfetaOn-irtscAafi In the middle zones of rolled aluminium sheet the crystals are oriented with a [112] direction in the direction of rolling and a iu0? place parallel to the rolling plane. In the edge zones the orientation of the crystals is much more imperfect; with considerable dispersion a (100) plane Lies in. the rolling plane and a [110] direction in the direction of rolling. With

93 1934: I I I. Structure 13 sheet 5 mm. thick the edge zones are about 1-3 mm. thick, and relatively well defined, but with thinner sheet the difference between the two zones is much less clearly marked. The middle of a sheet 5 mm. thick shows, despite the smaller deformation, a more perfect crystal orientation than is the case with the more strongly deformed, thinner sheet. v. G. Precision Measurements of the Lattice Constants of Beryllium. M. C. Neuberger (Z. Krist., 1933, 85, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5603). The values are a ± A.; c ± A. The axial ratio a/c = The density as calculated is at 20 C. S. G. *X-Ray Determination of the Phase Boundary Lines in the Copper Zine Diagram. Axel Johansson and A. Westgren (Mctallwirtschaft, 1933, 12, ). X-ray examination of carefully prepared and homogenized copperzinc alloys has confirmed the equilibrium diagram of Bauer and Hansen, except that the 3/(a + P) phase boundary above 450 C. is placed about 1 atomic-% further towards the zinc side. v. G. *Tlie Structure of the A Phase of the Ag-Li System. Harald Perlitz (Z. Krist., 1933, 86, ; C. Abs., 1933,27,5604). The A phase of the system silver-lithium has a simple cubic structure, with a = 9-94 A., containing 52 atoms per unit cube. Identical X-ray data were obtained through the range from 76-3 to 80-2 atoms-% lithium. ij. G. *The Crystal Structure and Lattice Constants of a-(p-)-tungsten. M. C. Neuberger (Z. Krist., 1933, 85, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5603). The structure of a new form of tungsten has been determined by means of X-rays. In order to be conventional N. proposes to designate the cc-form as the new modification of tungsten, and the [3-form as the well-known body-centred cubic form. The a-form contains 8 atoms in the unit cell, arranged in a specific typo of lattice with 2 tungsten atoms in the positions [0 0 0] f \, A] and 6 tungsten atoms in the positions [J, 0, [;J-, i, 0] [0, ] [, 0, J] [, h, 0] [0, J, i]. The edge of the unit cell is ± A. The specific type of the cubic class is T\, O2, 0\. S. G. *The Solubility of Copper in Zinc. M. Hansen and W. Stenzel (Metallwirtschafl, 1933, 12, ). The lattice constants of pure zinc (a = A., c A., c/a = ; rfcllc. = 7-140) are changed by addition of 2-66% copper to a = A., c = A., c/a = ; dcalc = The reduction of almost 3% in the axial ratio is particularly noteworthy. X-ray determinations of the solid solubility of copper in zinc gave the following results : at the pcritectic point (424 C.) 2-66%, at 400 C. 2-41%, 350 C. 1-95%, 300 C. 1-53%, 250 C. 1-12%, 200 C. 0-77%, and 150 C. 0-51%. These figures have been confirmed by density measurements and micrographic examination. v. G. *X-Ray Proof of the Compound ZrW2. A. Classen and W. G. Burgers (Z. Krist., 1933, 86, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27,5600). Powder photographs give evidence of a cubic compound of zirconium and tungsten. No analysis was made, but the data indicate a cell with a = 7-01 A., containing 8 molecules of ZrW2. The calculated density = S. G. Binding Forces in the Alkali Metals According to the Free Electron Theory. 0. K. Rice (Phijs. Rev., 1933, [ii], 44,318). Abstract of a paper read before the American Physical Society. Although there have been a considerable number of attempts to work out in some detail the nature of the cohesive forces in the alkali metals, it seemed worth while to see how far one could go with the simplest possible hypothesis, according to which the metal consists of singlycharged positive ions imbedded in a sea of free electrons. Frenkel first showed that the fact that the electrons in the metal obey the Fermi statistics, results in an effective repulsive force which will be balanced by attractive electrical forces; but, as he pointed out, the finite size of the ions prevents this being more than a qualitative picture, and he suggested taking this into account by

94 14 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. 1 including repulsive forces between electrons and ions. In the present work, R. has introduced an intrinsic ionic volume, into which the electrons are supposed to bo unable to penetrate, this simply being subtracted from the atomic volume in the Fermi expression for the kinetic energy of the electrons. For the attractive potential an expression involving a Madelung constant of a size about equal to those occurring in cases of uniunivalent crystals, and the same for all the alkali metals, is used. It is possible then to calculate the energy of the metals from the experimental value of the atomic volume, getting excellent agreement with experiment. The method is not so successful in calculating the compressibilities, but, apart from the fact that the compressibilities at absolute zero may only bo inferred from measurements around room temperature, it appears that a relatively small correction to the Fermi energy expression can give the correct compressibility without greatly upsetting the calculation of the energy. The latter is, then, to bo considered as significant. S. G. Lattice Distortion and Fibre Structure in Metals. W. A. W ood (Nature, 1933, 132, 352). As the temperature of a cold-worked metal is increased, removal of lattice distortion occurs before removal of fibre structure. This intermediate state persists as the metal is slowly cooled. The observation explains the inability to establish a relation between the changes in properties brought about by cold-working and the onset of the fibre structure. The fibrous state does not necessarily represent a state intermediate between that of the normal metal with grains oriented at random and that of the large metallic crystal. E. S. H. Investigation oi the Orientations in Thin Evaporated Metallic Films by the Method o Electron Diffraction. K. R. Dixit (Phil. Mag., 1933, [vii], 16, ). The effect of temperature on the orientations of the small crystals in thin metallic films is investigated. The films, of thickness lo^-lo" cm., of silver on molybdenum, quartz, and glass, of aluminium on molybdenum, and of zinc on molybdenum are studied at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to, in some cases, 950 C. Different orientations, not depending on the support, are observed. A theory, assuming that these thin deposits behave as a two-dimensional gas, is proposed. J. S. G. T. Optical Method for the Determination oi the Orientation of Single-Crystal Specimens. E. Jakowlewa (Physikal. Z. Sowjetunion, 1933, 3, ; C. Abs., 1933,27,3S79). [In German.] A new optical method is described which simplifies and facilitates the determination of crystal orientation and indices. It is suitable for crystals of any symmetry. The crystal is suspended within a glass sphere. Diverging light rays pass into the sphere and strike the crystal as a parallel beam. They are diffracted from the crystal surfaces and emerge from the sphere, converging at twice their focal length. Apparatus and measurements are described. An accuracy of 1 to 30' is possible. S. G. The Determination oi Crystal Orientation. J. Thewlis (Z. Krist., 1933, 85, 74-88; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 3879). This new method involves the use of graphs obtained by plotting as ordinates and abscissa; the indices or the direction cosines of all directions in a crystal and on these curves are drawn curves of constant angle for different reflecting planes. By using measurements from X-ray photographs it is possible with these graphs to determine the orientation of the crj-stal. Formula; for constructing the graphs and also for the determination of crystal orientation without the aid of the graphs arc included. S. G.

95 1934 I V. Corrosion 15 IV.-CORROSION Relation Between the Constitution o Some Chromium Alloys and Their Rate oi Solution in Hydrochloric Acid. P. Hcrasymenko, J. Pech, and P. Pobofil {Chun, et Ind., 1933, Special No. (June), ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5704). The rate of solution of some chromium alloys in hydrochloric acid depends on their constitution and increases considerably in passing from the a-phase to the y-phase. Measurement of the solution potential of these alloys showed that the differences in the rate of solution arc duo to variations in the difference of their potential and that of hydrogen. S. G. The Corrosion of Copper Rollers Used in Cloth Printing by Alkaline Printing Colours. Karl Rcinking and Gustav Bernardy (Mdliand Textilber., 1931, 12, 328; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 3826). The observation of Runge (1842) that potassium hydroxide and potassium carbonate corrode copper and brass in the presence of air is correct; sodium carbonate acts in the same manner. The addition of mineral oils to the printing colours, as done in practice, is apparently intended to exclude air. The covering of the copper cylinder by a sulphide layer is said to have proved of advantage. S. G. Copper in Water Distributing Systems : Its Physical, Chemical, and Hygienic Aspects. L. W. Haase and 0. Ulsamer (Kleine Mitt, prcuss. Land-, Wasser-, Boden-, u. Luflhygiene, Berlin-Dahlcm, V III Beiheft, 1933, 3-47). - The time required for the formation of the protective oxide (chiefly cuprous oxide) film on the inner surface of copper water-pipes is dependent on the hardness of the water and its content of neutral salts and gases. In acidic, gassy waters the formation of the film is greatly retarded; in normal, soft surface and underground waters the film forms in about a year if the oxygen content of the water is sufficient, and in hard and medium-hard waters in a few weeks. During the formation of the film the copper content of the water is dependent on its chemical composition and is less the harder is the water. A distinction is drawn betw'een copper compounds in true solution which impart taste to the water, and suspended tasteless copper compounds; the latter are formed in water of moro than 4 of permanent hardness. When formation of the protective film is complete, the copper content of hot or cold water taken from the pipes never exceeds 0'l-0-3 mg./litre. Further growth of the film and consequent narrowing of the cross-section of the pipe does not occur under any conditions; iron pipes are much inferior to copper in this respect. Soluble copper salts in amounts sufficient to cause acute copper poisoning cannot pass unnoticed into the human organism, and chronic copper poisoning is unknown. The copper content of tap-water can in no case increase by more than a few' % the amount of copper taken into the human body in the ordinary foodstuffs. Some other physiological aspects of tho problem are discussed. J. W. Lead as a Construction Material Its Contact with Plaster, Lime, and Cement. Jacques Mahul (J. U sines Gaz, 1933, 57, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5039). Plaster-of-Paris does not attack lead. In the presence of wet lime and air lead oxidizes to Pb30 4. In saturated lime water up to 0T08 grm. of lead per 100 c.c. dissolves in 1 month (0-009 grm. in distilled water), whilst even more (0-183 grm. of lead per 100 e.c.) dissolves in a saturated solution of Portland cement. Any other cement which can liberate free lime is corrosive to lead, the lime dissolving the protective layer of lead suboxide and allowing air oxidation. Aluminous cements and old mortars without free lime are non-corrosive. It is suggested that lead in construction work be protected against these corrosive effects by either a previous bituminous coating or the use of plaster-of-paris or aluminous cement. S. G.

96 16 Metallurgical Abstracts Y ol. 1 On the Question of Corrosion. IV. Nickel, Tin, Zinc, and Alloys. E. Naumann (Gas u. Wasserfach, 1933, 76, ). Cf. J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 193. The behaviour of nickel-plated materials, Monel metal, tinned lead tubes, bronze, red brass, galvanized iron pipes, and brass towards the corrosive action of water is briefly described. B. Bl. Corrosion Phenomena in H ot-w ater Geysers. R. Scherrer (Bull. Assoc. Suisse Elect., 1933, 24, ). Cases of rusting arc frequent in the boilers of geysers where a galvanized iron vessel is employed, whether electrical or gas heating is used. The zinc coating becomes detached, and eventually forms a sediment of basic zinc carbonate. S. considers that attack is the result of the severe working conditions rather than of defective material or poor galvanizing. The hot-galvanizing process and the methods of testing galvanized material are described. The immunity of such boilers in certain neighbourhoods is explained by local differences in the fecdwatcr. Severe attack is caused by the presence of much free oxygen and carbon dioxide in solution. Analyses of 6 typical samples of water are tabulated. The importance of pa value and of temporary hardness is discussed, and certain methods of decalcifying water and of estimating its hardness are described. Illustrations show the special types of attack due to dissolved oxygen. The attack by carbon dioxide is held to be comparatively slight. In the case of galvanized heaters, the presence of chlorides is always harmful. The phenomena of passivation arc briefly discussed, as are the factors influencing the corrosive power of a feed-water. An improved method for estimating corrosion attack is described, with comparative curves for waters of stated hardness. Among alternative materials to galvanized iron and steel, stainless steel and enamelled iron gave results much inferior to tinned copper, which is recommended for general use. P. M. C. R. Salt Effect in Metal Corrosion. R. Podliorsky (Arhiv Hem. Farm., 1933, 7, ( in German); C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5295). It is concluded from experiments with zinc plates and iron wire in sodium chloride that the changes in metal potential are much more important in the establishment of salt effect than the jhanges in solution velocity for oxygen conforming to the Adeney convection currents. Visible protective layers of corrosion products have no influence on the velocity of corrosion of iron and zinc in sodium chloride solution. As the corrosion intensity is not directly proportional to the duration of action, the form of corrosion curve is dependent on the duration of the experiment. S. G. Relative Corrodibility of Some Common Metals and Alloys. Anon. (Metal Progress, 1933, 24, (5), 41). A table of 43 ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys gives, in addition to their approximate compositions, the grade of corrosion-resistance of each to tho following agencies: sea-shore and industrial atmospheres; domestic, mine and sea-water, saline water containing hydrogen sulphide, and wet steam; fruit and vegetable juices, dairy and other food products; hydrochloric, sulphuric, acetic, nitric, and phosphoric acids (moderate concentration 5-1 5% ); alkalis in 1-20% solution and fused; solutions of medium concentration containing ammonium chloride, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulphate; hot sulphite liquor, dye liquor, and crude refinery liquors. In addition the maximum safe temperature (in deg. Fahrenheit) is given for a number of the materials with respect to oxidizing, reducing, and sulphur-rich gases. P. M. C. R. *The Effect of Traces of other Metals on the Rate of Corrosion of Tin by Citric Acid. J. M. Bryan (Dept. Sci. Indust. Res., Rep, Food Investigation Board, 1932, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5296). 2 p.p.m. of iron in solution had no esect but 5 p.p.m. caused a marked increase in tho rate of corrosion of tin by 0-5% citric acid. Copper had less effect than iron. The results show the importance of considering the rate of oxidation of stannous to stannic tin. S. G.

97 1934 IV. Corrosion 1 7 *The Corrosion of Steel and Tinplate by Acids Other than Citric. T. N. i rri^i ; l n^usl- J{es-> J{cP- Pood Investigation Board, 1932, i V 1933, 27, 5295). Tartaric, malic, acetic, and hydrochloric acids; alone or buffered with tlieir own sodium salts or with sodium citrate over the pjr range met with in canned fruits, were similar in action to citric acid. Oxalic acid behaved differently. S. G. *The Corrosion of Various Metals in a 1 Per Cent. Solution of Citric Acid at 7? W ept. Set- Indust. Res., Rep. Food Investigation Board, 1932, 178; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5295). Nickel, cobalt, tin, and Monel metal corrode very much more in the presence of air than in its absence. The effect of air is not noticeable with aluminium and its alloys. Most ehromiummckel alloys (stainless steel) are highly resistant, but, if not, the absenceof air is no protection. Silver is not attacked, but silver and copper in contact accelerate the corrosion of the coppcr. S. G. Injurious Action of Fruit Acids on Metals. W. Lolimann (Mineraluiusser- Fabrikant, 1932, 36, ; Chem. Zentr., 1932, 103, II, 2891; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5835). The yellow coal-tar dye in lemonade is decolorized by contact with tin. Beverages containing lactic acid attack brass, especially in presence of sugar. In a 1% acid solution the metal losses in 10 davs at room temperature (and at ) are for lactic acid 0-52 (1-6), citric acid 0-87 (2-13), tartaric acid 0-86 (1-5), and for acetic acid 0-13 (1-9)%. Further data are given for 20-, 32-, and 40-day periods. S. G. The Chemistry of Cider. V. L. S. Charley (Chem. and Ind., 1933, ). An abstract of a lecture to the Food Group of the Society of Chemical Industry. Apple juice and cider have slight action on tin or aluminium, but attack zinc, lead, and coppcr rapidly. Heavily-tinned copper is generally used for filters, &c., which come into contact with cider for prolonged periods. E. S. H. Some Inhibitors of Acid Corrosion. Emilio Jimeno and Isidro Grifoll (Anales Soc. espaii. Fis. Quim., 1933, 31, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5044). Both hydrogen formation and oxide solution contribute simultaneously to corrosion. Many inhibitors were tested. Their use reduces attack on metals to 0-1 of that without them. Inhibitors can be used hot or cold. Those which readily assume a colloidal, stable form are best. Oily substances are often effective inhibitors, but their aqueous dispersions are unstable. S. G. Action of Sulphur on Certain Metals. Renó Dubrisay (Chim. et Ind., 1933 Special No. (June), ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5705). From a study of the mechanism of the blackening of copper and silver under the effect of sulphur and its compounds, it is concluded that this phenomenon can bo produced by elemental sulphur without the intervention of sulphides. Extremely small traces of sulphur (of the order of mg.) can produce a marked effect on silver. S. G. Chemistry of the Corrosive Action of Ammonium Nitrate. V. Oborin ( Khimstrol, 1933, 5, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5705). [rn Russian.] The corrosion of copper by weak solutions of equal concentrations of ammonia, nitric acid, and ammonium nitrate decreases in the order given. S. G. Power Alcohol and Petrol Mixture. Anon. (Indust. Australian, 1933, 88, ). Two types of corrosion by fuel are distinguished: (1) attack on the metal surfaces of the fuel system; (2) attack on cylinder and on exhaust by acid combustion products. The influence of moisture, of incomplete combustion, and of a change of fuel are briefly considered. P. M. C. R. On the Evolution and Present State of Microphonic Technique. P. Chauasse (Ann. Postes, l'élég. el Teléph., 1933, 22, 9-57). (Section on secondary characteristics, p. 41; effects of moisture.) Moisture enters microphones by absorption from the atmosphere or by condensation from expired air. It causes deterioration in the properties of'the carbon employed, and also attacks C

98 IS Metallurgical A bsfracis V o l. 1 the metallic parts. Alumininm, unless of extreme parity, is especially liable to sn ci attack. Accelerated tests show that effective protection can be given by coating with cellulose varnish or by plating. Nickel-plated brass is found to be especially resistant to corrosion o f this type. P. M. C- R. On the Limiting Current in Anodic Polarization of Metals in Aqueous Solutions. IIL Kurt Schwabe (Z. kliroc.ha>k. 1933, 39, ). The investigation of tie anodic polarization o f metals is continued. The behaviour o f rim- in unsatnrated solutions of zinc chloride, zinc perchlorate, and zinc nitrate, and o l amc in a saturated solution of zinc perchlorate and of silver in a solution of salver perchlorate in water-free propyl alcohol is discussed. (See.K Inst, Jtfdale. 1932, 50, 610, and , 555. j J. H. W. Fatigue Failure Caused by Corrosion. P. Nettmann (Automobfil-ech. Z.. 19SS, SS, ). The mechanism of lubrication is considered from a theoretical viewpoint. The effects of the viscosity of the lubricant, of its dilution with liquid fuel, and of its enralaficataan are discussed. The influence of temneratnre on cvlinder wear is considered, and is illustrated bv a diacram. P~. M. O R. V. PROTECTION (Other than Electrodeposition.) ^Corrosion sad Protection. 'Click R. Evans (Chirru and In d,. 1933, 52, ). A lecture to the Yorkshire Section of the Society of Chemical Industry. Deals in a general way-with corrosion at i i g i and low temperatures, and protection by the use of resistant materials, -water treatment, metallic layers, and paint coats. E. S. H- Ths Praia! Process for the Protection of L icit Alloys. J- Cournot (C%om~ end Jnr/_ 1933, 52, 891 S92). Protection of aluminium by " Protaliring corsists in irt.mersang the object for about 40 minutes in a solution of certain salts at loo'c. Tue sohtrionnsed contains an alkaline salt of a metal capable of forming two oxides, t ie iighet oxide being soluble in alkali and the lower oxide insoluble. Reduction occurs and the lower, insoluble oxide becomes attached as a protective film to tbc aluminium. liberation of gas occurs at the end of t ie process. It is usual to impregnate t i c film with an appropriate finish. E. S. H- * Anodic Filins ot Alcnsinimn and Their Applications. Shoji Setoh and Akira Miyata (.7. Elertrorhrm. A m * - (Japan), 193S, 1,15-24; C. A ls ,27, 4742), Tin Japanese.] Thick and t-ongi films were obtained with an oxalic acid hath. The thickness of tie active layer is proportional to t ie voltage. The layer is subjected to an electric stress of t i c order of 10»to 10*v. /cm.8and to a pressure of 30s to 104 atm, A concentrated solution lowers the energy c o n s u m p t io n r,;, Superposdtion oia.c, on d.c, preventsthealuminiumfrom pitting during electrolysis. Thick, porous films are treated with iigi-pressure stesan i or a few minutes to make them waterproof and more eorrosaon-tesistant than by ordinary impregnat ing or painting. S. <5. T ie K 2.T. Surface Treatment for Aluminium and Its ABovs. G. Eckert ; Fouiid. Trad,, S1-4S2, and MorMnist {Eur, , 553e>. Abstracts of a pamphlet published by t i e British Aluminium C o- Ltd., ot. tlvem J>.Y. process for improving t ie corrosion-resisranee of aluminium and its copner-iree aiiovs, being a translation of a paper bv E. See J. IrmL Heia!* ,4 s l, and also S. S4, 44Ä. J. H. AY. Kew English Ga!vsm äagprocess [Crape], Bauer, hrai.t- Tfeli, , :. A rece-nvh-parentcd development of t he Crapo process of galvanising

99 193 i V. Protection 19 wires, Ac., involves annealing and surface chemical treatment prior to galvanizing. Strong smooth uniform coatings arc obtained with lower working costs than with the older methods. The wire is first drawn through a lead bath maintained at 800 C. and provided with a fused salt cover (10% sodium cyanide, 35% sodium carbonate, 55% sodium chloride), and then through hydrochloric acid, wash water, and neutralizing baths before it enters the zinc bath maintained at C. This process W'as developed by W. H. 1 otter, an Englishman. The process of the American Crapo which has also been patented is similar in general principle and in the claims made for it, but a bath of fused salts(60 / NaCN, 20% N a2c 03, and 20% sodium chloride) maintamed at 6o0-700 C. and covered with a thin layer of coke, is used. A. B. W. i n i 1 o SmaU Iron Articles and the Like Beisel (Draht-Welt, U i i, 26, 19-21;; and (m German, English, and French) Draht-Welt Export Ausgabe,' 1933, (4), 25-31). Describes in detail all the operations essential to the efficient hot-galvanizing of small articles degreasing, descaling, fluxing drying preheating, and the final dip and drain. The use of a centrifugal machine to enable thorough removal of superfluous zinc is also explained. It is claimed that small articles can often be coated advantageously with a metal- Spraying pistol operating in a rotating drum. Two examples of cementation processes are also given with all essential practical data. A. B. W. Testing Zinc Coatings on Galvanized Wires. Anon. (Draht-Welt, 1933, 26, I6 ).-T h e need for a simple, easily applied test of zinc coatings has led the British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association to consider the whole problem. Complicated methods necessitating the resources of a laboratorv or costly apparatus must be ruled out. Although the copper sulphate dip process has definite limitations, it is widely known amongst producers and users and has long been employed by them. There is also the bend test; for soft wires round an 8-diameters mandrel and for hard quality round a 4- diameters mandrel. The copper dip test may also be advantageously applied following a bending test to determine whether the coating has cracked or not. If these tests w'ere standardized and recommended procedures defined the needs of the trade would be satisfactorily met. A. B. W. The Electro Coppering of Galvanized iron Sheets. A. Wogrinz (Kail-)Yah- 1Veit (Monthly Suppt. to Draht-Welt), 1933, (5), 38-39). A brief discussion of the technical and economic requirements for plating 2 m. x 1 m. galvanized iron sheets on one side only. The copper is deposited from a cvanide bath at 30 C. with a currcnt density of 0-5 amp./dm.2, 30 minutes plating usuallv being sufficient. A. B. W. Metallizing Process. Anon. (Indust. Finishing, 1933, 9,30-33). A general review of the process, including a table showing standard wire size, pressures of acetylene, oxygen, and air, speed of wire, thickness of coat, and weight in lb. of metal sprayed per hr. for lead, tin, zinc, aluminium, copper, brass, phosphorbronze, nickel-brass, and Monel metal. E. S. H. Application and Economics of the Process of Metal Spraying. Chas Stipp ( Welding Eng , 18, (3), 12-14, and (abstract) Indust. Gases, 1933, 14, 82). After a brief description of the process and its technique, various applications are discussed. These include the spraying of aluminium in combustion chambers of high-compression internal-combustion engines, corrosion protection in chemical, dairy and food-production plant, renewing the zinc coating on welded galvanized sheet, salvaging of castings building-up worn parts, and ornamental work. H. W. G. H. The Protection of Aluminium and Its Alloys by Paints and Varnishes. H. Rabate (Rev. Aluminium, 1933,10, ). The protection of aluminium and its alloys by painting and varnishing is fully described as follows : ( 1) preparation of the metal surfaces before the application, (a) for electrolytic coating, (6) before painting; (2) different types of protective coatings, (a) oxidation,

100 2 0 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. 1 including anodic oxidation, modification of anodic oxidation, chemical oxidation and bronzing, (b) electrolytic protection with cadmium, zinc, nickel, copper, chromium, or cobalt, (c) Schoop metallization ; (3) types of varnish and paint protectors; (4) other types of coating, such as fats and phenol. -J. H. W. Painting Galvanized Iron and Sheet Zinc. E. Perry (Indust. Finishing, 1933, 9, 11-12). It is recommended to clean the surface with a solution containing 30 grm. of dry sodium phosphate and 4 grm. of sodium hydroxide in 200 grm. of water at Î F. ( C.) and then to etch by immersing for 30 seconds at room temperature in a solution of 20 grm. ammonium nitrate and 200 grm. commercial hydrochloric acid in 1000 grm. of water. Portland ecment paint acts as a good primer, especially when the material has to undergo considerable temperature variations, as in the linings of refrigerators. E l S. H. VI.-ELECTRODEPOSITION A New Stripping Test for Cadmium Coatings. Gustaf Soderberg (Metal Cleaning and Finishing, 1933, 5, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27,5251). A discussion of the factors affecting the distribution of electroplated cadmium and an outline of a new stripping method by which the minimum thickness as well as the actual thickness of the plate at any one point may be determined. S. G. TJdylite Develops New Test Method for Cadmium. Anon. (Platers' Guide, 1933, 29, ( 10), 11-12). Briefly describes a new stripping test for determining the thickness of deplated cadmium coatings. J. H. W. Matt Chromium Plating. Herbert Ivurrein (Metallwaren-Ind. u. Galvano- Tech., 1933, 31, ). A matt finish on chromium-plated brass or steel may be obtained by (a) treating in the usual way to obtain first a copper, then a nickel plate of high lustre, matting the latter plate by sand-blasting or pickling, and applying an outer coat of chromium; (6) sand-blasting the original material before any plating, or (c) roughening the original surface with emery before plating. Mstt chromium finishes produced by method (a) are generally the best and most resistant to corrosion. A. R. P. The Production of Hard Chromium Plate. Arthur Willink (Metal Cleaning and Finishing, 1933, 5, ; C..-16s., 1933, 27, 5649). Important factors which influence the wear-resistance of chromium plate are discussed. S. G. Chromium Plating in the Cold. L. Richard (Galvano, 1933, (19), 18-20). Practical notes are given on chromium-plating baths maintained at 15 C., including a discussion of the composition of the bath, temperature, size, and d is p o s it io n of anodes, regulation of current density, and mode of suspension, drying, and polishing of the objects. E. Si H. " Some Notes on Chromium Plating. Lucien Richard (Galvano, 1933, (17), 22-23, (18), 21-22). Practical notes, based on answers to correspondents, are discussed briefly. E. S. H. Chromium Plating on Zinc. 31. de Kay Thompson and F. C. Jelen (Trans. Eltctrochem. Soc., 1933, 63, ; discussion, 148). For abstract of the paper see J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 27. In the discussion E. Anderson stated that outdoor exposure tests indicated that a single nickel coating was more protective than a composite copper-nickel coating.- A. R. P. Utility o Chromium Plating in Calico Printing. John B. Dick (Amer. Dyestuff Reporter, 1933, 22, ; C. Abs , 27, 3S26). The advantages of chromium plating are enumerated. Means of plating copper rolls are described. S. G. Chromium Plating. A New Portable Equipment for the Electrodeposition of Metals. Anon. (Chem. and Ind., 1933, 52, ). A portable plating apparatus, allowing metal parts to be electro-plated in situ, is described. E. H.

101 1934 V I. Electrodeposition 2 1 Chromium Plating o Small Tools and Mandrels with a View to Increasing their Resistance to Wear. Anon. (, 1933, (18), 23-20, (19), 24-26). Translated from Machinery (Land.), 1932, 40, See./. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 88. E. S. H. A Cyanide-Free Bath for the Deposition of Copper on Steel. Colin G. Fink and Chaak Y. Wong (Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1933, 63, 05-72; discussion, 72-73; also (abstracts) Met. Ind. (I.ond-.), 1933, 43, 110; and Daily Metal Reporter, 1933,33, (92), 11). Forabstractof the paper,see J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 252. In the discussion Raymond It. Rogers stated that chromium can bo deposited on copper plated from oxalate baths without danger of peeling. Leonard Shcpley stated that cyanide baths have certain advantages over oxalate baths, and considered that their toxicity and comparative instability are not serious drawbacks; in reply Colin G. Fink stated that cyanide baths are really suitable only for flashing, and that oxalate baths have tho advantage of being much chcaper, less toxic, and more stable than cyanide baths, have a throwing power equal to that of sulphate baths and require little attention in use. A. R. P. Nickel Plating of Fabricated Zine in a Barrel. Albert Hirsch (Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1933,63, ; discussion ; also Metal Cleaning and Finishing, 1933, 5, ; and Iron Age, 1933,131, 991). For abstract of the paper sec J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53,312. In the discussion E. A. Anderson expressed the opinion that an intermediate copper coating is undesirable and that nickel plating from a solution of pa 8 will give an extremely hard nickel deposit which will almost certainly contain numerous cracks if it is built up to any great thickness; ho considered a minimum thickness of in. of nickel necessary, and this would require 2 hrs. plating in H. s solution. Charles II. Eldridge considered a minimum thickness of in. of nickel necessary in the absence of a copper intermediate coating. A. R. P. Nickel Plating in the Barrel and the Treatment of Small Parts. Anon. (Galvano, 1933, (19), 14-17). A description of existing practice. E. S. H. Electrolytic Deposition of Platinum on Copper. Shao-Tze Leo and Tsing- Nang Slien (Sci. Quart. Nat. Univ. Peking, 1931, 3, 7-19; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5650). Copper dishes are plated from a phosphate bath with a current density of 0-75 amp./dm.2 at 45 C. They have been successfully used as a substitute for platinum ware in evaporating hydrofluoric acid mixtures. Tho platinum deposit loosened, however, on being heated to high temperatures. S. G. Rhodium Plating. Colin G. Fink and George C. Lambros (Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1933, 63, ; discussion, 186). For abstract of the paper see J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 447. In the discussion W. L. Mancher said that tho reflectivity of rhodium in the range A. is 50-56%, C. G. F. said tho U.S. Bureau of Standards figure for molted rhodium was 45%, and A. H. Taylor stated that 3 samples of rhodium plate from different baths gave reflectivities of 66, 70, and 78%, respectively; the best deposit consisting of 1 mg. of rhodium per in.2 on an undercoat of nickel. C. G. F. stated that rhodium reflectors were used for searchlight and cinema mirrors in the U.S.A A. R. Pi ' A Study of Cyanide Zinc Plating Baths Using the Aluminium-Mercury-Zinc Anode. A. Kenneth Graham (Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1933, 63, ; discussion, 133). For abstract of the paper see J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53,313. In the discussion U. C. Tainton suggested that the cause of the anode sludge obtained by G. was the 0-07% of impurity in the zinc, and stated that zinc of 99-99% purity was now readily obtainable. In reply A. K. G. stated that the uso of this latter type of zinc in the alloy anodes gave no better results than when 99-93% zinc was used. A. R. P.

102 2 2 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. i The Electrolytic Finishing of Die-Cast Metal Rossler (Wcrkstatl u. Betrieb, 1D33, 66, ). The formation of a poorly adhesive or blistered coating is attributed to incorrect treatment rather than to the unsuitability for plating of zinc, tin, or aluminium die-castings. Tin, having little tendency to oxidize, presents the least difficulty, but efficient deoxidation and degreasing are neccssary for all three materials. A coating of copper or brass is found to improve the quality of subsequent nickel-plating. Special precautions are indicated for each type of material. P. M. C. R. The Electroplating of Wires. H. Berlet (Draht-Welt, 1933, 26, ). A simple mathematical investigation of the relationships obtaining between the various factors involved in the continuous plating of wires. If M weight of wire plated in k g.; t = time of plating in hours; D = density of wire material; r = wire radius in m m.; L = length immersed in metres; v = wire velocity in metre/see.; Q = weight of metal in grm. deposited per kg. of wire;.4 = electrochemical equivalent of metal deposited in grm./coulomb; B = current efficiency (fractional); J current in amps. Then M = 3-6i. v. r 2. n. D, L = 5 MQ B. A. t. C. n. r, and J M. Q B. A. t Discretion must, of course, be exercised in subdividing the immersed length (L) found according to the ability of the wire to carry the current (J). A. B. W. Electrodeposition of Metals and Alloys from Formamide Solutions. R. D. Blue and F. 0. Mathers (Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1933, 63, ). See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 511. S. G. The Heating of Electrolytic Baths in Winter. Anon. (Oalvano, 1933, (18), 15-16). Electrical heating is recommended. E. S. H. The Application of X-Rays in the Field of Electrodeposition. N. Promisel (Met. Ind. (Lond.), 1933, 43, ). The work of earlier experimenters on the X-ray analysis of electrodeposits is summarized and the reasons for the preferential orientation of the deposits normal to certain crystallographic planes, characteristic of the metal concerned, are discussed. These directions depend on the nature of the metal deposited and the nature of the plating solutions and conditions of deposition. The influence of the crystal arrangement on the reflectivity, and the work of Roux and Cournot and Stillwell and Stout on the deposition of alloys are discussed. X-ray analysis yields a large range of information on the nature of electrodeposits, and this information can be applied to studies of the adherence and physical properties of the deposits, of the effect of addition agents and of anions on their nature, and of the structure of dull, bright, and burnt deposits. J. H. W. The Removal of Cyanide from Plating-Room Wastes. E. P. Eldridgo (Mich. Eng. Ex per. Sta. Bull. No. 52, 1933, 1-20; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4741). Dilute cyanide waste from plating rooms was treated by several methods in an effort to remove the toxicity. (1) KCN treated with Cl2 yields CNC1, which appears to be nearly as toxic as the KCN. (2) Fe++ and Fe+ + + salts were used in an effort to precipitate prussian blue. After precipitation the solution was toxic. (3) KCN was oxidized by KM ii04 in alkali solution to KOCN with the precipitation of M n(0h)4. After oxidation the clear supernatant liquid when diluted 1-1 with water was not toxic to fish. High concentration of M n(0h )4 sludge was toxic. (4) KCN, on addition of acid, is converted to HCN which can be removed by aeration. When the pn was maintained at about 5 in a solution containing initially p.p.m. KCN, the HCN was completely removed in 8-16 hrs. The aerated liquid when diluted 1-1 was not toxic to the fish. S. G.

103 1934 V II. Electrometallurgy and Electrochemistry 2 3 VII. ELECTROMETALLURGY AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY (Other than Electrodeposition and Electro-Refining.) *Preparation and Electrolysis of Aluminium Sulphide. Paul Roentgen and Heinz Borchers (Metdllwirtscliaft, 1933,12, ). Crude aluminium reacts vigorously with iron sulphide forming aluminium sulphide containing only about 1'5% alumina, 0-2% silicon, and 0-01% iron, the greater part of the impurities in the aluminium being absorbed by the iron. Sodium chloride may be added to the reaction mixture to prevent oxidation. Aluminium sulphide can be electrolyzed at 700 C. in fused chloride or fluoride electrolytes without difficulty to give pure aluminium; the decomposition voltage is about 1 volt less than that of the alumina-cryolitc bath, the current yield is very high, and the carbon anodes are unattackcd by the sulphur. v. G. Critical Voltage Phenomena at the Critical Current Density in the Deposition o! Spongy Copper, and Microscopic Examination of these Deposits. Keinosuke Hirakoso (J. Electrochem. Soc. (Japan), 1933, 1, 61-68). [In Japanese.] S. G. Electrothermic Preparation of Cupro-Silicon. V. Verigin (Zvetnye Melally (The Non-Ferrous Metals), 1932, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4176). [In Russian.] The alloy, prepared in tho electric furnace, contained silicon 58, copper 40, and iron about 1%, and possessed good physical and chemical properties. Tho semi-commercial process was made continuous. S. G. Electrolytic Production of Metallic Lithium. N. A. Isgarischev and S. A. Pletnev (Zvetnye Metally (The Non-Ferrous Metals), 1932, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4175). [In Russian.] Fused lithium chloride plus potassium chloride (1 : 1) was electrolyzed in a magnesium silicate-lincd iron cell with graphite anode and iron cathode. The output of the cells was 1 kg./day lithium at 225 amp. and 17 v., or 75 lithium. Efficiency was about 85%. Tho lithium analyzed potassium 0-23, magnesium 0-19, and sodium 0-5%. The sodium was an impurity in the potassium chloride used. The magnesium came from the lining. S. G. Choice of an Electrolytic Method for the Preparation of Metallic Magnesium. I. G. Scherbakov (Tech. Urals, 1931, 7, (5/6), 12-16; Chem. Zentr., 1932, 103, I, 2075; C. /16s., 1933, 27, 5649). [In Russian.] Tho comparative advantages and disadvantages of the methods for the electrolytic preparation of magnesium are discussed: ( 1) magnesium oxido and fluoride; (2) magnesium chloride; (3) magnesium chloride and carnallite; (4) carnallite. S. G. Electrolytic Parting of the Noble Metals. Fr. Vogel (Russko-Germanski VestnickNauk i Tech., 1932, (11/12), 21-2S; Chem. Zentr., 1932,103, II, 2519; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5649). Prom a critical consideration of the methods of separation of gold and silver, V. concludes that the most satisfactory process is to fuse a poor gold-silver alloy with a rich silver alloy, i.e. increase the silver content. The Siemens and Halske process for electrolytic refining of silver is better than that of Dietzel. S. G. fon the Theory of the Cathodic Evolution of Hydrogen. J. Hockstra. M. Volmer (Z. physikal. Chem., 1933, [A], 166, 76-79, 80). A critical discussion of Volmer s work oil hydrogen overvoltage and V. s reply to the criticisms. B. Bl. Note on the Theory of Hydrogen Overvoltage. 0. Essin (Z. physikal. Chem., 1933, [A], 166, ).- The theory of Erdey-Griiz and Volmer explains the effect of hydrogen-ion concentration on overvoltage if the rate of the opposed reaction is taken into consideration. B. Bl.

104 2 4 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. 1 The Theory of Passivity. XX. The Passivity of Nickel. W. J. Miillcr and E. Löwe (Z. Eleklrochem., 1933, 39, ). Georgi s criticism (see J. Inst. Metals, 1933,53,338) of M. s film theory (Boleckungstheorie) of passivity is shown to rest on a misconception of that theory, and it is claimed that Georgi s experimental results can be completely explained by this theory. Von Foerster s explanation of passivity (see J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 131), namely that the potential displacement of the nickcl depends on the retardation of the solution of the nickel, is based on current density and strength curves without consideration of the time factor. His hypothesis is contrary to the fundamental law that the chargcd hydrogen ions on the anode are repelled according to Coulomb s law and therefore cannot come into the reaction zone of the anode. Experimental results showed, in conformity with M. s theory, that a depression of the nickel potential is accompanied by an increase in porosity. J. H. W. The Theory of Passivity. XXI. Film or Absorption Theory. W. J. Miillcr (Z. Eleklrochem., 1933, 39, ). M. replies to the criticisms of E. Müller and Kurt Schwabe. See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 555, and preceding and following abstracts. J. H. W. The Theory of Passivity. Erich Müller and Kurt Schwabe (Z. Eleklrochem., 1933, 39, 884). Reply to W. J. Müllcr s criticism (preceding abstract). J. H. W. *On the Potential Difference between Copper and Its Amalgam, and the Reproducibility of the Copper Electrode. Mitzugu Oku (Sei. Rep. T6hoku Imp. Univ., 1933, [i], 22, 2S8-300). [In English.] A standard copper electrode is prepared by electrolyzing a copper sulphate solution containing sulphuric acid, using a high current density and a platinum cathode. The deposited copper is preserved in the electrolyte, with occasional shaking to remove occluded hydrogen. Atmospheric oxidation should be avoided. Good results can be obtained with copper, reduced from cupric oxide by hydrogen at 500 C., which is stored in coppcr sulphate solution containing sulphuric acid. The p.d. between the standard copper electrode and the amalgam is given by '208 = ± , dejdt = volt/degree (i = 0-35 C.). E. S. H. *0n the Law of Mass Action with Concentrated Non-Ideal Solutions. F. Sauerwald and F. Neubert (Metallwirtschaft, 1933, 12, ). Since the quotient of the activity coeff. is either equal to unity or a constant it can be concluded that the mass action law, referred to the concentration of the components, is apparently valid for concentrated solutions. Measurements of the equilibria in the reaction PbCl2 + Sn = Pb + SnCL, are given as examples. v. G. Cathodic Films in Electrolytic Condensers. Frank W. Godsey, Jr. (Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1933,63, ). See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53,256. S. G. V III.-R E F IN IN G (Including Electro-Refining.) Refining Lead by Chlorination. F. M. Loskutov (Zvetnye Metalhj (The Non- Ferrous Metals), 1932, (9), 87-98; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5693). [In Russian.] Chlorination was compared with fire-refining of lead. In the conditions at the works where the experiments were carried out the chlorination process showed little superiority, but it is hoped that some improvements suggested will increase greatly the advantages of the chlorination process. S. G.

105 1934 I X. Analysis 2 5 IX. ANALYSIS Electrolytic Analysis of Bronze and Brass. W. J. Ugniatchev (Zhurnal Obschtchey Khimii (Journal of General Chemistry), 1933, 3, ). [In Russian.] Difficulties encountered in the electrolytic analysis of bronze and brass are reviewed and a combined electrolytic and chemical method of analysis is described in detail. Cu and Pb are first determined electrolytically m Hi\Oi solution, the Ni is removed from the solution with dimcthvlglyoxime, and the filtrate used for the electrolytic determination of Zn. P is determined by the molybdate method as usual. Sn is determined by dissolving in H 20 2(), the metastannic acid produced by treatment of the alloy with UNO, and electrolyzing the solution. M.,Z. Assay of Refined Electrolytic Gold. I. A. Kadaner (Zvetnye Metally (The Non-Ferrous Metals), 1932, 7, ; Chim. et Ind., 1933, 30, 1 0 1; C. Abs., 27, 5272). [In Russian.] Dissolve 10 grm. on the sand bath Avith 18 c.c. HIS03 (d 1-4) and 36 c.c. HC1, let cool, add 3 vol. distilled H20 ; if the sample contains Ag even in very small quantities the solution becomes turbid because of precipitation of AgCl, allow to settle, warm slightly, filter and weigh. S. G. A n a ly s is of Bearing Metal. F. Schwarz (Bid. facultalii stiinte Cemauti, 1933, 6, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4754). A modification of the Treadwell method for the analysis of bearing metals is given. By use of the original method, it was found that Sn was lost in large amounts as SnCl4, when highlead alloys were dissolved by aqua regia on the water bath, and that a loss also occurred when the alcoholic filtrate from the Pb determination was evaporated to dryness. This difficulty was overcome by dissolving the sample in a tall beaker with cover and keeping the temperature between 60 and 70 C. on a Costeanu bath. The alcoholic filtrate was evaporated at the same temperaturo from this bath; a conical porcelain dish was used to help to obviate creeping. With these modifications, the method gave correct results. S. G. Analysis of Babbitt Metal by a Volumetric Method. E. S. Gavrilenko and V. S. Kobzarenko (Naulc. Zapiski Tzukrotoi Promishlenosti, 1933, 10, (29/30), 27-32; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5678). [In Russian.] Dissolve grm. of alloy in 10 c.c. of concentrated H2S04 and boil for 5-7 minutes after the metal has dissolved. Dilute with 50 c.c. of water, add 20 c.c. of concentrated HC1, boil for 5 minutes, add 150 c.c. of cold water and 5 c.c. of saturated MnS04 solution. Titrate the cold solution with KM n04 to determine Sb. Reduce the Sn in the filtrate by heating with Fe in a stream of C 02 and titrate the resulting Sn+ + with I2 solution. To determine Pb, take a fresh portion of alloy and treat 0-5 grm. with 3-5 c.c. of water and c.c. of concentrated HNOa. Evaporate to dryness, digest the residue with 15 c.c. of 5AT-H N 0, and filter off the oxides of Sn and Sb. \\ ash with 1% NH4N 0 3 solution, evaporate to about 100 c.c., neutralize with NH4OH and precipitate the Pb as oxalate. Titrate the precipitate with KM n04 in the usual manner. In the filtrate from the PbC20 4 determine Cu iodometrically after evaporating to about 75 c.c. and properly neutralizing. S. G. Spectrographic Investigations of Technical and Very Pure Metals. I. Zinc. Walther Gerlach and E. Riedl (Metallwirtschaft, 1933, 12, ). Methods of exciting spectra are critically reviewed. The most suitable method depends on the nature of the problem in hand. In zinc, lead is best detected by the lino A., cadmium by the line 2288 A. or by the lino 3611 A. in the longer wave ultra-violet region. The sensitivity of the test is 10~ % for Pb, 10 5 % for Cu, lo' 4 % for Cd, and 10~3 % for Fe. Very pure ( %) New Jersey zinc contains Cu and Pb but no Cd or Ag. In testing Zn the condensed spark is unsuitable; the interrupted arc discharge should bo used. Qualitative analyses of various kinds of zinc are given. v. G.

106 -,v MtftâurgUaS A hslrjds Y i_ 1 XiiCijîiùî ä SltenriaŁl -t.r..ysá inr Timr H e e ł B- ZnŁinsa? ztâ 3Ł 3. i\-«v"r.jí'ssrnr Jt :iubv T't-r S rm-ffrrmg J[fÿaU\ W S 2H-SKS; -i". _í :<s_ BRS8, istsł w t; n ÄnsÄBLj A dioadłsd dcscépana ïs ęirea eá aasalhidi aa»â äu ïhcv çwk» «nir piwn*» S. -G, 55» iotis iiôw : rwasànn zi Tmulnnm- D s r r à Basas i l 'jn fí-jiid,iji, '.SUS*.2Ł, -î- > KV- ' Plu' anw;îj-i;: k-rp-inas -an tâh& î œ ftfflcurr desetojkifl 5nr sswsing vo t\ acôur'irms n til C/jBj-XBj-BCL A. 3Ł. P. ttàflcànafiâe Staarnfmtains : Ahariröcrn. F- Jüsea. H.. ~fidizil ii H. Uvcnunm Jiom.. îisx. -Sîi, 88*- S8).- IRiî m a io d :3roanâs «m: lâii* jmtlinroäbspil wnrr.vtun;: 7as«SubkI } y wicpenç thr A3 imngrannfi en j^lyâscgtç liinniint -v.itóh Æiwiœi74wi jtóriiikrrsí- *tàà in Ä S «hnäon n3 œüfing XsC-B In w e». fffe-abitesigasaawl farm M ç,cvx XL *nä 2 a î y ïratâng - r ó ł 'CS., S*, wit Siani 3*í' Öjy SsSfiijg t o í í #5y- í& í)h 5 St «lis n jw ^ á t t s a í fesnn -rhr:«- JMOTär Mlüi! wfltnami B yaifliíttnnn JfF SJłmftimigigiiiłirifiTw» ^_ Ji. _ rifiwrmnijonr a Sjsm ish an öopjtsr It SÿBBfcail AtílL^s. $. A. iattmûâs dprtttli T^mawtffo lnâfâonaisisaifftt ÿvèshâu MeZnüiÿpi î üct - i b m t à r i i i i l i ( S ' m K?» sí. X J i n Z. S ł c u r i c n ' : t a t u n - r»s.s J Ł X a.. SSSŁ ísjt- K?.- '-s- SS8, '?, :' Sí \. jlr. T; íissa«.. -vzih.btauri ammnsayj A sbos t n: T^-nüfiæjïœâiiî) łwpwaon ï3w3fç f i ílhr jitawsatepc dl 35 5a ioc*ai3dh"5abśpr ii: ;.!i; S sr>.-;-:-.' Ihws S. J u*:. X m k. IjiSiX'-SS, S5.* V. S. v.. VÄtmusrir r»ptnrniinbika re S t a n s h > CSyriJicifiL IE. JEgng- 'issr. -KT», t. *. T h r 7n;<a33s tkvstu tasps j u I S C 'i î ä t tü it nsnł] vcí'v a t ó :iłw T J r K i t ń i T w s - '^ «^ ^» á 3 í t í H 'S f 'j ; sfjmàîn: * lâuœ Ta«WÆt3 Vi'ii.h feu î.v.-«s5 îc O -lx 'J t ó v í'» M iá VJtf íscksf xiracoc irtrhjch C25S. A..$ L $. ítoncítíttitíáiai ni îs✠ïcir. ±t 2ina. K. ' >iï w ít. S r-tw?.v u-.î-i { Fur -r; i'..< î«^ :m,s r,3 B 7 s C -5 in» fflá B ia Tjtf 3wa:hAÜ. «ssrnnsiîîÿs wtnsös?^ srçusrkxkm faim«dh(âo&vé' TÎif-satBgîfe. ai ui 'w.iî.h i )>r ísk«fías-í 2r. feâ,». î :';n rôtihecàiron:the j,r ir. Miiin/iniít.'iC. srü w iir..' x łti«kns. «*í S *  T jk CS '.^. :..:i : 3k sa V f!:?í.1'. )>ni: :.')<: 7«viítí3í*í^5 >y Ä.X ÜV7««tÍT0!3 í :í- 3ssn>» «iñ í.hr 4WT<tn«MiiKs>»í *.->>! ía ít. ftlküwííj^sví. 0?w, c s x n z i i» «a "hr ia & h 3? I, Îi* '?hí- ;,h;. ;> 'c.i'ji.jt. hf» >; 1,- v-xllc Jiniiif : '- i;-!.. '.'OWÍ.TSS ;;-f V ' ÍC'. ;. fafií.,;? %- í - í i KUL frnir, w M ï l %. -js»*si*- ü.:-,:«.».. ;> j.w.., j,.;: nvv T i«áwwofe-íc TJ«TtHńtótm- «n?.!>.' ;. a: síw ísks««; i ht nv&^h, <..!. jo. úr,. T.v IPö. ti. A s, Sr.. í<. K» âfswihisî; -Ñ lí. T'Ánanwr.-».- ^ « fetírtr. í A üaiü 5? K w a s ít o r í i c s & ü jih a «' b u c 2^ötSäSin!l. :. :.!.. N :c j si,-.,.'. h,-««..afuîhn. J-,.; '. ;'!> /. s.'.» S.'., s ' ir ; 1 < =- (';,\xs \. : ; vrv. TsSù^ î- i-ij-wns;.suitnii-mni. ft-ir-!. '!>. > '. >>.... '.'<v tii Mit; ;.w M w «iü i» iî X.^.ïv.X ir. / V jw «ti* fe śi: «de 'S» 5fc. 3X S t e B ^ tt r J'jW-': Tïtf ^SBírminis-üítr, <x Stufil;.VmMtnis «: ônrmsniihr.- iła -ra u....::«!!! '<...: N-... 'î f i S S, ^ <.<.S.'i, ü w j'j^ s jn n,'3 5 R i. o.; :;tu'»tpí»?s,v..'. X íf.ií-. í.^.ííi.íó i't. ^r.' «is»tî5sinn!.. 2\t s,u ; ;.^ : h; (!nf <!». nr,>!u.v>.í.. -.h* Äks: M,-l n.i, 'ni».f,: (C i» ; -j^sîwirtrsu-. í«n l;.irii îtni ; fu àîuînt C>*. ^ftn-,»i!-«vfc. *i}v>!>i S!K i%: crt-rmihuum w w t*jmi Ü w cr4&»«;. i ihm> 4M>W (K-î Ô ^ h b ^ â ltk '.íwtwtt>««tftésp:jtïeâaes2 -ïm» ü i!-sa sitra i : tism ' «í k * t\ iv n w./. irv- i-t '-X, ft $. SlMnscitsaäati 'jjj- 'Í5s»his'% 'Rft 0*É. y>. ünií\hlji- isssäsäqß, JrviSTt^}*. L&ksfiT&Z%i JUlŚfłrfrfas-Ą i/ : -fô&bfiwtt -C?h#Sk~ í.cr,-.. -l^ä. 4-3^.-- i*. -.:- r; i>-j>ís;7+n/ 'n^í" íi-v^t-hív. nr^vi^i^v, xfc.

107 1934 X. Laboratory Apparatus, Instruments, &c. 2 7 scribed (J. Inst. Melals, 1933, 53, 321) is shown to be more rapid than other procedures for the determination of Mo or Pb. M. Z. A New Volumetric Determination o! Niobium in the Presence of Tantalum Victor Schwarz (Awjcw. Chew., 1933, 46, ). The mixed oxides arc fused with KHSOj, the fused cake is leached with concentrated 11,80.,, and the solution poured into dilute H2S04 containing 5 grm. of tartaric acid. The solution is then shaken in a bulb-shaped stoppered funnel with 3% Zn amalgam in a current of C 02 for 1 hr., whereby complete reduction of Nb20 6 to Nb20 3 is stated to occur. The dark-coloured liquid is treated with an excess of FeCI, and the excess is titrated with TiCl3 using KCNS as indicator. A. R. P. Influence of Iron and Aluminium on the Accuracy of Determination of Tin in Copper-Zinc Alloys. M. I. Shubin (Zavodskaya Lab., 1933, (1), 25-33; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5076). [In Russian.] At 1% Sn absorption of Fe raises the result 0-05% for 0-2% Fe, % for 1-3% Fe, and % for 1-4% Al. S. G. Determination of Tin in Babbitt Metal by Reduction with Zinc. A. A. Botchvar and A. M. Potapova (Zvetnye M(tally (The Non-Ferrous Metals), 1932, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 3895). [In Russian.] Dissolve a grm. sample in 30 c.c. HC1 (d 1-2) with a small quantity of KC103 (0-5-1 grm.). Boil for 10 minutes to remove Cl2, add 3 grm. Zn, boiffor minutes until all Zn is dissolved, and then 1-2 minutes more to ensure the complete solution of the Sn. Remove from the flame, introduce a small piece of coarse-graincd marble, cool rapidly under tap-watcr without shaking, and titrato with I2. S. G. Determination of Small Quantities of Zinc in Aluminium. M. I. Shubin (Zvetnye Metally (The Non-Ferrous Metals), 1932, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 3681). [In Russian.] Dissolve 5-10 grm. of metal in c.c. of 20% NaOH solution. Dilute to c.c. and filter. To the filtrato add c.c. of 20% NaOH solution which has been saturated with H 2S. Boil and filter off the insoluble sulphides. Discard the filtrate. Dissolve the precipitate in c.c. of 6A7-H2S04, boil to remove H2S and oxidize with H20. Hake the solution slightly basic by adding NH<OH, boil oil excess N H 3 and filter after adding 1-2 c.c. of 25% N If3 solution. To the filtrate add 4-5 c.c. more of the strong NH 3 solution and electrolyze. S. G. frapid Methods for the Determination of Zinc in Galvanized Iron. E. Azzarello, A. Accardo, and A. Scalzi (liiv. tec. ferrovie Hal., 1033, 43, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5677). The methods for examining galvanized metals arc reviewed and a bibliography is appended. Two methods for determining total Zn are modified as follows : (/l j Treat the sample of galvanized Fo (in a special apparatus) with dilute H 2S04 and measure the volume of Ha evolved. Titrate the Fe+ + in the solution with I0 1n 04. (B) Plunge the sample into dilute H,S 0 4for seconds, whereby the greater part of the zinc is dissolved with relatively little Fo. Electrolyze the solution for Zn, using as anodo the material undissolved by the dilute H2SO., and as cathode Pt gauze. S. G. X.-L A B O R A T O R Y APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTS, &c. (See also Testing and Temperature Measurement and Control. ) A New Differential Dilatometer. Otakar Quadrat and Rudolf Pospisil (Chim. et Ind., 1933, Special No. (June), ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5582). A detailed description is given of the construction, operation; and application to the calculation of the true expansion coell. of an optical dilatometer, in which the defects of previously proposed instruments have been eliminated. S. G.

108 2 8 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. 1 The Thermal Expansions of Certain Crystals with Layer Lattices. Helen D. Megaw (Proc. Hoy. Soc., 1933, [A], 142, ). Apparatus for the X-ray measurement of the expansion of crystals between 0 and 100 C., with possible extension down to the tempcraiure of liquid air, is described. J. T. - A Simple Universal Camera for Röntgen Crystal Structure Analysis. E. tauter (Z. Krisi., 1933, So, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 3643). A new tvpe of camera is described in which the film may be in the form of a sheet, cone, or cylinder. The apparatus is particularly useful in investigations in the field of X-ray studies of metals. S. G. *The Dependence of the Focussing Effect Associated with the Use of Bent Crystals in X-Ray Spectroscopy on the Bending Mechanism of the Crystal. Erik Carlsson (Z. Physik, 1933, 84, SOI S10). The focussing effect associated with the nse of a crystal bent into the form of part of a circular cvlinder in X-ray spectroscopy is discussed mathematically and experimentally. J. T. *A High-Vacumn X-Ray Spectrometer Employing a Concave' Crystal as Suggested by Johann. Anic Sandström (Z. Physik, , ). A high-vacuum, focussing X-ray spectrometer is described and its use and accuracy are discussed. J. S. G. T. X I.-P H Y S IC A L AND MECHANICAL TESTING, INSPECTION, AND RADIOLOGY *A Plane-Bending Fatigue-Testing Machine of the D.V.L. (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt) and Some Results Obtained with It. Kurt Matthaes (MctaUmrtschaftj 1933, 12, ). Sheets, profiles and tubes of metal can be tested in the new machine, in which the applied bending moment is approximately constant throughout the length of the specimen. Alternating bending tests with a superimposed constant bending stress and alternating torsion tests can also be made with the machine. The results for round rods agree exactly with those obtained on the Schenck machine. The fati-me limit of shaped sections is generally much lower than that of plain test-pieces. v. G. *On the Enduraixe Testing of Various Materials with the MAN Alternate Bending Machine. A. Jünger (Mitt. Forsch. Am t. O.H.H. Konzern, , (1). 8-lS ). A modification of the Wöhler alternate bending test is described, with the results of tests on 25 materials, mainly ferrous, but including sand-cast Elektron and 2 samples of Duralumin. The method is further applied to the testing of welded samples and to investigating the effects of surface finish. _p Further Endurance Tests on Various Materials with the MAN Alternate Bending Machme. A. Jünger (Mitt. Forsch. And. G.H.H. Konzern, 1931, 1, i.i )'T-. apparatus (see preceding abstract) is applied to further investigations of the effects of surface finish, to the endurance testing of welded samples, including aluminium alloy sheet and 70:30 eopper-nickel sheet, and to combined corrosion and endurance tests. The last-named series were performed on ferrous pieces only. P. M. C. R. i ^ Sh ets- M- v - Schwarz and K. Christoph (Mxtalhvirtschaft, 1933,12, i). -If t mm. is the depth of penetration in the Erichsen test for sheet mm. thick having a tensile strength of kg./mm.* and an elonga- n oi io o then the following expression holds for numerous metals and alloys : i - V l()d = 0-019«* SJ v. G,,a Technical Compression Test-Specimens. W. Tafel and H. Waschek (ilidauwi rtschaft, 1933, 12, , ) A. mathematical method is given for calculating the true grain-size of a metal from measurements made of the area of grains in two sections. With the aid of this method the deformation of the crystal grains during compression tests

109 1934 X L. Physical and Mechanical Testing, &c. 29 lias been followed. Ih e compression of the grains increases from the edges towards the centre. A relatively largo deformation also occurs in the vicinity ot the cnd-surfoces. I his is in direct opposition to the theory that cone-shaped regions under the end-surfaces take no part in the deformation. v. G. Wire and Tube Flaw Locator. Anon. ( Instruments, 1933, 6, 88). Tungsten or molybdenum wire or copper tubing is passed through one or two coils connected in oscillator circuits. The presence of flaws is detected by changes in the induced currents. J. C. C. The Modulus of Elasticity oî Metals at Different Temperatures. A. Mitin- S 1933> Special No. (June), ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5bJb). A simplified bending tester is placed in a furnace; the test-piece lies iieely on - supports and the- load is applied in the centre ; the displacement of the free end projecting outside the furnace is measured by means of a delicate micrometer. Results are given and discussed of determinations of the modulus various steels and brasses carried out at temperatures of 20 - ouo 0. S. G. A New Method of Determining Elastic Moduli. Paul Le Rolland and Pierre oonn (1 echnique moderne, 1933,25,472). Full abstract of a paper read before the Académie des Sciences. See also J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 518. R. B. D., he Determination of Tensile Strength of Welded Joints. W. Hoffmann (Elektroschweissuiig, 1933, 4, 87-88). The usual type of tensile test-piece is of little use owing to the reduction of area of the parent metal on each side of the weld. Reliable figures are given on test-pieces in which the weld is at the centre of a reduced section formed by removing equal circular segments, the radius of which is proportional to the thickness of the material. Test-pieces made from deposited metal gave unreliable results. (The results refer to steel.) H. W. G. H. New Tensile Strength Tester. Anon. (Instruments, 1933, 6, 103). A simple testing machine, in which the load is indicated on a dial-tvpe spring dynamometer, is described and illustrated. J. C. C. Tensile Strength Tester. Anon. (Instruments, 1933, 6, 199). A small motor-driven horizontal pendulum-type testing machine for testing wires or light sheet material is briefly described. J. C. C. Measurement of Abrasive Hardness of Metallic Surfaces. R. J. Piersol (Metal Cleaning and Finishing, 1933, 5, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5285). A discussion of hardness testing methods and experimental equipment developed to measure the abrasive resistance of metal surfaces. S. G. *The Influence of a Linear State of Stress on the Ball Hardness [of Metals] Hans Ivostron (MetaUwirtschaft, 1933, 12, ). To determine the effect of internal stresses on the Brinell hardness of metals hardness measurements ha\ e been made during loading of the specimens in a tensile machine or m a press. Tensile stresses reduce the hardness (by up to 10% for the mild steel tested), whilst compression stresses are without action. v. G. A Simple Hardness Testing Apparatus. G. Oehler (Werkstatt u. Betrieb, 1933, 66, ). A method is described for determining approximate hardness values by comparison with standard pieces. The application is mainly to ferrous materials. P. M. C. R. Apparatus for the Control of Materials. Anon. (Technique moderne, 1933, 25, 403). Hardness testing machines of new design of the Rockwell and direct-reading Brinell types are described particularly adapted for the testing of nitrided steels and thin sheets. The internal construction of the Guillery machine is schematically depicted. R. B. D. New Apparatus for Measuring Hardness [Microbilleur] (Technique moderne, 1933, 25, Suppt. (Juno 15), 29). A brief description of the Microbmeur in which a hammer falls on a head carrying a penetrator (ball, or sphero-conical diamond). The hardness is determined by the diameter of the

110 30 Metallurgical Abstracts V o l. ] impression. The apparatus is stated to be particularly suitable for thin sheet and for very hard surfaces; up to 980 Brinell can bo accurately determined. R. B. D. Wire Hardness Tester [Duroskop]. Anon. (Instruments, 1933, 6, 104). Tho Duroskop measures hardness by the angle of rebound of a falling pendulum. For testing., wire, a cylindrical anvil is used which strikes across tho wire. Cf. J. Inst. Metals, 1932, 50, 246, 369, 627. J. C. C. Instrument for Testing Hardness of Wire [Duroskop]. Anon. (Canad. Mach., 1933, 44, (10), 37). The Duroskop is described. Cf. J. Inst. Metals, 1932, 50, 246, 369, 627. P. M. C. R, Die Filling, Hardness, and Wedging of Dust Pressed Tiles. Harry W. Webb (Trans. Ceram. Soc., 1933, 32, ). Contains a useful general note on hardness. S. V. W. Micro-Calipers for Measurement of External Diameters. Anon. (Anz. Berg-, Hütten- v. Masch., 1933, 55, (76), 5-6). Some recent improvements in calipers and snap gauges arc described. B. Bl. The^Development of Testing of Wire Mesh. Hans Hecht (Tonind. Zeit., 1933, 57, ). Apparatus, e.g. micrometers and microscopes, for testing wire mesh is described. B. Bl. RADIOLOGY Recent Progress in X-Ray Inspection of Welds. Herbert R. Isenberger (Canad. Mach., 1933, 44, (11), 34 and 36). Abbreviated from a paper read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 569. P. M. C. R. New Method for [Making] Angle-Exposures in X-Ray Investigations on Welded Joints. W. Grimm and F. Wulff (Autogene Metallbearbeitung, 1933, 26, ). Faults in V- and X-welded joints can be clearly identified only if the X-ray beam is parallel to the chamfered edges of the sheets. This necessitates two exposures. It is proposed that these should be made on the same film. Examples are illustrated of the two exposures separately and superimposed. H. W. G. H. *Gamma-Ray Radiographic Testing. Gilbert E. Doan (J. Franklin Inst., 1933, 216, , ). A comprehensive survey of tho subject. The nature and properties of y-rays are described together with tho sources and their rates of decay. The rate of action of the rays on photographic films, exposure times for steel and other objects, the sensitivity of the method for detecting flaws and the like, are discussed at some length. If 7 or more objects of steel 1 in. thick are exposed simultaneously, tho cost of testing objects of this thickness is less than for testing single objects by X-rays. Above 4 in. the cost is less with y-rays even for single exposures. The principal advantages of tho method a re: (a) portability of the apparatus; (6) the simplicity of its operation; (c) the capacity to test very thick sections of metal; (d) the ability to test a great many objects at one time; (e) the low operation, maintenance and obsolescence costs. 23 references are given. S. V. W. X II. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL Temperature Measuring Apparatus and Its Application in the Foundry. Erich Becker (Z. ges. Giesserei-Praxis : Das Metall, 1933, 54, , , ). The principles, method of use, and applications in the foundry of the 4 chief types of pyrometer equipment are described. These types are those depending on (1) alteration of volume or length, (2) alteration in electrical conductivity, (3) alteration of e.m.f. of metal couples, and (4) alteration of radiation from heated bodies. J. H. W.

111 1934 X I I. Temperature Measurement and Control 3 1 i JColour Pyrometry. Gustav Haase (Arch. tech. Messen, 1933, 3, (28), t i i J m ^ PrinciPles of c l ur pyromctry, with descriptions of Mesuré and Nouel s pyroscope, Arons chromoscope, Helmholtz s lencoscope, the Naescr pyrometer, and of a recent development involving two photo-cells, sensitive respectively to red and green radiations. The working range, sensitivity, and accuracy of each type are described. P. R. Thermo-Elements. Georg Keinath (Arch. tech. Messen, 1933, 2, (19), t developed at various temperatures is shown grapliicallv for tellurium/platinum, 1% telluriimi/1% antimony-platinum, Constantan/ V TV PIatl" u /Platmo-rhenhim H2, and H t, platinum/platinumrliodium, molybdenum/1% ferro-tungsten. The properties and appropriate temperature ranges of several types of noble and base metal couples are discussed ; the tungsten-molybdenum couple is placed with the former! S i, o / lg?1 T; rking _ranse (up to 3000 C., if the molybdenum is alloyed with 1 iron), although it requires special protection against deteriora-,, n'.,01?s base-metal couples, niokel/clirome-nickel, platinum substitute, nickel/carbon, tellurium/platinum arc especially discussed : working temperatures are given for these, as well as for several'base-metal couples in common use. P. M. C. R. ^Investigations on Platinum/Platinum-Rhodium Thermocouples. V. N Bozhovskiii and B. Y. Drozdov (Trudi Vsesoiznago Naulchno-IssledovateUskago m Q ^ et lw 11 i Standardizatzii (Trav. hist. Métrol. Standardisation V r - ñ f ñ 19A 2 I ; C- ;4hs > 4142). [In Russian, with 1 rencli abstract.] The e.m.f. produced by Russian-made platinum/platinumrhodium (alloy 10 ^ rhodium) thermocouples, and the variation of e.m.f. due to time of heating and purity of platinum were determined. Tests carried out with the thermocouples made by the (Russian) Institute of Metals, Platinum Institute, Sverdlovsk Works, and others showed that the e.m.f. is near to or within mv. at 1063 C. (temperature of cold-iunction u ), being of the same accuracy as the non-russian makes. The variation of f m Y oo^r /?r ^9j»ecJ ^lea^ ng 1000 C. was i 20 microvolts corresponding u u Considerablc variation of the platinum potential was observed alter heating, especially for platinum of inferior purity, while the platinumrhodium alloy potential remained practically the same. -S. G.»Thermoelectric Temperature Scale of the Pt/Pt-Rh Thermocouple. Katashi V o^ ao«m t0^ ro Mitsui (5 ^ y o Kwagaku Zasshi (J. Soc. Chem. Ind., Japan), 1J33, 36, (7); C.A bs., 1933, 27, 4970). [In Japanese, with English abstract m supplemental binding, pp ] Experimental procedure and results are reported of a comparison of the International Temperature Scale (calculated from E _ a + bt + cl2 with melting points of antimony, silver, and S!'-yas hxcd points) with scales obtained by calculation from t = a - f be + ch, tor the same fixed points and from both equations for melting points of zinc, antimony, and silver as fixed points. In these equations E is the m f^v - ancl 1 the temperature. The cold-junction is at 0 C. S. G. The Treatment of a Pt/Pt-Rh Thermocouple. Katashi Bitd and Mototard Matsui (Aogyo Ktcagahi Zasshi (J. Soc. Chem. hid., Japan). 1933, 36, (7); C. Abs., 1933, 27,4970). [In Japanese, with English abstract in supplemental binding, pp ] Cf. preceding abstract. Freezing point determinations on gold, silver, antimony, and zinc were made to determine the results ot exposure of the couple, in a porous porcelain tube, to a reducing atmosphere.. couple was seriously contaminated, especially by antimonv, but it could be restored by cleaning with dilute hydrochloric acid, or nitric acid, molten borax, and electric annealing at 1500 C. S G,, The S T O S!? 4 Thernial Radiation. Ernst Otto Seitz (Arch. lech. a S%l * ^ 3 )- J otal radiation is defined in terms of wave-length, and the general principles of its measurement are explained. The thermo

112 32 Metallurgical A bstracts V ol. 1 couple, the bolometer, the radiometer and micro-radiometer, and the pyrheliometer are described in detail, and their calibration is considered. The pyrometric application of radiation instruments is described. P. M. C. R. +Electrical Temperature Measuring Apparatus. Fritz Beck (MeidUwiriscJiafL 1933, 12, , 575, 5S9-590, 605). The following types of instrument are described: resistance thermometers, thermocouples, contact thermocouples, optical and total radiation pyrometers, and information is given on their use in technical measurements, on the physical principles on which they are based, and on their manipulation. v. G. New Line of Indicating Pyrometers. Anon. (Instruments, 1933, 6, 129). An illustrated note describing some recently-introduced thermo-electric instruments. J. C. C. Multi-Point Temperature Indicator. Anon. (Instruments, 1933, 6, 125). A Wheatstone-bridge type of indicator which can be connected to any of S thermo-sensitive resistance coils is illustrated and briefly described. J. C. C. A Simple Constant Temperature Control Circuit. H. Clarke (J. Sci. Instruments, 1933, 10, ). A note describes a valve circuit for use with temperature controlling devices. \Y. H.-R. Apparatus for Thermal Control. Anon. (Technique, moderns, 1933, 25, ).^ The toroidal mercury transmitter (consisting of a coiled glass tube with a platinum wire sealed into it and containing a certain quantity of mercury) can be used for transmitting to a distance measures of pressure, &c., or of the degree of movement of a movable member, by the movement of the mercury causing a variation of the circuit resistance. This variation can be used to reinstate equilibrium of a Wheatstone bridge in the case of temperature registration or to vary the equilibrium in the case of temperature regulation. In conjunction with this the logometre is used to overcome the effect of variation (during test) of the voltage applied to the Wheatstone bridge, whilst the mercury transmitter is applied in the de programme regulator to the regulation of heating and cooling to specific heating or cooling curves. R. D. XIII.-FOUNDRY PRACTICE AND APPLIANCES Recommendations for the Design of Non-Ferrous Castings. H. F. Seifert, L. H. Fawcett, and T. D. Stay (Trans..4 mr.r. FouiuL Assoc ,41,51S-o26). Report of a sub-commit tec of the A.F.A. giving recommendations for the detailed design of eastings, selection of alloy, and choice of pattern equipment, with the cbject of enabling, by a better co-operation between founder and designer, the production of better and cheaper castings. R. B. D. Piston Manufacture. Anon. (Automobile Eng., 1933, 333, 411 tlo). The foundry practice involved in the manufacture of B.H.B. self-adjusting pistons in Hiduminium R.R. 53 alloy is dealt with. The pistons are die-cast and the selection of material, method of melting, type of dies used, casting procedure, and temperature control are considered in detail. After casting, two heattreatments are given in the foundry, the pistons being heated in a continuous muffle furnace and quenched in boiling water, and this treatment is followed by ageing at carefully controlled temperatures for IS hrs.. followed by quenching in cold water. Heat-treated pistons and small castings up to 5 and 6 lb. are produced in quantity. J. W. D. The Utilization of Copper from Secondary Metals and Slags. P. S. Belonogov (Zvctnye Meially (The Son-Ferrous Metals), 1932, ). [In Russian.] S. G. How is Flawless Aluminium-Bronze Made P _E. T. Richards (Z. ges. Giesscrei-Praxis: DasMetaU, 1933,44, ). -Aluminium-bronze (copper

113 1934 X I I I. Foundry Practice and Appliances 3 $ njay COntu " "! % il0n»»» * * and i oo/ 1 eilc!,:u! especittlly silicon are harmful, although lead up to i /? 18 sometimes added to improve the inachinability of the alloy. Careful deoxidation before the addition of aluminium to the melt is necessary- aluminium-containing scrap should not be used in the charge. The preparation of the moulds, charging in the constituents, and melting and casting the alloy arc described. A casting temperature of C. is recommended. On the Question of Melting and Casting Copper-Nickel Alloys. 1 VV.^O. Hagen-lorn (Metallurg (The Metallurgist), 1932, 7, ). [In Russian.! Experiments on the melting of copper-nickel alloys have shown that porosity in alloys free from volatile metals, such as zinc, is due to adsorbed gases. Good non-porous castings may be obtained (a) by melting under charcoal in a slightly oxidizing atmosphere using solid deoxidizers, or (b) by melting in a reducing atmosphere under conditions which promote the escape of adsorbed Kases. Ihe alloys should be cast at about 150 C. above the molting point with a slow rate of pour. When flat open moulds arc used method (6) should not be employed; only method (a) gives sound castings. M. Z. *A Practical Foundry Test on the Effect of Phosphorus, Aluminium, and Silicon on Leaded Bronze. Harold J. Roast (Trans. Amer. Found. Assoc., 1933, , with discussion; and Mel.'Ind. (Lond.), 1933, 43, 33-36, ). Experiments on (A) journal bearing castings of bronze with copper 70, tin 6, lead 21, and zinc 3% and with (B) large locomotive drivers cast in copper to, tin 8, lead 15, and zinc 2% show that ( 1) phosphorus up to 0-05% is not injurious to either alloy but necessitates lower casting temperatures, (2) aluminium up to 0-05% gave a fracture of poor appearance with both alloys and, whilst having no effect on the surface appearance of (B), caused a silverywhite surface on (A), and (3) 0-05% silicon produces a white surface with both alloys, but with (B ) has no influence on the fracture structure. R. B. D. TThe Influence of Design on Brass and Bronze Castings. L. H. Fawcett (Trans. Arner.! omul. Assoc., 1932, 40, ; and (abstracts) Met. Ind. (Lond.), 1933, 42, ; Found. Trade J., 1933, 47, ). The relation of design to ease of production in the foundry, choice of suitable alloy, and arrangement of pattern in order to attain soundness are discussed. Composition and properties of some U.S. Navy bronzes and brasses are given! Examples are given showing the effect of design on the properties of the casting. Great stress is laid on evenness of section. R. B. P. Magnesium Its Founding and Metallurgy. P. Bastien (Bull. Assoc. Tech. Fonderie, 1933, 7, ). The physical and chemical properties are reviewed with particular reference to their effect on the founding and on the corrosion-resistance, and the classes of alloys normally used are briefly described. Magnesium produced industrially either by electrolysis of fused minerals containing MgCl2, or by converting MgC03 into MgCl, followed'by electrolysis, contains inclusions of MgCI2and/or KC1 which deleteriously affect the corrosion-resistance. The sublimation process of Clmudronand H6renguel, which removes these and other impurities, has reached semi-industrial scale -The methods of melting and alloying, the melting and refining fluxes used, and the means employed to prevent oxidation and nitration during casting are discussed in relation to sand and chill easting as well as pressure die-casting. Ih e castability of magnesium and its alloys and the effcet of repeated remelting and of mould materials on this property are considered at some length, as is the effect of alloy composition on the total (patternmakers) contraction, oeveral references are given. 11. B. D. Melting of Elektron from Magnesium Produced by a Soviet Magnesium Plant. P.S.M a ib orod a (Zvetnye Metally (The Non-Ferrous Metals), 1932, 3/4-3 1; C, Abs., 1933, 27, 4201). [In Russian.] Describes some difficulties

114 34 Metallurgical Abstracts V o l. 1 encountered in melting Elektron made from Soviet-manufactured magnesium, and means of overcoming them. S. G. Melting of Zinc in the Ajax Induction Furnace. P. A. Zakharov (Zvelnye MetaUy (The. Non-Ferrous Metals), 1932, (5/6), ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 56-lS). [In Russian.] Experiments showed that kg. charges of zinc may bo melted without superheating or volatilizat ion, with 220 v. and 620 amp. The loss in melting ( 1% ) was found to bo considerably less than when melting in crucible, reverberatory, or other types of furnace (3-4% ). A study of the structure of the melts of zinc with addition of lead and cadmium showed a very uniform distribution of these additions, attributable to the self-stirring of the molten charge in the induction furnace. S. G. Light Metal Die-Castings Nohl (Werkstatt u. Betrieb, 1933, 66, 372-3(4). Successful die-casting depends on the combination of casting machine, mould, and material. Each factor is considered. Light alloy castings will take a high surface finish, or will afford a good" base for subsequent electrodeposition. Cost, accuracy, liie of moulds, and applicability of the method are considered. Illustrations show the use of inserts in avoiding great variations in the thickness of the casting, and a number of other precautions are enumerated. P. M. C. R. The Standardization of Moulding Boxes. André Debar (Bull. Assoc. Tech. Fond., 1933, 7, 477-4S4). Detailed description with drawings and tables of sizes of t he suggestions of D. for the standardization of moulding boxes in metric dimensions. R. B. D. tmould Materials for Non-Ferrous Strip Ingot Casting. G. L. Bailey (Rolling M illj., 1933, 7, S, 146). Copper is considered the most satisfactory material for brass-strip ingot moulds, its high thermal conductivity preventing serious temperature gradients and consequent distortion. The article is a detailed discussion of Bailev s findings given in his paper (J. Inst. Metals, 1932, 49, ). A. B. W. ' Some Practical Applications of Sand Tests. G. Hénon (Bull. Assoc. Tech. Fond., 1933, 7, ). The relation between various sand tests and the applicability of those sands to different types of foundry work are discussed and permissible variations of cohesion and permeability for certain moulds are given. The methods of test are indicated and references are given. R. B. D. The Control of Methods of Sand Preparation and the Control of Moulds. H. \\. Dietert (Bull. Assoc. Tech. Fond., 1933, 7, ). Exchange paper from the American Foundrymen's Association. Tests on three different types of sands show that (1) the cohesion of green-sand moulds is affected by the method of sand preparation used and the method used has more effect on natural than synthetic sands; (2) the hardness of the rammed mould is less v hen the sand has been aerated ; (3) aerated sand is more sensitive to intensity of ramming; (4) the hardness increases as the " green-cohesion increases; (5) preparation methods which increase the density (green) increase the hardness; (0) the greater the initial plasticity of the bonding material the more effect has the method of preparation on the cohesion of dry-sand m oulds; (7 ) the permeabilities both green and dry are increased in relation to the amount of aeration and the grain size produced by the preparation ; (S) the permeability of a green mould decreases, as the amount of ramming increases, up to a limit, after which it decreases; and (9) the permeability decreases as the mould height increases. Many figures and several formula' are riven. R. B. D. Monorail Materials Handling in the Foundry. J. B. Forker (Tram. Amer. I oufu.l A&svt\, 19oJ. 40,3io-S^6K -Brief consideration of methods of handling materials in foundries and general survey of applicability of overhead monorail system together Tilth brief details of advantages for specific uses. R, B. D.

115 1931 X V I I I. Working 35 XVI. REFRACTORIES AND FURNACE MATERIALS R,**e Cer mic Properties of Calcium-Aluminium Silicates and Other 1 Beil and Fritz Loblein ( Forschunysarbeiten, 1930, (325),. mvestigation of the thermal properties of the ternary system sihea-alununa reveals the presence of two minima at 1320 and 1300 G., and two maxima at 1512 and 1525 C. A 3-dimensional model is reproduced The properties of a series of 20 chemically pure refract - ory bricks are investigated. Their mechanical strength is fol n^todcpendon the silica content, and especially on the temperature of the quartz-cristobalite transformation. Ih e factors influencing softening under load, sensitiveness ' gl g temperature, and thermal conductivity arc discussed. Porosity severettti rk M rn a;sc1 0 t? Qrmal ndu<$vity; basic slags cause the most Details as to manufacture are given. Other materials conbauxifos t w o ^ qua? zlte Au3triau magnesite, French and Istrian carborundum-clay preparations, and corundum. P. M. C. R The Manufacture of Slag-Resisting Crucibles in Magnesia and A lu m in a H. Salmang and A. Plauz (Technique moderns, 1933, 25, ). Short abstract of an article published in Arch. Eisenhiittenwesen, 1933, 6, 341. See./ Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 664. R. B. D. XVII. - HEAT-TREATMENT *A Study of the Heat-Treatment of Alloys of the Aldrev Tvne F A Tinrin L I - Y c m t f V - Gorey> d M O K im etzov '(Zi tnye (2'Ae Nm-Ferrous Metals), 1932, ( 12), ; C. Aba., 1933, 27, : " ) '.,n Russian.] A series of alummium-magnesium-silicon allovs eonr o l W l i? V T V! nmg? e8ium O 36-1' «, and iron % was made and rolled according to the usual commercial practice. By a combined variation in Z n 10?l t? l ' treatme-ua Pr duct Was»stained of better mechanical!, ani a bcc;n possible heretofore. Tensile strength values of 36 and kg./mm.- were obtained, with corresponding elongations of 15 and 8%. silicon considenibly improved the mechanical properties of the alloys t.hp 111 f 2? 1 ^ ai? 5% excess silicon improved the qualities of all the alloys studied; these phenomena are explained on the basis of the solubility U 0 1V P Q,Uen hi-lg fl'0m 525 C- fojlowcd h7 tempering hrs- / longer is recommended for alloys of this type. The most beneficial effect of hcat-treatmcnt on the mechanical properties was I! the all y s containing 0-7, 0-75, and 0-90% silicon, and 0-40, 0-50, and 0-90% magnesium, respectively, or generally, in the aluminiuin-magnealum-silicon alloys with % magnesium and with an excess of '' M g! s G am Unt f S UCOn theoretically required for the formation of XVIII.-WORKING 8 Wire-Drawing. A C. Blackall (Wire and Wire Products, , - ). A resume, of research work carried out by F. C. Lea at Sheffield University and by F. C. Thompson at Manchester University on the stresses T h l» h -dunng drawins especially when the wire is subjected to back tension. The chief points to bo considered are : ( 1) lubrication; hard soap was used in T s experiments; (2) die material; T. used a tungsten carbide die with a Vickers diamond hardness of 1350; (3) surface finish of the die; (4) die amdc 5-8 is recommended. J. H. W. w =

116 36 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. l Wet Drawing in Wire Manufacture. Richard Saxton (Machinist (Eur. Edn.), 1933, 77, e ). The use o{ a lubricant in wire-drawing facilitates slip, prevents excessive wear, and exercises a restraining influence on the heat generated by the friction. It is the best method of drawing the finer sizes (20 S.W.G. and smaller), but does not permit as great a reduction per draft as dry drawing. The precautions to be taken in drawing various metals and alloys by this method and its practical applications arc described. J. II. W. The Wire-Drawing Die. n, ID. Kenneth B. Lewis (Wire and Wire Products, 1933, 8, , 243, 251, ). The die stresses and strains during the drawing operation have been studied and a theoretical discussion of the mechanism of wire-drawing is given. J. H. W. Sizing and Resizing Carbide and Diamond Dies for Copper Wire-Drawing. J. J. Kehoe and F. D. Ruhl ( Wire and Wire Products, 1933, 8, , 330). Read before the Wire Association. Describes the process and methods of die sizing and resizing used by the General Electric Co., New York. J. H. W. Extruded Condenser Tubes. Anon. (Marine Eng. ifc Shipping Age, 1933, 38, ). A recent development in condenser tube manufacture is the production of extruded, rolled, and drawn tubes. Tubes arc produced by extruding cast billets and the extruded tubes are cold swaged-rolled on a mandrel by a new process which preserves and improves the smoothness of the inside surface. This last operation, which is a combination of forging and rolling, is followed by annealing and cold-drawing, and a final low-temperature annealing in an elcctrie fumacc to ensure a fine and uniform grain structure. The tubes manufactured by the process include super-nickel tubes, aluminiumbrass tubes, and tubes of an alloy of copper 75, nickel 20, and zinc 5%. The results of physical tests on the various tubes manufactured by the process are given. J. W. D. Methods for Fabrication of Nickel-Clad Steel Sheet, Strip, and Wire. Anon. (Boker Bull., 1933, 1, 12 pp.; Bull. B.N.-F.M.Ii.A., 1933, (60), 7). Deals with properties, sizes, and finishes, hot- and cold-working, drawing and stamping, joining : welding, soldering, and brazing. S. G. Ferrane [Aluminium-Iron Bi-Metal]. L. E. Miller (Zvetnye Metally (The Non-Ferrous Metals), 1932, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4198). [In Russian.] Describes experiments carried out with the object of improving the process of manufacture and the properties of Ferrane (aluminium-iron bi-metal) sheet and strip. S. G. New Special Oils for the Working of Aluminium. K. Ivrekeler (Werft, lieederei, Hafen, 1933, 14, ). The use of cylinder oils in the rolling of aluminium sheet and foil, whilst to some extent obviating fire, was the cause of surface defects owing to the formation of gummy residual products. Oil specially refined with sulphur dioxide gives better results : its uses and limitations arc discussed, together with methods of adapting it to lubricating systems in common use. A suitable oil-water emulsion is recommended for the lubrication of grinding, turning, and drilling; a testing apparatus for such emulsions is described, with directions for use. The increasing use of bitumen in silvering paper with aluminium foil is due to the close bond and absence of undesirable products; the process is described. P. M. C. R. Drawing Tools for Aluminium Sheet 0-5 mm. or Less in Thickness. F. Habeland (Werkstatt u. Betrieb, 1933, 66, ). Suitable tool forms are described, and showrn diagrammatically, for the deep-drawing of aluminium sheet of small section. The various stages of the operation arc described, with the necessary adaptations for various thicknesses. P. M. C. R. Unique Stamping Process. Anon. (Metal Stampings, 1933, 6, 72). A new process for producing metal stamping blanks has been developed in America, and employs neither the wafer temporary die nor the tin die." The dies are

117 1934 X X. Joining 37 said to be particularly adaptable for blanking thin steel, brass, copper, aluminium, bronze, and similar materials of in. thickness and thinner. J. H. W. Press Work Pressures. XI. Embossing. XII. Coining. X III Forming. XIV. Coining. Anon. (Machinist (Eur. Edn.), 1933, 77, , , , ). The sizes and pressures for various operations in working steel, brass, bronze, and aluminium alloys are given. J. H. W. Standardization in Cutting and Stamping Tools. H. Stein (Am. Berg-, Hütten- -u. Masch., 1933,55, (64), 4-6, (65), 4-5). Discusscs the standardization of tools for cutting and stamping metals and gives special examples. B. BI. _Machining Aluminium and Its Alloys. Anon. (Machinist (Eur. Edn.), 1933, 77, ). Selection of tools, cutting speeds, lubricants, angle of tool, use of milling cutters, threading tools, twist drills, and saw's are discussed. J. H. W. Getting Optimum Results from Modern Cutting Tool Materials. Joseph Geschelin (Automotive. Ind., 1933, 69, ). The factors governing the selection of tool materials for a given piece of work are considered and summarized. A list of such materials is given; special reference is made to the use of cobalt and molybdenum as ingredients in high-speed steels, to Stcllite and its development, J-metal, to the carbides of tungsten and tantalum, and to the recently developed 548 alloy. The'latter, an iron-tungsten-cobalt derivative, is capable of profound modification by suitable heat-treatment. A table of recommended practice for J-metal gives average cutting-specds and feeds for turning, facing, and boring bronze and a variety of ferrous materials. P. M. C. R. Modem Metal-Cutting Materials and How to Select Them. J. M. Highducheck (Machinery (N. J.), 1933, 40, 12-17). Recommendations, based on tests carried out by the Wcstinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., are given for cutting speeds and feeds for rough-turning and boring ferrous and non-ferrous metals with tools made of high-speed steels, Stcllitc Ńo. 3, Stellito J-metal, tungsten carbide, and tantalum carbide. Factors governing the choice of cutting material are discussed. J. C. C. X IX. CLEANING AND FINISHING Polishing Agents for Metal Coatings and Artificial Materials. E. Belani (Kunststoffe, 1933, 23, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 4633). The use of microasbestos, i.e. asbestos fibres broken up very finely, in polishing agents is recommended. S. G. Developments During 1932 in New and Improved Materials and Equipment. Anon. (Indust. Finishing (U.S.A.), 1933, 9, 7-10, 40-41). A summary of recent developments in metal finishes, including one-coat finishes, metal primers, heat-resistant finishes, refrigerator enamels, lacquers for tinplate food containers, and for other purposes. E. S. H. Black Finish on Metal Chemically. C. F. Scribner (Indust. Finishing (U.S.A.), 1933, 9, 15-16). Directions are given for obtaining a black finish on copper, brass, or bronze, and a steel grey on brass. E. S. H. X X. JOINING V.D.M. Process for Joining Copper Tubes. Anon. (Apparatebau, 1033, 45, 88-89; also Z.V.d. Kupferschmied., 1933, 45, ). Description of a simple joining method (by means of a suitable thread) for copper tubes in water installations. M. H.

118 3 8 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. l Assembly Involving Many Welds Now Produced in Single Operation bv Hydrogen-Electric Welding Process. T. M. Rude (./. Amer. Weld. Soc., 1033, i- Yi Copper brazing in an atmosphere of hydrogen is particularly Applicable to quantity production, on which basis it possesses great advantages in time-, material-, and labour-saving over other methods of joininnsteel parts. Joints stronger than the steel itself are obtained, an interstitial alloy of approximately 97% iron and 3% coppcr being formed. A large furnace for continuous operation is illustrated. H. W. G. H. The Resistance Welding of Aluminium and Its Alloys. D. I. Bohn and G. 0. Hoglund ( Welding Eng., 1933, 18, (6), 25-29). Spot and seam welding are discussed at some length, and butt-welding more briefly. Resistance welds of aluminium alloys must be made with the metal in the molten state. The temperature gradient from the weld to the surface of the sheet must therefore be extremely high, and the great thermal conductivity of the material necessitates the application of immense power for a very short period. Synchronous control of the welding current is highly desirable for spot welding, although good results may be obtained without it by the use of projection electrodes for seam welding, it is essential. Scam welding is recommended in preference to spot welding. Butt-welding offers no special difficulties except the need for great power, but experiments in flash welding have met with little success H. W. G. H. inn.,0!,lie,mc0f,0(mic Aspects of Welding Aluminium. D. E. Roberts (Welding, 1933, 4, ). See J. Inst. Metah, 1933, 53, 586, 720 H. W. G. H. 10 T S d^ N ^ Ferr.uUS Pro1cess PiPing- Anon. (Ox,j-Acetylene Tips, 1933, 12, ). Describes modern practice in jointing aluminium and copper piping for chemical work. In addition to true welds, bronze-welded, silver soldered, and sweated joints are suggested for copper piping. H. W. G. H. Tan,ks,,with the Carbon Arc. Anon. (Welding Eng., J 1.8>I4)» 13). -Everdur shells for hot-water heaters aro welded by carbon arc, using not a Idler rod, but a flux consisting of 90% fused borax and 10% sodium fluoride. H. W. G. II. /0 19 I f t So «tht,0pp? Alloys. G. T. Piersol (J. Amer. Weld. Soc., 1933, - A). I he effect of cuprous oxide in copper on welding behaviour is discussed, and some remedies the use of deoxidized copper, brazing, or silver soldering are suggested. Everdur is recommended as the most weldable of the high copper alloys, and its properties are described. Everdur Iso. 9, containing 57% copper, 42% zinc, % manganese, and some silicon, is used m the form of extruded sections for architectural work, and can be gas welded to give joints which are undetectable after polishing. Tobin bronze is the most satisfactory material for general oxy-acetylene welding,,l '' * ' V I Notes on Welding Sheet Brass. Anon. (Indust. Gases, 1932, 13, ) IJie usual instructions in technique aro given. H. W. G. H. Use of Lead Burning in the Manufacture of Lead Batteries. Anon. S T BaUenes> 1932, 16, ). An illustrated account is given of the lead-burning operations carried out in an accumulator factory. For train cells, the plates are laid flat in a jig and welded to cast bridge lugs, lo r bus lighting cells, the plates and bridges are cast in one piece, and the budges subsequently built up and strengthened by lead burning. For ear n f w batterl(:s tho plates are held upright in a jig, and the bridge, instead of being cast, is built up by lead burning. J. C. C. Welding Technique for Nickel and Nickel-Rich Alloys. Herbert Herrmann (Iron Age, 1933, 132, 25-26, 70). Abstracted from the Metallurgist (Suppt. to Engineer), 1933, 9, See J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 587. J. H. W.

119 193-1 X X. Joining 39 Instructions for Finishing Welded Plates of Monel Metal and Pure Nickel. W. F. Burchfield (Welding Eng., 1933, 18, (7), 24-26). Abstracted from the International Nickel Company s Bulletin No. T.S.-5. H. W. G. II. First Nickel-Clad Water Storage Heater. Anon. ( Welding, 1033, 4, 12 and 21). An illustration, showing design details, and description of a 1000-gall, water storage heater, working at 90 lb./in.2, fabricated from A-in. nickel-clad plate. H. W. G. H. 11 Left- or Right-Hand Welding? [for Steels, Monel Metal, and Nickel]. F. Hermann (Auiogene Metallbearbeitung, 1933, 26, ). The advantages of rightward over left-hand welding, for steels, Monel metal, and nickel, are reviewed. The former method, in which the blow-pipe precedes the welding rod, is faster and more economical in gas, gives a smaller and neater bead, and producesless distortion. Greater protection of the molten metal by the welding flame'results in more ductile welds, on account of their freedom from oxides and nitrides. Greater heat concentration produces lower cooling stresses. H. W. G. H. The Use of Monel Metal for Obtaining Workable Welds in Pieces of Iron. Anon. (Rev. Nickel, 1933, 4, 92-94). The use of Monel metal instead of iron electrodes in arc welding is suggested, in order to obviate the formation of the very hard and unworkable cementite. Photomicrographs and illustrations of work done by this method aro included. W. A. C. N. Welding Tests on Cast-Iron and Non-Ferrous Metals. Th. Weiss (Welding Industry, 1933, 1, 83-85). An account, illustrated by photomicrographs, of the results of tests on welds produced in wrought and cast aluminium, brass, and cast-iron, using RU universal flux. H. W. G. H. Informal Communications of the Committee on Welding of the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (J. Amer. Weld. Soc., 1933, 12, (5), 27-30). A list of researches, giving the name of the worker, the state of progress, and the publication reference, if any. H. W. G. H. Macrography Applied to Welds. E. C. Rollason (Welder, 1933, 4, (41), 9-14). Defects which can be detected by macroscopic examination are classified and described. The technique recommended is suitable mainly for steel. The Schmuckler milling test is mentioned and its application illustrated. H. W. G. H. Welding Design No. 1, Distribution of Stresses in Welded Structures. C. Helsby ( Welding Industry, 1933, 1, 5-9, 45^4-8). Refers to structural steel welding, but is of wider interest. The necessity for ductile welds is emphasized. Two types of distortion are produced: that from the relief of rolling and straightening stresses in the members, and that from the contraction of the weld metal. The design of welded structures follows closely the practicc usual for reinforced concrete, the joints being almost rigid connections. Allowanco must be made for induced wracking stresses, which are usually considerable. Excessive deflection must be guarded against by suitable cross-bracings. Butt joints require careful preparation, and lap joints, with fillet welds, are more frequently employed on account of the greater tolerances permissible. A table is given, showing the relative value of welds in tension, compression, and shear, their cubic contents, and the approximate times taken to execute them. An example is also given to explain the application of this table to the design of a typical welded joint. H. W. G. H. Stress Distributions in Fusion Joints of Plates Connected at Right Angles. E. G. Coker and R. Russell (Welder, 1933, 4, (42), 11-13; also Electric Welding, 1933, 2, 148; discussion, ; and Syren and Shipping, 1933, 147, 59-60). An abstract of a paper read before the Institution of Naval Architects, describing the application of photo-elastic methods to examine the effects of bending moment. Stress concentration is found to take place at points where changes of angle or of cross-section occur, especially where the change is abrupt. Internal discontinuities are a serious source of danger. H. W. G. H.

120 40 Metallurgical Abstracts V o l. 1 Tests on the Fatigue Limit of Welded Joints Subjected to Repeated Tension Stresses. Otto Graf (J. Amer. Weld. Soc., 1933, 12, (8), 30-32). It is shown that butt-welds can be made of higher fatigue strength than riveted joints of similar design, but faults in the former are of far greater effect than faults in the latter, so that the relation between the fatigue strength and work stress must be different for each type of joint, except where the weld can be proved flawless by careful tests. Joints made by straps with longitudinal fillet welds and with fillet welds at the butt ends, although in considerable use for withstanding static loads, are not to be recommended where the stressing is due to repeated loads. Cover-plates over a butt-weld, with fillet welds to the plates, give a stronger joint only if the butt-weld is unsatisfactory. Considerations of design are illustrated in the article, the purpose of which is to prove that existing specifications, for fixing safe stresses on welded joints, require revision. H. W. G. H. Stresses in Butt-Welds. A. C. Vivian ( Welder, 1933, 4, (37), 1-6). Poor test-results on welded joints may be due to faulty design as well as to faulty material or workmanship. Distortion after welding may cause the test-piece to be eccentrically loaded in the testing machine, thus giving low results. The internal stresses in a butt-weld may be illustrated by rubber models. The stresses due to temperature differences are higher than the yield-point at various temperatures during cooling, so that there must be high initial stress in an unannealed welded joint. H. W. G. H. Heat Stresses in Welded Bars. Karl Melcher (Elekiroschiceissung, 1933, 4, (1). 7-9). An account of experiments made by sawing off strips for the specimens and noting the amount of distortion. H. W. G. H. Welding of Pressure Vessels. Anon. (J. Amer. Weld. Soc., 1933, 12, (2), 13-15). Some recent additions to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' boiler construction code are discussed, with special reference to the proper method of attachment of nozzles, the reinforcement of openings cut in shells or heads, and the weakening effect of holes cut in a cylindrical shell. Dimensioned drawings are given to show acceptable types of fusion welded nozzle constructioi-. H. W. G. H. Welded Spiral Seams in Pressure Vessels and Boilers. Anon. (Welding Industry, 1933,1, 17-19). The stresses on longitudinal seams are double those on circumferential seams. A spiral seam at 45 or less to the highest ring stress may be considered about 50% stronger than an ordinary longitudinal seam H. W. G. H. Removing the Hazards in Welding Tanks Containing Inflammable Vapours. W. E. Archer (H elding Eng , IS, (5), 14-15). It is found practicable to conduct welding operations on a petrol tank without the expense and trouble of steaming, or loss of petrol, by injecting sufficient carbon dioxide to give a content of 40 % in the gases in the tank.' The actual safety limit is 2S% of carbon dioxide. H. W. G. H. Effect of Fillet Welds on Eccentricity. James R. Griffith ( Welding, , 9-11). \\ hen a structural angle is connected to a gusset plate by means of one leg, eccentricity exists. There is little difference in stress distribution with rivets or fillet welds. It is shown to be unsound to compute the distribution of the fillets from the distance from the neutral axis of the angle, and equal distribution gives the best results. H. W. G. H. Representation of Fillet Welds by Symbols Faltus (ElektrvxhureUnn-j. 1933, 4, It is not considered sufficient to specify a fillet weld by the throat only, and it is suggested that the leg-length be given with an indication of the shape of fillet concave, flat, or convex. H. W. G. H. Welding Symbols. James W. Owens (J. Amer. Weld , (8). 24). A list is given of the codes of symbols approved by the American Welding Society for use on drawings and the fundamental principles on which these have been developed are explained. H. W. G. H.

121 1934 X X. Joining 4 1 Abbreviations and Symbols for Use on Drawings oi Buildings, Bridges, and Other Framed Structures (./. Amer Weld. Soc., 1933, 12, (8), 25). A tentat ive standard issued by the Committee for Nomenclature, Definitions, and Symbols of the American Welding Society. H. W. G. H. Outline of Welding Processes. D. Richardson (Welding Industry, 1933, 1, 3-4, 49-50, and ). -Various systems of classification of welding processes arc considered and the following processes are briefly discussed: forge, hammer, and roll welding; electric resistance welding butt, flash, scam, spot, projectiou, and percussive; Thermit welding; oxy-acetylenc high- and lowpressure systems, equal-pressure systems, multi-flame blowpipes, the Linde self-fluxing process; mixed gas processes coal-gas and acetylene; oxyhydrogen, oxy-coal gas, oxygen with ethylene, methane, and vaporized liquid fuels. H. W. G. H. Characteristics and Application oi Various Welding Processes. P. L. Roberts ( Welding Industry, 1933,1, 95-97; discussion, 97-98). The following processes are reviewed : metallic arc; carbon arc; atomic hydrogen; oxygas; resistance (butt, spot, seam, and flash); Cyc-arc and percussive arc; Thermit; and fire welding. For non-ferrous metals, the oxy-acetylenc process is considered almost without rival. H. W. G. H. Classification and Electric Welding. R. Schmidt (Werfl, Reederei, Hajen, 1933, 14, , ). An extended survey of electric welding and its recent developments in their relation to the shipping industry and to the question of registration. P. M'. C. R. The Design of Jigs and Fixtures for Welding. Owen C. Jones (./. Amer. Weld. Soc., 1933,12, (8), 35-40) Cf. J. Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 673. Essentials of good design and the principles underlying them are summarized. Various methods of location and clamping are described and illustrated. H. W. G. H. Dynamic Characteristics of Welding Machines. Karl Meller (Eleklroschu'eissun/j, 1933, 4, ). The static characteristics of welding generators arc explained. The importance of the time constant and its dependence on self-induction and resistance is demonstrated. It is shown, moreover, how, of two machines with similar static characteristics, one may weld more easily than the other, and the reasons, as shown by oscillographic determinations, are explained. The instantaneous values of current and voltage given by the oscillogram are plotted and the resulting curves are discussed particularly those obtained when a drop of metal falls from the electrode and when the arc is suddenly lengthened until it breaks. It is emphasized that much more research is needed, before it is possible to forecast exactly the wrelding characteristics of a generator from its electrical characteristics, as at present determined. H. W. G. H. New Improvement in Welding Machine Construction. H. Langkau (Elektroschweissunej, 1933, 4,48-50). A full description, with characteristic curves and oscillographic photographs, of a self-excited welding generator. H. W. G. H. Advances in Metal Surgery. C. W. Brett (Gas J., 1933, 204, ).- The Barimar system of welding, applicable both to ferrous and non-ferrous alloys, is briefly described and illustrated. J. S. G. T. Joint Discussion on Reports on Technical Classification of Generators and of Electric Welding Practice ; and on Generators and Transformers for Arc Welding. Marcel Mathieu, Marcel Moneyron, el al. (Bull. Soc. Fram;. led., 1933, [v], 3, ). A joint discussion on the reports presented by Mathieu and Moneyron. Cf. ibid., 1932, [vj, 2, 1081, P. M. C. R. Automatic Weld Timer. Anon. (Instruments, 1933, 6, ). An illustrated note on an automatic device consisting of a rectifier tube which charges a fixed condenser in proportion to the rate of current flowing in the welding circuit. At the required instant, a discharge takes place across two neon tubes and the welding circuit is broken through a relay. Uniformity in

122 42 Metallurgical A bstracts V ol. 1 the resulting welds is claimed irrespective of variations in such factors as line voltage, electrode condition, and thickness and surface condition of the work. Innovations and Tendencies in Autogenous Welding. R. Granjon (Soudure lf,0' 1S1) ;'" - ) bstract from Rev. Soudure autogene, ri. Inst. Metals, 1033, 54, 673. H. W. G. H. Mcfoic ndament^ Characteristics and Technique of Spot Welding Various Xf WTe ce1 ferguson (W elding Eng., 1933, 18, (7) ; (8), 20-23). The fundamental factors of the spot-welding machine, of the shape, size, and material of the electrodes, and of the mechanical pressure applied, are explain«!. Some of the practical problems involved and their solution are dis- J - I - ^ emtics of various metals are described and charts are.f 2^P combinations of metal can and cannot be spot welded, and the open-circuit voltages are recommended. H. W. G. H.... Vacuum-Tube Control Applied to Spot Welding Equipment. E. U. La «sen (I elding Eny., 1933, IS, ( 1), 2S-29). Thyratron valve control of resistance «elding machines permits current regulation in terms of cycles, ensuring perfect welds without possibility of burning. H. W. G. H. " n P n^ of Welding in Tube Manufacture. H. W. Lord and I m l l S , (7), 1S6-1S7). Details of a speciallv spot' 've' dln8 machines used in the manufacture Shot Welding. Anon. (Machinery (Lond.), 1933, 42, ). Shot weld- HmnS 8 Pr? ies-s ln,'vhich the current is passed for the minimum T r ^ / n L 0 m,rde,r 1<^ the \ e]d sh^ply. The equipment, which can be fitted to anj standard welding machine, provides an automatic record of the duration of each weld and employs an alarm bell to direct attention to un- ^ f a c t o r y welding conditions. The method was developed for welding ikttnitic steels, which suffer a serious reduction in corrosion-resistance if heated within the range o00"-900 C. J. G. C. i m. «! Resistance Welding. D. Richardson (Welding Industry. 1933, 1, iso-ls4). -A review of the various methods, their sphere of application, and some causes of defects. H. W. G. H. Electrodes forresistance Welding Machines. Eberhard Rietsch (Ekhtro- ^ X v ' %' 'nvh f Recommendations of electrodes to use for rz tb ^ f ^ pn.t mi'terials by spot. projection, and butt methods. The,rom,h Standard Specifications for Resistance Welding Transformers. Resistance Association (J. Amer. Weld. Soc , 12, (6). 25- The following points are covered: duty cvcle; name-plate ratin* ^ S t f t SeC nt a ri;"? ndil!ss:. taps; [cooling; viriso&iion; core; inspect tion and test ; mechanical protection. H. W. G. H. **hellome»a o Arc Welding and Gas Cutting by Slow- Mofaon Pictures. A. Hilpert (J. Amer. Weld. Soc , (7 K 4). A review ' S t T ^ Uhs btained b-v th0 <»< * cameras capable of f i ctures I * r second. The deposition of metal in W? T ^ en,examf - ei H means of infra-red film and bv the out - & j Sr (Thim). m which the welding arc is illuminated bv a powerful are on the opposite side from the camera lens and on its optical axis. T i T i T Shar 1-' silhouetted, and the are shows as a verv b m k. spot on a bright background. It has been proved that the number o f drops per second from a bare electrode is verv much greater than fro n a ' huf t thc arc oi the former extinguishes with evenf t I S l e < 3n^ T ' V?.*? " f the b ttw - tht' a conductor degree. The time of transition of metal is found to be 15% of the

123 1934 X X. Joining 43 total welding time for bare electrodes and 4% for heavily coated electrodes. The infra-red film is useless in the investigation of gas-cutting and the in shining method (Conrady) is used. In this, the gas beam absorbs part of the light, but the slag reflects it. H. W. G. H. Concerning the Phenomena of the Electric Welding Arc. H. v. Conrady and G. Müller ( K1eJetroschweissung, 1933, 4, 1-6). The mechanism of the electrical discharge -with hot and cold cathodes is investigated. Photographs of arcs between poles of different kinds are reproduced and discussed. H. i t The Use of Carbon in Arc Welding. K. L. Hansen (Welding Netcs, 1932, 3, 2 / 29). Abstracted from Welding, 1932, 3, 222. The carbon arc has been used with greater success than the metallic arc for welding copper, but still presents great difficulty. Everdur, however, can be successfully welded by the carbon arc method. Copper alloys containing a high percentage of zinc arc unweldable by this process, but the indirect carbon are, in which the flame is struck between two carbons and the current does not pass through the work, has given very promising results. This carbon arc torch a has successfully welded ornamental bronzes containing lead as well as zinc, for which the oxy-acetylene flame and the usual arc processes fail. H. W. G. H. Carbon Shapes and Paste. Anon. (Indust. Gases, 1933,14, 52). Abstract from Ozy-Acelylene Tips, 1933, 12, 41. See J. Inst. Melals, 1933, 53, 073. _ The Carbon Arc Process. Anon. (Welding IndwOry, 1933,1, , and 152). A survey of the process, including its history, development, and difficulties. H. W. G. H. Carbon Arc Welding. Karl Pvciter (Welding Industry, 1933, 1, 173). The article deals mainly with the Elin process, in which the arc is stabilized by a rotating magnetic field. The hardened seam often produced by carbon arc welding is said to be due to oxidation, and not carbonization of the weld metal. The application of the process to automatic welding is described. H. W. G. H. Atomic Hydrogen Arc Welding and Its Applications. J. A. Dorrat ( Weldin/j J 1933, 30, 6-14 ; discussion, 14-16). A comprehensive description of the process, equipment, and technique. Curves showing welding speed and consumption of electricity, hydrogen, and tungsten, are given. The process is recommended for steels, especial ly of the austenitic variety, brass and bronze, copper and aluminium. Adaptations for use with three-phase current supply, for using split ammonia instead of hydrogen, and for automatic welding, are discussed. In the discussion, I), gave the cost of atomic hydrogen welding a,s approximately 25% less than oxy-acetylene. H. W. G, H. Atomic Hydrogen Arc Welding. Anon. (Welding IwluAry, 1933, 1, , , 278 and 284). Based on information given by the Metropolitan- Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd, The process and apparatus are described- Welding costs, when using hydrogen and dissociated ammonia, are discussed and curves are given to show the costs of gas, tungsten, power, and labour for welding different thicknesses of materia). H. W. G. H. Producing Strong Joints by Hydrogen Welding. Anon. (Machinery (-V. Y,), 1933, 39, ). A description is given of a tubular furnaee, heated by six resistance element«, and equipped with an endless chain conveyor, designed for hydrogen welding. The parts to be welded are pressed together, copper wire is wrapped round the joint, and the parts are'conveyed to the heating zone of the furnace. This is maintained at 2100 F. (1150 C.) and supplied with an atmosphere of Eleetrolene, which Is made by treating city gas with steam and contains hydrogen 58-4% and carbon monoxide 30%. The copper melts and flows freely under these conditions, uniting the joint. It is claimed that alloying of the copper and iron takes place, an alloy containing 3% of copper being form ed J. C. C.

124 4 4 Metallurgical Abstracts V ol. i r, meec? t Advances p d Future Expectations of the Oxy-Acetylene Process 30 1? S ') S U f *1 ' 9 \ > ; and WddingJ., 1933' K i K. w g. 1? Amencan Weldf * * * - *»' # } S d ( a K e ^ u d u S a o T y ^ lu ^ e, M5BM P f'v' 3rc u cd at once, the tips being water-cooled.- H. W. G. H. ja?!?y?ene Construction of Apparatus and Containers. The Inter- «*.. s i o f 3 g «5 & C 3? 8 [ g T - A ' SR-SvfWe? I 6 2 T1?eir Equipment. Anon. (Indus!. Ga.vs, * *»»» - r a j s ««S 1 S w 1 «X «ly. S ' 3? «2 figure^ are given to show the influence of the shape of filler rnd- * triangular bars melt first at the c o m m a n d t ^ r os l t ^ p o i n ^ T e r e S round bars melt to a blunt end. Considerable e c o n o m v T o ^ n l l ^ acetylene is obtained by the use of an<mlar mr?< r v * v ' Tj* * is considered.] H. W.'O H - P *' Fcrrous weidms onl-'' s a s t i t i and '«^ im -b ro n z e a neutral flame S l W p i ^ mun^ Wlth excess acetylene for cast iron. H. \Y G 11 whh^ a the Strength of Hydraulic Back-Pressuxe Valves for Acetylene Apparatus Against Explosion Pressures. W. JRiraarski ind H Fnednch (Autogene JletaHbearbtiiiuig, 1933, ) Coses hod W n observed of explosion, due to back-ihfog. which l t d n i p t u t ^ T e l S s e ^ S of high-pressure hydraulic valves. Since these were of a tvpe tested b vth e S e t 'i n ^ 3 lt " ^ T Ch' ^ i that the,pst «* *»» did n ^ p r ^ w i h o S r 11 Prcss'lres resulting from explosion of a m ovingas mixture differ«! from those obtained when the mixture was, f n n n ' - ^ - p r e s s u r e valves under the latter con- ' ^ which had caused failure in practice. The results iiwt lded J' int for the top and bottom of the valve, are expected ih ii t t t ' / suitable designs can now be specified, and it is B r is m ^ f ntri,0r ^Low -Pressure Hydraulic Bsck-Pressure Valves for» 0 i o 5M n f n i 'i ^ i n ) i a t p ^ s from se a L -H W. G H l * * cntr> of )Ur to ttle valve through its water A c e S ^ e ^ ^ S ^ 01 1f afety Eeceivers for Low-Pressure i S s R r - s I 'is.nt in the pipe between blowpipe and generator. -H. \Y. G. H.

125 X X L Industrial Uses and Applications 45 Safe Handling of Oxygen and Acetylene Cylinders. T. C. Fetherston (J. Amer. H eld. Soc, 1933, 12, (6), 23-24). Good advice, often neglected. H H. The Purification oi Acetylene. Anon. {Soudure et Oxy-Oowpouje, 1933, 10 1U). Emphasizes the importance of removing all traces of sulphuretted and phosphoretted hydrogen. H. W. G. H. Determination of the Air Content in Acetylene. Paul Schuftan (Autoaene. Metallbearbeiiung, 1933, 26, 88-90). The method depends on the absorption of acetylene by acetone; it is claimed to be simple, rapid, and accurate. The apparatus is described and the possible errors are discussed. H W G H The Traillin? oi Welders. D. Richardson (Welding Industry, 1933, 1, and 205). Emphasis is laid on the need for better correlation, in this country, of syllabuses for welding instruction. It is prophesied that, in the future, technical schools, colleges, and universities will include welding as an important part of their engineering courses. H. W. G. H. A New Type o! Welding Course.' L. F. Jackson (./. Amer. Weld. Roc., 1933, 12, (5), 17-18). An outline of a lecture course of a very comprehensive nature, embracing all types of welding. H. W, G. H. Teaching Metallic Arc Welding. E. Tutt (Welder, 1933, 4, (38), 28-31;. Students of arc welding are divided into four groups: journeymen in other branches of metalwork; technical men who wish to become competent superv isor of welding; semi- or non-skilled workmen; and youths who have had no previous employment. The general principles of instruction are briefly discussed, and the importance of such details as the welder s position and grip of his electrode-holder is emphasized. H. W. G. H. To Make Good Welders. Anon. (Soudure et Oxy-Coupagt, 1933, 10, 187). Abstract of an article by M. Couturier in Rev. Soudure autogins, 1933, 25, S e e Inst. Metals, 1933, 53, 674. H. W. G. H. Effect of Training on Welding Skill. C. R. Nailler and J. S. Anderson (11 elding Eng., 1933,18, (3), 23). Abstract of a thesis by X. and A., reporting the results of tests to determine the effects of sj-stematic training on skill in welding. H. W. G. H. X X I. INDUSTRIAL USES AND APPLICATIONS The Toxicity of Aluminium Compared with that of Iron, Nickel, and Other Metals. Gabriel Bertrand and P. Serbescu (Compt. rend., 1931, 193, ; Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 1931, 47, ; and (abstract) Technique modeme, 1931, 23, 673; C. Abs., 1932, 26, 524). The toxicity of aluminium (as AljfSOjJj.lSHjO) is of the degree of magnitude of that of iron, and considerably less than that of nickel or copper. Fears of toxic effects from aluminium cooking vessels are unfounded, since the amount so consumed is no greater than is normally found in plant and animal tissues. S. G. Feeding Experiments with Foods Canned in Aluminium. Gulbrand Lande, \alborg Aschehoug, Hans Breien, and K. Wulfert (Tide. Htrnulikind., 1933, 19, ; C. Abs., 1933, 27, 5829). In continuing prior experiments on fish canned in aluminium, storage tests for periods up to 3-5 years with sardines m oil, kippered and fresh herring and fish-balls showed no hydrogen swells with one exception, in which case the fish had been improperly processed. Te>.ts with crab, lobster, and shrimp were also very successful. Feeding tests on micx- and rats in which canned food with high aluminium content in comparison \vith similar but aluminium-free food is used, showed quantitative elimination of the administered aluminium, with no harmful effects whatever. This is in accord with results of tests on foods cooked in aluminium utensils. H. G. Handling oi Distilled Water in Aluminium. H. V. Churchill [Induct, and Eng. Chem. (Analyt. Edn., 1933, 5, ), Aluminium equipment for

126 ^ Metallurgical A bsirads Tot. l distmfd lrafcr k ^ h e d and Unstated. sppikstfccs. - T - f - ^ J SS ^ j y?! properties, prices {in marks per ks.c t nd f 18 ^ rolled / It ^ as to ageing Mid heat-tieatm sat and also of s w e ^ % - ' tsth' for ««md-beaded dard «Hoys are * 1» T O ^ permissibleloads of 9 staafor? i5t as- -VK a- ^, , A note on a t. J T T y 04 *-*a m n ta containing chromium, studied by M e - a T c I - ^ - V * ^ r- d * * * * * * * * * * * t o cast p is t o l G G ^ &>* s s z t a i i «g r s ^ r ^ a?te. * * * «. * ^ ^ E e s ^ ^ a a g g a a g s a marine wmi J>. M? 0 8. ''mued- eluding t w examples intended for * * G. P y ( «-. J i.,, V rl4v»_<}> t L v, -. (translation} Aluminii.-xJSroadcasi, ^ the o f S P o t i o n and i r k i n g of the alloy for this i J ^ S S J S J S S i ^?nch B bh«ld allots suitable for rehic1-' in d - irv-t-afi' sm im.ttj of the caasaoteristics of «a llig h f-a llo y t&ble srrres the r^ d e '" -,-V r _,,1.'*' '. a labfeof « r. standard dimensions. A second * * >». S $? Z 3 Z? 2 S S S ^ t i r t i g?! * «e - Percentage compositions are riven for sorfa«ennis31. * c sicas, >rith Tre^bS, o f s o S S ^ d m.combio" «* - The d a $mphy is furnished. P. M. C R * w p T m. An extensive. i':-';',.>. Z. J7_'.-Ir I ^ -. Qi s^ <^ t Aeto-Otmsfraecan. Panl Breaaer tics is the ocmhmaii-a, T p.^ :' - ':i.ll^ r-rorait ««* * - Taaces in i devi i ' * n fc d s d a is o f f t - g a a k - n l i ^! r- v ' :w ;' A * ^ ' P a l l o r se.rco d V ife tv4' ^ " «d a d e r s a ^ a, a D p i ^ n class SSI B. «>1 2 R ' m s T i f ^ R T ^ T K ^ ^ A' ^ oi Tte «icys rrcz-. bas bre-a ' P f '^.v n o: su.-h sesshs c ^ i^ stsare to ' - *ad in <shct ts&fes I b e a s S ^ S ^ S t l ' - tf xna - 2a * * i KS-S^xrass«-), fl.per.3«o.; cwtaia o.f A-a cf

127 1934 X X I. Industrial Uses and Applications 4 7 is considered and scction sharp comers, slots and rivet-holes, 9.. sensitiveness of some common structural material«in varying stresses is investigated and compared. The i ^ o f X examination, especially of welds, are indicated. earn in g raw S Mtractio 8honM increased U b S f for S S s s s s - S t S S i arep, r ' s H 10 >k «> - t a 3 r. it i given and an e'^mnlp nf 1 SUC^ parts w th appropriate materials, is s ^ ^ l T I T 1 i Ci m'comtruction in Bondur and aluminium «purnose^and 'to t.* ' common structural alloys according to their strengths. P. JL C. JZ* ^& exposure, and gives approximate The Mythen, a Passenger Motor Vessel with Welded Hnll anrl P ivots 2 T 5 i «g * prevented by c o a t i i ^ h ^ i S corodal is also used for deck-houses, scats, vim low.& m es, S o l t o orri^ J of the superstructure; only occasionally, as in the casf- of akvli'-htl ; tl-^ t o S S rn S o, The usc f ^ - w various a r / ^ n. - /. Ci t ' ^ * * e* Ac? f n? r** :W jn- (ifcrtr* Vthvltt i,..i, *. ^ ',Jse f aluminium sheets sprayed with t t t i ^ s s s s y ^ s r rjatent - a ~ ^ and its value w compared with that of copper for the ^ Ildized aluminium < an insulating m a te r ia l^ the forrn a b k M l? W.re8 f a Bcr,icn* in high-voltage telephone and tefeg»ph ^ n * L for external protection, as a substitute for lead, for small fe S fie f T. f - the protection of lead conductors by metallization S f tbe ^? f a, m f r li«ht support, and for urn-polar a.c. cables are also described, G G ! S ^ L K v T ini0m Paper- J{a,f'h B - ^ «pidaux,.m!e If, *? * «* * J>- c. B rook» n r «fc r «T, '.! t T 3, fjept',jl; Alum inium Uronde/jji, 1933, 4 H3s if: i* foils for th ic te ^ J /itiy fc e n and m m J. C. C X i':mam) 1 1 «!*., 1933, 14,, 0^?? ^«^ Exterior* and Interior*. K. Schwarz -, /wt f I / * * f 3 i f ^ 1 * % «W V ~ T b e A m e r i ^ ^ 13 not gecferajj/ *«c«ptcd in (;<;rm*ny. The ^tnc Id««were ow appikd v> ^

128 4 8 Metallurgical A bstracts V ol. 1 micaceous iron oxide and fourni to be erroneous. For plaster and. moist wood, an aqueous vehicle Dilutin "is recommended Ammoniacal casein solutions are also satisfactory. Oil vehicles should contain considerable stand oil. _g The Cæsium-Oxygen-Silver Photoelectric Cell. M. J. Kelly (Bell Labora- toneus. Record, 1933, 12, 34 39). A photoelectric cell having a cathode of pure silver oil which is formed a matrix of cæsium oxide, silver oxide, and finelvdivided sil\ er and which is then covered by an adsorbed, layer of atomic dimensions of cæsium is more than hfty times as sensitive as the potassium hydride cathode type. The construction of such cells is described. J. C. C. " Chromium on Copper {or Washing Machines. Anon. (Bull. Copper and Brass Res. 1933, (75), 14). The use of ehromium-plated copper for the construction of domestic washing machines is illustrated. J. S. G. T. Cobalt ana Its Uses. L. Sanderson (Sands, Clays, and Minerals, , (4), 5I-5ÎÏ). A brief account is given of the mineralogy and uses of cobalt. _g p,...w?eer.,yes,sf^ ÏOr Decomposing Fats. R. Heublum (Metallwirtschaft. ' V* Copper is slightly attacked bv fattv acids at first, but a protective him is soon formed which prevents further attack and has no effect on the tat hydrolysis reaction: copper vessels are. therefore, suitable for the decomposition of fats by the Twitchell method. v. G. Copper in Modem Breweries. Josef Mederer (Apparatebau, , ; z - l -d- Kupfersehntied., , ). An illustrated article on the uses of copper in making brewery plant. M. H. Sheet Copper Combats Corrosion by Salt Water. Anon. (Butt. Copper and >rass Res. Assoc., (75), 5). The use of copper in the construction of swimming pools and buildings at Jones Beach, New York, is briefly referred to and illustrated. J. S. G. T. Copper in Window Frames and Shop Fronts. Anon. (Cuivre et Laiton, 1933 : Ibo-l j ti, , S). The advantages-of copper in the construction oi such exposed parts as window frames are summarized. Their manufacture is described. and i [lustrations are given of the various t-vpes of sections in most common use. Oi the materials used, pure copper, brass containing ' copper. Tombac with 80-90% copper, special brasses containing small proportions of nickel, iron, manganeso, or aluminium, ahumnitim-bronze or ordinary bronze containing 90-70% of copper and 10-30% tin are most frequently employeu. l o illustrate the construction of different tvpes of window trames, examples are shown from actual buildings, mainlv in America. Straight. opening, pivoting, and bascule windows are included. VV. V C N" of Covering in Copper. Anon. (Cuivre, et Laiton, 1933, 6, 319- ^ ^ " ri * (^) general technical methods for the execution of copper coverings: (2) methods for making gutters and down-pipes: (3) methods for flat copper coverings with hammered sections; and (4) coverings with raised joints. vv. A. C. jx- Americas First Copper House Strikes a New Note in Construction. An on tbull, Copper ana Bras* Res. Assoc , (78), 6). Tho construction of a op p er-cov em l house is illustrated. The entire exterior is copper-coveredabout of the copper is- lead-coated. J. S. G. T. Million and Quarter Pounds oi Copper Alloys in New Structure. Anon. L C!JVPZ ul -i JM33, (76), 2-3}. The use of copper and SnGr T Bt0nx C uaty Court ifeuse» d escried and New Low-Cost Paper-Thin Copper Finds Variety o i Uses. Anon. ( Bull. Correrán* Brass R^^Assoc., 1933, (76), 10). Th* application of Electrosheet.copper as thm as paper) for roofing aud decorative purposes is bneny descched and illustrated.- J. S. G. T.

129 1934 X X I. Industrial Uses and Applications 4 9 JIM? f - eo < ^ 0yT,e; James T- KetnP i Wire and Wire Products, 1933, 8, /, 342). Read before the Wire Association. Outlines the development and principal uses of wire consisting of pure copper, copper containing small amounts of cadmium, tin, silicon, aluminium, manganese or beryllium, and 80: 20 red bras3. J. H. W. Applications of Bronze in the Construction of Electric Tramway Accessories. L Trolley-Head. Anon. (Cuivre el Laiton, 1933, 6, ). W. A. C. K. Historical and Technical Notes on the Greatest Statue in the World in Hammered Bronze The Statue of Liberty, New York. A. Chaplet..J ii Gauthier (Cuivre et Laiton, 1933, 6, ). An interesting description of the construction, both from a historical and a technical point of view of the Statue of Liberty. W. A. C. X. Bronze Railroad Bearings Improved through Research. Anon. (Bull C opper awl Brass Res. Assoc., 1933, (75), 15). A circulating type of bearing effecting improvement of lubrication is illustrated and brief! v described. J. T. Iron Wire (Bronze-Plated), Its Applications and Technical Requirements. } ' Zvetkov and I. Dembo [Ovladenie TeJdmikoi.: KozJiobuvnoe Prmzvodstoo, 1932, i-) ; C. Abg., 1933, Zi, 5702). [In Russian.] Various tests are described. S. G. Tentative Standards for Universal Bronze-Plated Wire. Anon. (OvladenieJTtkhmkoi: KozhoUuvnoe Proizvodslvo. 1932, (2), 43-44; C. A le., 1933, 27,5702). [In Russian.] Various tests are described. S. G. Applications of Tungum. Anon. {Met. Ind. (Land.). 1933, 43, S). A brief description of the principal uses of the alloy Tungum. J. H. W. The Manufacture of Electric Cables. G. Martinez (M~et. Ind. (Lond.), 1932, 41, , ). Slightly condensed from a paper read before the I ort-smouth Branch of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The processes considered are confined to the manufacture of paper-insulated cables. Copper of high purity is used as conducting material: full details are given of t he drawing process, of the necessary annealing, and of its effects bn the mechanical properties of the wire. Stranding, shaping, and laving up are described. The sheathing process utilizes either lead or lead allov'; alreq uent source of failure is the formation of oxide films at the junction of consecutive charges during extrusion. Typical microstruetures are illustrated. The production of the oil-filled cable is discussed, and a special feeding tank is described. Some details as to oil-filled high-tension cable lines actually in use are appended. P. M. C. R. Lead Alloys for Building Applications {Engineering, 1933, 136, 127). Abstract of report entitled B.N-F. Ternary Allovs of Lead Their Use in Buildings," published by H.M. Stationery Office. See J. Inst Metals 1933, 53, 459. W. P. R. Vaporization of Lead in Homogeneous Lead Coating Processes. Hans Engel and Victor Froboese (Melallwaren-Ind. u. Calvam-Tech., , 360; and Jndust. Cases, 1933, 14,44). Abstract of a paper in Arch. Hygiene, 1925, 96, ; see J. hast. Metals, 1926, 36, 592. A. R. P. Construction of Welded Magnesium Alloy] Gondolas for Stratospheric Balloons. Jean Piccard (W dding Eng., 1933,18, (6) ). Describes the construction of the gondola to be used by P. and Settle in their ascent from Chicago. A magnesium alloy was used. H. W. G. H. Rolled Nickel in Composite Metal Products. Anon, ( Welder, 1933, 4, (30), 3-8). A description o l nickel-clad steel including it«physical and mechanical properties, structure, working, advantages, and use». H. H. The Place of Nickel in Radio Tube Manufacture. A. J. Marino (Electronics, 1933, 6, (1), 4-5). Summarizes the properties of nickel w'hicli render it suitable for use in the manufacture of radio val ves. For grid wires the alloys of nickel with manganese or chromium are largely used and are replacing more expensive

130 50 Metallurgical A b sir acts Y o l. 1 metals such as molybdenum. The requirements of the valve industiy call Jor very caretul control of the melting and subsequent working and annealing of nickel and its alloys. The percentage elongation is usnallv specified -when ordering. S. Y. W. ~ ' Experiences and Hints on the Manufacture of Tanks from Monel Metal Sheet. Rudolf Müller (Apparatebau, 3933, 45, 97-99; and Z.V.d. KupferschnuetL, 19«>3, 45, 12&-131). The bending, "welding, and soldering of Monel metal sheet in making tanks are described. M. EL " Sterilization of Domestic Drinking Waters with Metallic Silver. André iuing íjíuzl Acad, MedL, , S30-S39; C. Abs , 5450). Pure, especially distided, "water acquires bactericidal properties after having been in contact -rath large surfaces, of silver for 15 minutes. The antiseptic po-wer remains unchanged after the addition of chlorine ions; it is destroved bv ny arogen sulphide.. The precipitate of calcium carbonate formed bv boilir natural w aters removes the acidity. Electric current has no influence. 1 litre contained 0-05 nur. silver. S. G. A Sodium Glow Lamp. P. H. Xewman (PML Mag , fvii], 16, J 114 ). < characteristics of glow lamps of the ordinary type containing fillincs iii sodium and either neon or argon are briefly discussed.,t. S. G. T.,. Ges-Pree Metals Used in X-Ray Tubes. W. I). Coolidire and E. E. Charlton \M*tal jreffresr, (5), S6-4U). From a paper presented "before the Elcctrical Congress. Paris A historical survev of the evolutiono f the X-ray tube is followed by an account of the production of tungsten m a ductile form. The metal so treated is now substituted for platearon an the target; the copper block employed for bacldnc must be carefully deoxidized by treatment wit h boron, and is then attached to the tungsten by veiy («refully controlled heating in vacuo. The effects of various cases on the nie of the tungsten target are summarized. The substitution of tungsten lor aluminium in the eathodc proved successful in the hot-cathode trae of tube, *n example of which is described and illustrated. Here the whole' tercet consists of tungsten its supports being of molybdenum. The importance'of ue-gassing t be metals in question is emphasized, and the influence of time and temperature on this process is discussed. P, M. C- R, _ Cathode Tubes. Rudolf Sewig [ArtJi, tech. Mrssrn, (20), t2s). The principle of the cathode t ube is stated, and the relat ive merits of tnncsten. thorium, and hanum as cathodes are discussed, with the special adaptations 1 developments are described, and their nomenclature is explained. P. M. C. R. Pnce, Patent Position and Uses of Sintered Hard Metals. Karl Becker 1933, 12, 375. S91-S92,407-40$)... A it-vicw.-v, G. Price.. Patent Position, and Performance of Sintered Hard Metals Kh mlirnructuijl l!w ).- Remarks of tbe Krnwn A.-G. o n K. Becker's a,,ule ijmveümg abstract) and R. s reply v. G. ^»asenham.' Anon. {M ed m and Batteric.% n rmi mnlfltrvr t 1% ^htstra-tod description of the manufacture of BM enhlm " Pritehett and Gold and E.P.S. Co., Ltd., T ess cä V S >\i.lcw v fsv Öy f?*eet Z,ini ior W! i m Batteries ana Methods of 12, ).- The manufacture 1,1 V ^ > )' - ^ ^ -s p w v processes described. J, 1 f'?t testin I«--;! -result- Ir i ' ".V ^ ohilion in 10% sulphuric acid gives the impurities m t l i e V i n e. ^ v i ^ *6 AK>,he objectionable a n d ^ Y «. f 4 I * Proem. G. Lnndo, H. Krincsted, UW1 K- s,m. K rk k.-f. m ud*

131 1934 X X I. Industrial Uses and Applications 5 1 lies. Assoc., 1933, (60), 17). [In Norwegian, with an English abstract.] These investigations show that the vitamin-d content of canned brisling sardines is almost as high as that of fresh fish, loss of vitamin-,-! during canning being negligible. Brisling sardines stored for 2 yrs. in tins as well as in aluminium cans have a vitamin-4 content equal to that of the newly-packed product. S. G. Prescriptions ol Quality for Sheets, Tubes, Screw's, Rivets, and Wires. Georg Richter (Anz. Berg, Hiilten- u. Masch., 1933, 55, (62), 5-6). Present German standard specifications for brass, bronze, copper, nickel-silver, and aluminium sheets, for copper tubes, screw's, and rivets of special brasses, copper wires, overhead trolley wires, and steel-cored aluminium transmission cables are summarized. B. Bl. Laminated Metals. George A. Ruehmling (Machinist (Evr. Edn.), 1933, 77, E ). The requirements of metals suitable for use in laminations, the forms these laminations may take, and their applications are described. J. H. W. Structural Materials for Heavy Vehicles Kracht (Automobiltech. Z , 36, ). Abstract in exlenso of a paper read before the Automobilund Flugtechnische Gesellschaft. Structural materials are reviewed from the view-point that metals or alloys should preferably be of German origin. The supply of aluminium is seriously threatened by the shortage of German bauxite, but advances in remelting practice have facilitated the use of scrap. Elcktron is of increasing importance, but its greater corrodibility prevents its entirely replacing aluminium. The possibility of replacing tin and antimony in bronzes and bearing-metals is considered. P. M. C. R. Metals in Aircraft Construction. Robert Jones (Heat-Treating and Forging, 1933, 19, 35-37). The application of various metals and alloys to aircraft construction, their heat-treatment, and anodic hardening are briefly described. J. H. W. Brewers Find Changes Among Construction Materials. Anon. (Chem. and Met. Eng., 1933, 40, ). During the long period of inactivity in the brewing industry in the U.S.A., rapid strides have been made in new methods, equipment, and construction materials. Tons of copper and brass arc now' being fabricated into kettles, filter presses, and pumps, and such materials as Nickel-Glad, metallized w'ood, and bonded metal (metal to which a felted material is attached by a metal adhesive) have become available. Stainless steels have also been exploited during the depression and become firmly established in the process industries. Sterling silver at its present record low price is within reach of the chemical engineers, and some of its applications are given. Illustrations are given of a bronze filter press with coppcr sheet strainers and two ammonia beer coolers of stainless steel. F. J. The Problem of the Water-Cooled Piston Rod in Two-Stroke Cycle Double Acting Oil Engines. S. F. Dorey (Trans. Inst. Naval Arch., 1933, 75, ). In dealing with problems connected with the water-cooled piston, reference is made to the corrosion-fatigue of such pistons, and among the methods suggested as a means of protecting the steel rod from such influences, is the use of a sleeve of cupro-nickel. Protection by the electrodeposition of metals such as nickel, cadmium, and chromium is also considered, but is not recommended. J. W. D. Economical Construction of Complicated Punch- and Die-Sets. A. Eyles (Mecli. World, 1933, 93, ). Apart from the mass of expensive steel used, a one-piecc die of any complication means much intricate and costly handwork. The work can be cheapened by the use of alloys of low meltingpoint to form a matrix for holding the various parts of the dies together. Another application of these alloys is in moulds for pressing composition and fibre. The compositions and some physical properties of a number of suitable alloys are tabulated. F. J.

132 Metallurgical A bstracts V o l. 1 Heat Technology Turns to New Mediums. Anon. (Chem. and Mel. Eng., 3933, 40, ). Perhaps the outstanding tendency in heat application to-day, in all cases, where high temperatures must be maintained, is to get away from direct firing of equipment and to substitute some of the new hightemperature heat-transfer media that have recently come into use. The best-known of these applications is probably the Sun Oil Co. s mercuryvapour process for lubricating oil distillation. This process is briefly described. In the field of power-gencration, the principle of the Emmett mercury boiler has recently been used in the large new mercury-vapour plant built at Schenectady by the General Electric Co. Reference is also made to the drum, made of alternate bands of rubber and Monel metal, on which thin sheets of ice are formed. The properties and uses of Alfol are also briefly discussed. F. J. X X II. MISCELLANEOUS What a Non-Ferrous Metallurgist Should Be. Sylvain F. Perin (Chim. d hid , Special No. (March), ). I. M. The Function of the Chemical and Metallurgical Industries in an Economic European Entente. I. J. Moltkehanscn (Chiin. d Ind , Special No. (March), 2S7-290). T. M. Chapters in Crystal Chemistry for College Freshmen. Part H. Chapter HI. Metals and Alloys. The Metallic State. Charles W. Stillwell (J. Chan. Education, , ). The characteristics of metals and alloys and the nature of metallic compounds, especially those of copper and zinc, are described. J. H, W. Materials of Industry. Anon. (Machinery (Land.), 1933, 42, ). A brief review of some recent developments in non-ferrous metals and allovs. j. c. c: Knowledge of the Metals in Ancient India. R. X. Bhagvat (./. Chew. Education, , ), Abstracts are given of a " Treatise on Politv." written by Chanakya or Kautilya in the 4th century s.o., describing briefly the metallurgy, extraction, testing, and purification of gold, silver, and copper. Mention is made of mercurv, iron, steel, lead. tin. and other materials. J. H: W. Introduction to the Hamburg Aluminium Day. E. Roth ( Werft, Kfcdcrci. Hafm. 1933, 14, S). A survey of the growth of the German aluminium and light-metal industry. P. M. C. K. Report of the Aluminium Meeting in Hamburg, 19SS. Anon. ( Werft, Ii-:e~urei. H au». 1933, 14. 2S3-2S9), An account of the Aluminium Festival Meeting. Sept. 14, Abstracts are given of the Presidential Address by E. E'h. on Aluminium, the German metal " ; and of the following papers: E. Forrfier: The present application and future significance of aluminium and its alloys in shipping and aviation: H\ 'ah*! Structural problems and the invest ion of strength in seaplane construction: Hans i-chmitl z Eleetric oxidat ion of ahunixuam and its alloys; Hrrlig; Protection of licht metal surfaces; Wfdlhsr Zargts: On the conception of light metal con-5truetion: H. G ave**: The joining of light met-al.~ l\ M. C. l\^, ^p*nsfenmitktt of Aluminium into Nickel? Anon. ( M, ; 193X, IS. 331!. A newspaper report that aluminium has been converted successfully int» nickel should be received with caution. - v. G. PreTencoa of Lead Poisoning in Industry. G. 11. Gehrmann >h<t. J. : - Hc-Jih, 1933, 33, 1^7-692). S. G,.J k a w a a se.: Its Owsmence and Uses. Robert Kidgway t M<L /?«.'. (/., 19m, 43. Sör >4 i, Abstract of I Bur, M. l ire* No See J. Inst. 1933, 53. SSI. J, H, \Y.

133 1934 X X I I. Miscellaneous Swansea Spelter, Sulphuric Acid Production. T. Benson Gvles [Times Trade and Eng. Suppt. (Industrial Wales Section), 1933, 33, (799), 23). New zino alloys, calling for of a high purity, have been developed. Of these the Mazak type of alloys are being extensively used its pressure die eastings. Reference is also made to the use of zino in pigments and also to the production of sulphuric acid. S. V. W. Magnetic Pulleys in the Non-Ferrous Metal Industries. C. H. S. Tupholmo (Met. Ind. (Lond.), 1933, 43, 4S5-4S6). Tho construction, requirements, and applications of a magnetic pulley, suitable for removing magnetic material from non-ferrous metals and for treating foundry sands, are described. J. II. \V. Reducing Material Waste. C. H. McKnight (Mech. Eng., , ; and (abstract) Mech. World, 1932, 91, ). Much waste of material, hitherto considered inevitable, can bo saved by intelligent co-ordination of design, process, and labour efficiency. Some useful adaptations of design and proccss are described and illustrated. P. M. C. 11. Workshop Practice in Automobile Engineering. (Sir) Herbert Austin [Trans. Inst. Eng. Ship. Scotland, , 75, ; discussion, ; and (abstract) Mech. World, 1932, 91, ). Rccont developments include the extended use of automatic or semi-automatic machinery, necessitating careful alignment and inspection, and requiring rigidly standardized material. Certain cutting, grinding, and forging assemblies arc described, the application of clcctric welding is considered, the electrical upset method of valve manufacture is summarized, and the close correlation of all manufacturing processes is justified by a brief statement of output and prices. P. M. C. It Stimulated Ingenuity. Joseph Geschelin (Automotive Ind., 1933, 08, 71-72, 80). A review of recent developments in manufacturing equipment, heat-treatment, plating, welding, and evolution of new materials in P. M. 0. R. Glossary of Technical Terms. Anon. (Light Metals Research, 1933, 2, (31), 3S + xv pp.). A glossary of metallurgical terms in English, German, French, and Italian. J. C. C. A Slide Rule for Converting Weight Percentages into Atomic Percentages. C. Herrmann (Metallwirtschaft, 1933, 12, ). The slido rule can bo obtained from the editorial offices of the periodical Metallunrlschaft. v. G. Engineering Research at the National Physical Laboratory. If. J. Gough (Tram. Inst. Eng. Skip. Scotland, ,76, ). in a description of the various activities of the N.P.L., special attention is given to tho work carried out in the Engineering Department, particularly in connection with tho mechanical properties of materials at high temperatures, and tensile, creep, fatigue, impact, and torsion tests at such temperatures are discussed. Special consideration is also given to the testing of chains and lifting gear components. In the discussion important points are raised both in regard to high-temperature testing and in the testing and annealing of chains..f, W. 1). The Torsion and Flexure of Shafting with Koyways or Cracks. W. M. Shepherd (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1932, [A], 138, ). Tho stresses in shafts of circular cross-section, having keyways or slits cut in them and subjected to torsion or bent by a transverse load at one end, arc investigated mathematically. J. S. G. T.

134 54 Mäulliirgical Abstracts V ol. 1 X X III. BIBLIOGRAPHY (Publications marked * may be consulted in the library.) Akademie Verein Hutte, E.V. Herausgegeben von. Hütic," Das Ingenieur* Taschenbuch. 26, neubearbeitete Auflage. [4 Bände.] Band 3 (2 Lfgn.) Lsiferung 1. Pp Berlin: Emst k Sohn. Aluminium-Zentrale e.v. Aluminium-Taschenbuch.. Dritte Auflage. Post Svo. Pp. 150, illustrated Lautawerk (Lausitz) : Aluminium- Zenirale e.v.»association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux. Report of Proceedings of the Tenth Conference, Med. Svo. Pp. 150, illustrated London : The Association, 16 Russell Sq., W.C.l. (5s.) 'Bardtke, P. Technique o f Modem Welding. Authorized Translation, from the Second German Edition, with additions and revision by Prof. Bardtke, by Harold Kenney. Med. Svo. Pp. xi -j- 299, illustrated London and Glasgow : Blackie and Son, Ltd. (15s.) Bauer, 0., H. Arndt, und W. Krause. D ie Verchromung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Anwendung im Automobäbau. R oy. Svo. P p.256, with 216illustrations Berlin: M. K ram. * Behrens, Otto. Der Einfluss der Korrosion auf die Biegungsschwingungsfestigkeit von Stählen und Reinnickel. (Mitteilungen des Wöhler- Instituts, Braunschweig, Heft 15.) Demy Svo. Pp. iv -{- 73, with 38 illustrations Berlin : XEM-Verlag G.m.b.H., Schöneberger Ufer 34. (R.M ) *Brag?, Sir s W. H., and W. L. Bragg. The Crystalline State- Volume I..1 General Survey. Bv W. L. Bragg. Med. Svo. Pp. xiv -j- 352, with 187 illustrations London: G. Bell and Sons, Ltd. ( 'Brearley, Harry. Steel-Maiers. Demy Svo. Pp. xiii - f London : Longmans, Green and Co. (äs. net.) British Aluminium Company, Ltd. Aluminium in Architecture and Decoration. (No. 355.) 7 x 9 in. Pp. 3S, illustrated London: The British Aluminium Co., Ltd., Adelaide House, King William St. 'British Standards Institution. British Standard Specification for Medium- Hard Copper Strip, Bars, and Rods for Electrical Purposes. (Xo. 51S.) Demy 8vo. Pp London : British Standards Institution, 28 Victoria St., S.W.l. (2s. 2d.. post free.) Bujanow, W. I. Lead Production. [In Russian.] Pp Swerdlowsk and Moscow : Ural. obi. gos. isd. (Rbl ) Callendar, G. S., and F. E. Hoare. Correction Tables for Use with Platinum Resistance Thermometers. Pp London : Edward Arnold. (Is. net.) Campbell, Colin, and J. B. SI. Herbert. Laboratory Tables for Qualitative Analysis. Drawn up by the Demonstrators in Chemistry, University of Manchester. Fourth edition, revised and rewritten. Med. 4to. 17 cards Manchester : Manchester University Press. (3s. 6d. net.) Comité technique international du Carbure et de la Soudure. Recueil de la Soudure autogène. Tome IV. Soudure des Métaux non-ferreux. Pp Paris : Ch. Béranger. (Relié, 30 francs.) Debye, P. Struktur der M aterie: 1 ter Vorträge. Demy Svo. Pp. iv Leipzig : S. Hirzel. (R.M. 3.)»Deutsche Materialprüfungsanstalten. Mitteilungen der deutschen Materialprüfungsanstalten. Sonderheft X X II : Arbeiten aus dem Staatlichen

135 1934 X X I I I. Bibli ography Materialprüflingsamt zu Berlin-Dahlem. 4to, Pp. 59, illustrated«1933. Berlin : Julius Springer. (R.M. 12.) [Contains the following papers: G. Schikorr : " Über Theorl uiul Systematik der Korrosion der Metalle O. Schikorr: Über die Theorie der Korrosion des Eisens G. Schikorr : Über die AuUösung von Aluminium in Laugen ; G. Schikorr : Uber die Korrosion des Aluminiums durch Natriumchloridlösung unter Wasserst oitontwickiung ; O. Bauer u. G. Schikorr: Über die Einwirkung von alkoholhaltigen Treibstoffen auf Aluminium und Aluminiumlegierungen ; K. Deiss u. II. Blumenthal: * Die Analyse von Kupfer Nickel plattiertem Stahlmaterlal j E. Schürmanu u. K. Charislus; Zur gewichtsanalytischen Bestimmung des Gehalts an Bleioxyd in Mennige ; 11. Blumenthal: Antimontrichloridverfahren zur Bestimmung des Bieidioxydgehaltes in Mennige ; H. Blumenthal: Zur Bestimmung des Kupfergehaltes von Haudelsmennige ; H. Blumenthal: Zur Bestimmung des Magnesiums in manganhaltlgen Aluminium-Magnesiumlegierungen V. Rodt u. K. Charlsius : Uber^das ^ erhalten von Eisen II salzlösungen beim Oxydieren mit Brom *; V. R od t: Zur Entstehung von Eisen-II-III-oxyd (Fe90 4 x aq.) in wässeriger Lösung V. Ilod t: Zur Einwirkung des braunen hydratischen Eisenoxydes (FesOj x aq.) und des gelben Eisenoxydh} dratea ( F e ^ j auf einige Mctallhydroxyde in alkalischer Lösung ; A. Ilo d t : Zur V O H / E ntstehung von gelbem E isen oxydhydrat F e ^ aus den Eisensulftden. J X01I *Deutscher Verband Technisch-Wissenschaftlicher Vereine E.V. KurztUelverzeichnis Technisch- Wissenschaftlicher Zeitschriften* Demy ^vo. lp Berlin : Deutscher Verband Technisch-Wissenschaftlicher Vereine E.V., Ingenieurhaus, Friedrich-Ebert Str. 27. Devffle, H. Sainte-Claire. Aluminium; its Manufacture, Properties, and Uses. Translated from the French by Robert J. Anderson. Med. bvo. Pp. xv + 204, with 13 illustrations Cleveland, 0. : Sherwood Press, B os 2617, Lakewood Branch. ($5.00, post free.) Dingwall, Eric John. How to Use a Large Library. Second edition. Foap. 8vo. Pp Cambridge : Bowes and Bowes. {As. not.) Duval, R., S. Veil, C. Eicher, P. Job, et V. Lombard. M cm -M rom e-cobalt. Etude generale des Complexes. Pp. xxm Pans; Masson et Cie. (200 francs.). Dymow, A. M. Works Methods of Metallurgical Analysis. [In Russian.] Pp Moscow and Leningrad : Goschimtechisdat. (Kt>l.-.) Faraday, Michael. Faraday s D iary; being the Various Philosophical Notea of Experimental Investigation made by Michael l'araday, D.C.L., F.R.S., during the Years and bequeathed by him to the Roval Institution of Great Britain, now, by order of the Managers, printed and published for the first time, under the editorial supervision of Thomas Martin. In seven volumes. Sup. Roy. Svo. \ oliinio I I. M a y 26, 1836-N ov. 9, Pp. xn Volume I V : JSov. 1-, J u n e 26, Pp. xii London: G. Bell and Sons, Ltd. ( «. for 7 vols.)»frankenberg, Hans. Der Einfluss von Drehschwingungsbeanspruciungen auf die Festigkeit und Dämpfungsfähigkeit v o n Metallen besonders von Aluminium-Legierungen. (Mitteilungen des Wohler-lnstituts, Braunschweig, Heft 16.) Dcmy 8vo. Pp. iv -^ J i5, with 6- illustrations Berlin: NEM-Verlag G.m.b.H., Schoneberger Ufer 34. (K.M ) * Freeman, Henry. Herausgegeben von. Deutsch-Englisches Fachwörterbuch MetMurgie {Eieen- und MetaUMUenknide). Erster Teil: DeuUch- Englisch. Cr. 8vo. Pp Leipzig: Otto Spanier Veilag G.m.b.H. (Geb., R.M. 25.)

136 56 Metallurgical A bstracts V o l. 1 Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie. Achtc völlig neu bearbeitete Auflage. Herausgegeben von der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. Bearbeitet von R. j. Meyer. System-Nummer 59 : Eisen. Teil A Lieferung 5. Roy. Svo. Pp , with numerous illustrations Berlin: Verlag Chemie G.m.b.H. (R.M. 50; subscription price, R.M ) *Gough, Herbert John. Crystalline Structure in Relation to Failure of Metals, Especially by Fatigue. Edgar Marburg Lecture, Presented at a joint session of the American Society for Testing Materials and Section M (Engineering) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. (Authorized reprint from the Proceedings of the American Society for Testing Materials, Volume 33, Part II, 1933.) Med. Svo. Philadelphia, Pa. : American Society for Testing Materials, 1315 Spruce St. ( SI.00.) Gros, Charles. Traité complet de soudage aux soudures fortes et aux soudures crétain, suivi d examples d applications pratiques. Pp Paris : Desforges, Girardot et Cie. (Br., 10 francs.) Hampshire, Charles H. Volumetric Analysis. Fifth edition. Pp London : J. and A. Churchill. (8s. Gd. net.) Hardouin, Maurice. Étude des Flux d'épuration et de projection du Magnésium et de ses Alliages pendant leur Fusion dans les Creusets et leur Coulée dans les Moules. Pp Paris : Gauthier-Villars et Blondel La Rougery. (Br., 20 francs.) *Herold Wilfried. Die Wechselfestigkeit metallischer Werkstoffe, ihre Bestimmung und Anwendung. Med. Svo. Pp. vii+ 276, with 165 illustrations W ien: Julius Springer. (R.M. 24.) *Hodgman, Charles D. Edited by. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics..1 Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data. Eighteenth edition. Fcap. Svo. Pp. xiii + ISIS Cleveland, O. : Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., West 112th St. and Locust Avenue. (S6.00.) Imperial Institute. The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries. Statistical Summary (Production, Imports and Exports) Med. Svo. Pp London : H.M. Stationery Office. (6s. 6(I. net.) [Includes statistics regarding the follow in g m etallic m aterials : alum inium, an tim o ny, arsenic, barium m inerals, b ism u th, cadm ium, chrom e ore and chrom ium, cobalt, copper, g o ld, iron and steel, lead, m agnesite, m anganese, m olybd enum, nickel, platinum, pyrites, quicksilver, silver, strontium m inerals, tin, titan iu m m inerals, tungsten, uranium m inerals, van adiu m, and zinc. A useful list o f statistical publications is appended.) International Acetylene Association. Official Proceedings. Thirty-Third Annual Convention of the International Acetylene Association, Penn Athletic Club, Philadelphia, November , Med. Svo. Pp. x v New Y ork: International Acetylene Association, 30 East 42nd St. [Contains the follow in g : J. H. C ritchett, " R ecent A dvances and Future E xpectations o f the O xy-a ce tylen e P r o ce ss ; J. J. Feichter, Sales A d vantages o f W e ld e d P r o d u c t«; S. L. L a n d, Training Journeym en in W e ld in g ; R. O. W illia m s, " W elded Piping in a Central H e a tin g and P ow er P la n t ; F. J. M aeurer, E co nom ic A dvantages o f W e ld e d P iping in H o m e s ; A. J. W illia m s, E ngineering as A pplied to A ircraft in F lig ht ; E. W. C lcxton, W eldin g in the Construction o f XaS'itl A ircraft ; W. Constance, Building Up and Heat-Treating Kail Ends ; L. H. Scheitele, Maintenance of Railroad Equipment by Oxy-Acetylene W elding ; J. W. Cottrell, Maintenance of Bus and Motor Truck Equipment. ) International Acetylene Association. Report of Oxy-Acetylene Committee. Presented at the Annual Meeting, Chicago, 111., September, Med, Svo. Pp. IS New York : International Acetylene Association, 30 East 42nd St.

137 1934 X X I I I. Bibliography 57 International Beratsgesstelle für Karbid und Sehweisstechnik. Herausgegeben von der. Sammelwerk der Autogen-Schweissung. Band IV. Schiceissen der Nichteisenmetalle. 80 Bl H alle: Curl.Marliold. (Lw. M. 6.) Jukkola, Elmer Ely. The Preparation aml Properties o f Some Rare Earth Metals. Pp Urbana : University of Illinois. (25 cents.) Langeron, M. Precis dc Microscopic.. 6 edition ref. Pp Paris : Masson ct Cie. (Br., 86 francs ; cart, 100 francs.) Lavroff, S. I. Lichtbogen-Schiveisselektroden. Praxis mul Theorie des Lichtbogen-Schweissverfahrens mul des Herstellung des Elektroden. Pp Berlin : Siemens. (Lw. M. 8.50). Library Association. Issued by the. The Subject Index to Periodicals Roy. 4to. Pp. x London: Library Association. (70*'.) Liddell, Donald M., and Gilbert E. Doan. The Principles of Metallurgy. Med. Svo. Pp. vii + 626, with numerous illustrations New Y ork : McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. (S5.50); London: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Ltd. (30s. net.) *Lottner, Gottfried. Störungen beim Betrieb von Azetylenapparaten uml ihre Beseitigung. Cr. 8vo. Pp. 63, with 19 illustrations Halle a.s. : Carl Marhold. (Kart, R.M ) National Research Council of Japan. Report. Volume II, No. 1. April, 1931-Mareh, Demy 8vo T ok y o: National Research Council of Japan, Imperial Academy House, Ueno Park. Royal Mint. Sixty-Third Annual Report of the Deputy Master and Comptroller of the Royal Mint, Med. 8vo. Pp. iv + 155, with 4 plates London : H.M. Stationery Office. (3s. 6d. net.) Sachs, G. Praktische Metallkunde. Schmelzen -und Giessen, spanlose Formung, Wärmebehandlung. Erster Teil: Schmelzen und Giessen. Med. Svo. Pp. viii + 272, with 323 illustrations in the text and 5 plates Berlin: Julius Springer. (R.M ) Schack, Alfred. Industrial Heat Transfer. Translated from the German by Hans Goldschmidt and Everett P. Partridge. Med. 8vo. Pp. xxiii New York: John Wiley and Sons, In c.; London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd. (31s. net.) Schmidmer, E. L. Ein Beitrag zur statischen und. dynamischen. Härteprüfung. (Forschungsarbeiten Uber Metallkunde und Röntgenmetallographie, F. 5.) Roy. 8vo. Pp München: Verlag Vogelrieder. (R.M ) Scientific and Learned Societies. The Official Year-Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Britain and Ireland. With a record of publications issued during session Compiled front official sources. Fiftieth Annual Issue. Foreword by Sir Richard Gregory. Demy 8vo. Pp. viii London: Charles Griffin and Co., Ltd. (10s. net.) Ssobolew, M. N. Cadmium and the Possibilities of Production in the U.S.S.Ii. [In Russian.] Pp. iv Moscow, Leningrad, and Swerdlowsk : Metallurgisdat. (ltbl. 1.) Statens Provningsanstalt, Stockholm. Bcrätlclse over Statens Provningsanstalts Verksamhel under är Med. 8vo. Pp Stockholm : Statens Provningsanstalt. Steger, H. Metallgießerei. (System Karnack-Hachfeld : Technische Selbstunderreichts-Briefe.) Lieferung I. Roy. 8vo. Pp Potsdam : Bonncss und Hachfeld. (R.M ) Trapesnikow, A. K. Fundamentals of Rönlgcnography. [In Russian.] Pp Moscow and Leningrad: Gos. techn.-theoret. isd. (Rbl. 5.)

138 58 Metallurgical Abstracts V o l. 1 *Union des Industries Métallurgiques et Minières, de la Construction Mécanique Électrique et Métallique, et des Industries qui s y rattachent. Annuaire, Demy Svo. Pp. xix - f Paris : Union des Industries Métalliques (&e.) : 7 Rue do Madrid. *U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau oï Standards. Fourdrinier Wire Cloth. (Second edition.) Commercial Standard CS Med. 8vo. Pp Washington, D.C. : Superintendent of Documents. (5 cents.) *U.S. Department o Commerce, Bureau o Standards. Report of the National Screw Thread Commission. (Revised 1933.) (Miscellaneous Publication No. 141). Med. Svo. Pp. viii + 171, with 56 illustrations Washington, D.C. : Government Printing Office. (15 cents.) Velten, Andreas. Spanlose Formung der Metalle in Maschinenfabriken durch Giesserei, Schmieden, Schweissen, und Härten. Band I. Formerei und Giesserei. (Bibliothek der gesamten Technik, 339.) 10, neubcarb. Auflage. Pp. xiv Leipzig : Max Jänecke. (R.M ) *Verö, J. On the Influence of the ß-Constituent upon the Properties of 63 : 37 Brass. (Aus den Mitteilungen der berg- und hüttenmännischen A b teilung an der kg. ung. Hochschule für Berg- und Forstwesen zu Sopron, Ungarn. Band Y.) 4to. Pp. 7, with 1 figure Sopron : Pachter der Rottig Romwalter Druckerei. *Verö, J. Untersuchungen über Gleichgewichtsverhältnisse weiterlegierter Bronzen. I I I. Die Kupferreichen Cu-Mn-Sn-Legierungen. (Aus den Mitteilungen der berg- und hüttenmännischen Abteilung an der kg. ung. Hochschule für Berg- und Forstwesen zu Sopron, Ungarn. Band V.) 4to. Pp. 28, with 26 illustrations Sopron : Pachter der Rottig Romwalter Druckerei. Wagner, Hermann. Untersuchungsmethoden für die Yernicklungs- und Yerchromungspraxis. Pp Leipzig: Jänecke. (M ) Who s Who, An Annual Biographical Dictionary with which is incorporated Men and Women of the Time. Eighty-sixth year of issue. Post 8vo. Pp. lxiv London : A. and C- Black, Ltd. (60«.) v. Zeerleder, A. Technologie des Aluminiums und semer Legierungen. Pp Leipzig : Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft G.m.b.H. (R.M. 14.) THESES. *Borchers, Heinz. Untersuchungen über Beryllium und das System Kupfer- Beryllium. Dissertation zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktor- Ingenieurs. Vorgelegt von der Technischen Hochschule, Aachen. 4to. Pp. 13, with 11 illustrations Aachen: Bibliothek der Technischen Hochschule. *Demmer, Arthur. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Lagermetalle auf Blei-Zinn- Basis. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde einer Hohen Philosophischen Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms- Universität zu Bonn. Med. 8vo. Pp Bonn : Verein Studentenwohl e.v. *Doktàr, Boris. Produktionsabbau in der Eisenqiesserei bei Depressionen. Betriebliche Massnahmen zur Erhaltung der Wirtschaftlichkeit. Von der Eidgenössischen Technischen Hochschule in Zürich zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der technischen Wissenschaften genehmigte Promotionsarbeit. (Nr. 703.) Med. Svo. Pp. 91, with 8 illustrations Zürich : Bibliothek d. Eidg. Technischen Hochschule.

139 1934 XXIII. Bibliografthy 5 9 *Einecke, Werner. Das Wolfram in der Weltwirtschaft. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Staats wissenschaftlichen Doktorwürde der Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Hamburg. Med. 8vo. Pp Hamburg: Universitäts Bibliothek. 'Günther, Georg. Die deutsche Rohaluminiumiiulustrie. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Staats Wissenschaft liehen Doktorwürde der Hohen Philosophischen Fakultät der Universität Leipzig. Med. 8vo. Pp Leipzig : Universitäts Bibliothek. *Moegen, Otto. Kritische Untersuchungen zur Kalorimetrischen Bestimmung kleinster Aluminiummengen. Inaugural-Dissertation verfasst und der Hohen Medizinischen Fakultät der Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians- Universität zu Würzburg zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde. Demy 8vo. Pp Würzburg : Universitäts Bibliothek. *0esterle, Kurt M. Zur Kenntnis der Vorgänge an der Kalliode bei der elektrolytischen Nickel-Abscheidung. Von der Eidgenössischen technischen Hochschule in Zürich zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der technischen Wissenschaften genehmigte Promotionsarbeit. (Nr. 539.) Med. 8vo. Pp. 102, with 22 illustrations Zürich: Bibliothek d. Eidg. Technischen Hochschule. *Rajnfeld, Seweryn. Studio di alcuni problemi elastici a due dimensioni. Tesi presentata al Politecnico Fédérale Svizzero in Zurigo per il^ Conseguimento del Grado di Dottore in Scicnze Techniche. (N. 730.) 8J X 12;}- in. Pp. 24, with 43 illustrations Zürich : Bibliothek d. Eidg. Technischen Hochschule. *Schallbroch, Heinrich. Untersuchungen über das Senken mul Jleibeti von Eisen-, Kupfer- und Aluminium-Legierungen. Von der Technischen Hochschule Aachen genehmigte Dissertation zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktor-Ingenieurs. 4to. Pp. 23, with 37 illustrations and 8 tables Aachen : Bibliothek der Technischen Hochschulc. *Schweitzke, Günther. Über Porositüts-Erschebmngen mul- Ursachen_ in Nichteisenmetallguss. Dissertation zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktor-Ingenieurs. Vorgelegt der Technischen Hochschule, Aachen. 4to. Pp. 43, with 57 illustrations Aachen : Bibliothek der Technischen Hochschule. *Wehner, Günter. Untersuchungen über die Umwandlungen in fester Phase beim System Kupfer-Gold. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde einer Hohen Philosophischen Fakultät der Universität, Leipzig. Med. 8vo. Pp. 78, with 11 illustrations Leipzig: Universitäts Bibliothek. *Wiegner, Alfred. Über das Verhalten von Carbiden uwl Siliciden in Legierungen bei der Zersetzung durch Säuren. Von der Eidgenössischen lechnisclien Hochschule in Zürich zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der technischen Wissenschaften genehmigte Promotionsarbeit. (î*r. 630.) Med. 8vo. Pp. 51, with 9 illustrations Zürich: Bibliothek d. Eidg. Technischen Hochschule. *Zielinski, Emü. Beitrag zur Erforschung der Bedingungen für die chlorierende Verflüchtigung von Metallen. Dissertation zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktor-Ingenieurs. Vorgelegt der Technischen Hochschule, Aachen. 4to. Pp. 16, with 19 illustrations Aachen : Bibliothek der Technischen Hochschule. *Zürcher, Max. Ein Beitrag zur Analyse der Platinmetalle. \ on der Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule in Zürich zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der technischen Wissenschaften genehmigte Promotionsarbeit. (Nr. 558.) Med. 8vo. Pp. 84, with 9 illustrations Zürich : Bibliothek d. Eidg. Technischen Hochschule.

140 60 Metallurgical A bstracts V o l. 1 XXIV. BOOK REVIEW S The Crystalline State. Edited by Sir W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg. Volume I. A General Survey. By W. L. Bragg. Med. 8vo. Pp. xiv + 352, with 187 illustrations London : G. Bell and Sons, Ltd. (26s. net.) T h e tw o tcx t-b o o k s, " X -R a y s and C rystal Structure am i A n In troduction to Crystal A n a ly sis, published first o f all in 1915 and , respectively, w hich w e owe to Sir W illia m B ragg and his son, h ave been standard E n g lish w orks on the su bject o f crystal structure and analysis since their appearance. Progress in the science has been so rapid w ithin the last few year's that those tw o b ook s n o longer give an yth in g like an adequate picture o f the present, state o f d evelopm ent of the science. Sir W illia m and his son h ave therefore decided to recast the w hole form o f the previous books, an d here is V olum e I o f the com pletely new publication. I t gives a com plete survey o f the w hole subject, and form s a t the sam e tim e an introduction to V olum es 11 and I I I, which w ill be contributed b y expert collaborat ors, and w hich w ill deal w ith X -r a y optics, crystallography, space-group theory, technique o f analysis, grow th an d dcform a- tion-structures, sem i-crystalline bodies, and technical applications. The present volum e review s these and allied subjects in a m anner th at can be follow ed b y anyone w ho is interested in the m ain principles o f the subject. I t i s hoped th a t th e volu m e w illb c useful to students who d o n ot require a full treatm ent. A tte m p t to com m end the book I cannot the authors nam es and their work arc m ore than adequate com m endation. I w ould like, how ever, to p oint out how scrupulously fair the author has been in a llo ttin g credit to E w ald for the part he played in precipitating the discovery o f X -r a y diffraction by L a u e, Friedrich, and K n ip plng. One scarcely ever hears o f E w ald in this connection. The au th or's debt to C. T. It. W ilso n in the early developm ent o f the subject th e author being then a supporter o f h is father s corpuscular theorv o f X -r a y s is d u ly acknow ledged. One m inor point, o f adverse criticism m a y, I hope, be perm itted. The insertion o f 32 plates in the te x t has apparently interfered greatly w ith the order o f the illustrations. T h us, e.g., I find illustrations , 103, 1 0 2,1 0 0, 104 follow ing one another in this order o f sequence. T h e same sort o f thing occurs in other parts o f the S0 T h e book is well printed on fairly good paper, is w ell illustrated, and is sold at a reasonable price. Subject and nam e indices are provided. F rom the latter I m iss the nam e o f O w en; liis co-w orker, P reston, is referred to in the in dex, but I can find no reference to the latter s work on the page quoted. J. S. G. THOMAS. Neuere Wege in der Metallurgie der Lager- und Weissmetalle. Von Friedrich Vogel. Med. Svo. Pp. iv + 97, with 8 illustrations Halle (Saale): Wilhelm Knapp. (Br., K.M ; geb., R.M ) T his book is intended for the process m etallurgist concerned w ith the recovery o f usable m etals and a llo ys from com m ercial w hite-m etal residues and scrap. F rom the point o f view o f physical m etallurgy it is o f interest in ttiat existing liquat ion processes arc critically exam ined In th cligh tofad etj iiled application o f the equilibrium diagram o f the ternary le a d -tin -a n tim o n y system. The author rejects th e Idea th a t w ith the type o f m aterial w hich he Is considering the liquation operation should be based necessarily on the form ation o f the so-called eutectic m ixture containing tin 55, lead 41-3, an tim o ny 3-0, and copper 0 1 per cent. H e p oints out how th e course o f liquation and the nature o f th e final p rodu ct arc influenced b y the form ation o f th e tin -a n tim o n y /3-pliase containing 50 per cent, each o f tin and an tim o ny, and w hy in general it is desirable to prevent th e form ation o f th is constituent. M ethods o f w orking w ith this ob ject are outlined, and the relation o f the character o f the product to other d ry and w et recovery processes is discussed. The declared object o f the author is n ot so m uch to give a detailed account o f procedure as to stim ulate the re-exam ination o f the theoretical bases o f m eth od s o f recovery, w ith special reference to raw m aterials arising from bearing m etals, type m etals, die-cast w hlte-m etals, and various ashes. I n pursuance o f this idea, the author, after dealing w ith the characteristics of the available raw materials, considers the application to these classes of material of pure smelting processes, the Harris process, and electrolysis. T he book should be u seful to m etallurgists w orking in this rather specialised Held, to whom the list o f m ore than 120 process patents w illu o d oubt be o f particular Interest. A. J. M u r p h y. Working in Precious Metals. By Emest A. Smith. With an Introduction by Sir Harold Carpenter. Med. Svo. Pp. xiv + 400, with 20 illustrations London : X.A.G. Press, Ltd., Old Street, E.C.l. (15s. net.) T h e aim o f th is b o o k, w hich is especially w ritten fo r w orking goldsm iths and silversm iths, is to provide th e craftsm an w ith a scientific insight in to the properties and behaviour o f the m aterials w ith which he w ork s. T o this end the author first gives an account o f m odern view s o f the nature o f m etals and a llo ys and m ethods o f investigating their properties; this is followed by a description of the crystalline structure of metals and the constitution of alloys,

141 1931 XXIV. Book Reviews G l in which the construction an d use o f equilibrium diagram s arc explained. ^ ' J n g t h W w ith the theoretical side o f the su bject, th e practical side is introduced b y a discum ion Ol tlic m eth od s and apparatus o f m e ltin g, casting, m echanical and " tw h n lcai G o ld, silver, and platinum arc then each considered, together w ith their im portant tw lit a llo y s, m eth od s o f m aking and w orking the a llo y s being described and a n o f ^ l r \ aiu ablepropertiesgivcn. F in a lly, the problem s associated w ith soldering, polishing, an denam ell ng are discussed and a brief survey is given o f th e m ethods o f collecting, evaluating, and t i o «i w aste products from the w orkshops for the recovery of their precious m etal con ten t. A snore chapter on substitutes for precious metals {e.g. rolled gold, gilt, and plated base met. Is) Cl" F rom a 11 fe-t m e spent in the study and w orking o f the precious m etals M r. Sm ith has obtained a thorough theoretical and practical know ledge o f every branch of the subject, and in ad dition, lie has the gift o f presenting his know ledge to others in an easily readable and rea d ilya& im im b lo form, an d th e b o o k should therefore be o f considerable value to those eraf t sm cn w carry ou t their w ork in a scientific m anner. U n fortu nately, there a restill fa rto o many w orkew i II precious m etals w ho ad op t th e old rulc-of-th um b m eth od s, and w ho, when they meet, trouble, are inclined to blam e the m akers o f th e a llo y s for supplying fa u lty m etal whereas th e real cause o f the trouble is to be fou nd in their incorrect m eth od s o f w orking. 'W ith th e fierce c o m p m U o n o f th e present d a y, satisfactory products are obtained on ly b y th e strict adherence to scientific principles in a ll stages o f the fabrication o f m etals and a llo y s in to useful N ic ie s; th is applies eq u ally w ell to precious m etals a s to base m etals, b u t it is to be regretted th a t many ^ o rk c. ill th e precious m e tals have n o t y e t appreciated this. T his b o o k sh ould, howei, er. bring: to them the facts, since one o f its chief features is to p o in t o u t th e various fau lts which can develop b y bad working, and to indicate their causes and means for their prevention. The book is w ell printed in a large, clear type on good paper and is w ell w orth th e price, charged. The on ly adverse criticism th e reviewer can find is to lam ent the absence o f nius t rations of modern furnaces, working tools, and testing appliances. A. R. 1 o w l.«.. Das Quecksilber, seine Gewinnung, technische Verwendung and Giftwirkung, mit eingehender Darstellung der gewerblichen QuecksilbervergUtung, nebst Therapie und Prophylaxie. Von Ernst W. Baader und Ernst Holstein Med 8vo. Pp. 239, with 21 illustrations Berlin: Richard Sclioetz. Wilhelmstrasse 10. (Br., R.M ; geb., R.M ) T h is w ork is su b-divid ed in to seven sections, the first o f which deals withi the ^ c m l s t ^ and technology o f m ercury. Here the occurrence, m ethods of perties of the metal arc described. This is followed by an account of the uses of I the metal, (ii) the inorganic com pounds, (iii) the organic d e r i v a t i v e s, in industry, w icntific w ork, and in m edicine. A brief description o f the m ore im portant properties and m ethods ofprcparation o th e better-know n inorganic and organic com pounds is included in this scctlon. T' le third sections deal w ith the pathogenic action o f mercury and the com pounds of^ mere m y,t h e m eth od s b y w hich it enters th e b o d y, and th e fate o f the m etal in the body The e flttfs o i m ercury poisonin g are also described w ith illustrative diagram s, som e o f which a re in colour. The fou rth and fifth sections d eal w ith p ath ology and the therapeutics of The sixth section deals with the hygiene o f the workers in mercury and and the final section considers the laws set up in the various countries for the protection o f the workers in trades using mercury or mercury compounds. T ills is a work w hich should be read b y everyone engaged in w ork in which m crcu n takes a n y p a r t; there is little strictly chem ical inform ation in the book, bu t muchi inform ation.w hich th e w orker w ith m ercury ought to possess for his personal safety and w ell-being. J a m s F. S p e s c f k Das Rhenium. Von Ida und Walter Noddaek. R oy. 8vo. Pp. viii + 80, with 7 illustrations L e i p z i g : Leopold Voss. (R.M ) T h is m onograph presents an account o f the know ledge o f the new ly (ii^ o v e red elcmt nt. rhenium. A fte r a historical introduction the authors discuss t h e occurreiicc o f rhfii um in m inerals, extra-terrestrial bodies, and technical residues. T h ey fo low this w ith n th e Isolation o f rhenium com pounds from (i) oxide m inerals, (ii) sulphide: minerals (lii) } denum glance, and <iv) technical residues. The fourth chapter deals w ith th e m c U l iteeif, and here tlic preparation, physical and chem ical properties arc described. 1 h t-m a to d s o fd tt w tlo ii and estim ation are discussed In Cliapter V. In the succeeding six chapters th e r e p U ^ a e x a -, quin qui-, quadri-, te r-, b l-, and uni-vnlent com pounds o f rhenium are d ea lt w ith in m e order sta te d. T h e final chapter discusses the position o f rhenium in th e periodic ciassiflrat on and here a table o f the w ave-len gth* o f the lines o f the arc spectrum o f rhcw um is in d u d td. A bibliography containing 152 references is appended to the book. * >,, (»» 1 T h e book Is exceedingly Interesting; it is clearly w ritten and presents an authoritative accou nt o f a ll th a t is know n o f the elem ent. T h e w ork is m o st valu able, a u d i t is rendered especially so by the bibliography, and should be In the hands of allchemists. jaml-s 1.&PLSCKE.

142 62 Metallurgical Abstracts V o l. 1 Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie. Achto völlig neu bearbeitete Auflage. Herausgegeben von der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. Bearbeitet von R. J. Meyer. System-Nummer 54: Woliram. Sup. Roy. Svo. Pp. xviii + xi + 397, illustrated Berlin: Verlag Chemie G.m.b.H. (R.M. 64; subscription price, R.M. 56.) Th e present section o f Gm elins Handbuch deals w ith th e chem istry o f tungsten, and opens w ith an historical account o f the discovery o f the m e tal and the develop m en t o f its chem istry and industrial applications. This, as is usual in this work, is followed b y an account o f the distribution o f the elem ent in N ature and o f the m an y m inerals in which it is fou n d. T h e element, is then considered at great length (8 8 pages) and in great d etail. T his is a m o st illum inating chap ter; th e follow in g points arc considered in o rd e r: m ethods o f preparation and m an u facture, the physical and chem ical properties o f the m e ta l, and the m e th o d s b y which it m ay be detected and estim ated. The a llo ys o f tungsten w ith a n tim o n y, bism uth, zinc, alum inium, titan ium, zirconium, tin, hafnium, thoriu m, lead, vanadium, tantalu m, and chrom ium are described together after the treatm ent o f the m etal. The rem ainder o f the b o o k (200 pages) is devoted to the description o f th e com pounds o f tungsten, and here, in addition to the bette r- known com pounds, a large num ber o f salts o f the h om o- and hetero-com plex tun gstic acids are included. T h e w ork has been com piled w ith care, thoroughness, and discrim ination and presents a v e ry useful and com plete account o f the state o f know ledge o f tun gsten. I t is a b o o k which must find a place in every chemical library. Ja m e s F. Sp e n c e r. Der Einfluss der Korrosion auf die Biegungsschwingungsfestigkeit von Stählen und Reinnickel. Von Otto Behrens. (Mitteilungen des Wöhler-Instituts, Braunschweig, Heft 15.) Demy Svo. Pp. iv + 73, with 38 illustrations Berlin: NEM-Verlag G.m.b.H., Schöneberger Ufer 34. (R.M ) I)r. Behrens research at the W o h ler-in stitu t is a logical continuation o f earlier work, n otab ly th a t o f H otte n ro tt, conducted in the sam e in stitution. H o tte n ro tt confincd him self m ainly to carbon steels, b u t D r. Bclirens has now extended the in v e s tig a t io n t o s te e ls containing nickel, chrom ium, and tungsten, as w ell as to pure nickel. T h e tests were carried ou t in a m achine giving alternating ilection under six conditions : (a) in air, (b) in a jacket through which Brunsw ick w ater w as rim, (c) in air, using specim ens subjected to a process o f surface pressure between rollers, (d) in water, using specimens subjected to surface pressure, (e) in w ater w ith electrochem ical protection, ( / ) in w ater w ith electrochem ical protection, using specim ens subjected to surface pressure. The results show th e m arked reduction produced b y corrosion on th e fatiguc-strength of m o st o f the ferrous m aterials; one n ickel-chrom e steel, tested over 2 x 10* cycles, resisted k g. per sq. m m. in air, bu t o n ly 1C-2 k g. per sq. m m. in w ater. F o r pure n ickel the reductio n was m erely from 1G-4 to 15-S k g. per sq. m m., w h ilst a certain nitride-covered steel was fou nd to be alm ost uninfluenced b y corrosion, except w here the covering had been dam aged. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the results is the good showing of the specimens subjected to surface pressure between rollers (except in th e case o f nitride-covered steel). This treatm ent n ot o n ly raises considerably th e fatigue-strengtli as obtained b y testing in air, bu t it also brings up th e valu e obtained in w ater to a level sim ilar to th a t read ied b y untreated specimens in air. The character o f the attack is also changed in m o st cases; untreated steels show local rusving starting a t surface d e fe cts; these defects seem to be rem oved b y the surface pressure, for the treated specimens show com paratively u niform attack leading to rust-coats w hich tend gradually to peel off. I f the results given are typical o f the b u lk o f m aterials, surface pressure deserves serious consideration as a m eans o f com batin g b o th ordinary fatigue and corrosion-fatiguc. T h e research is a valuable contribution to our know ledge o f corrosion-fatigu e, and the book, w hich is w ell illustrated and satisfactorily p rinted, should be read b y a ll concerned w ith t hat subject. U. lt. E. Atlas Metallographicus. Von H. Hanemann und A. Schrader. Lieferung 12: Tafel 89-96; Lieferung 13: Tafel ; Lieferung 14: Tafel Berlin: Gebruder Bomtraeger. ( L i e f. 12, R.M. 14; Lief. 13, R.M. 14; Lief. 14, R.M. 16; B a n d l. (Lief. 1-14) komplett gebunden beträgt, R.M. 128.) These three parts com plete the first volum e o f th e " A tla s, and are concerned principally w ith th e structural appearance o f iron an d steels after various degrees o f w orking w ith and w ithout subsequent h eat-treatm ent. E specially interesting to workers in b o th ferrous and non-ferrous m etallurgy are the effects o f b a ll im pressions m ad e in hardness testing on the structure o f steel im m ediately under the impression, and crystal growth after recrystallization.

143 1934 XXIV. Book Reviews 6 3 T h e valu e o i th e - A tla s is considerably enhanced l>y the fou r indices 53, COO.) J. n. W a t s o n. Journal oi the Electrodepositors Technical Society. Vciumo V II, 19^-W 32. Demy Svo. Pp. 194, illustrated L ondon: FJcctrocte.ositora Technical Society, Northampton Polytechnic Institute, St. John bt., L.. U. (Members, 10s. 6d.; non-members, 15s.) T h is volu m e contains the 13 papers (w ith discussions) read, before th e S o c i e t y during the session, together w ith accounts o f th e A nn ual M eeting o f M o chrom ium zinc Faraday Centenary E xhib ition. Th e papers deal w ith the deposition o f ' chi:oi ^ L d M, the throw in g pow er o f p la tin g b ath s, m e tal cleaning prior to p i a t m a c n d eerta.n historical aspccts o f p la tin g ; all h ave been abstracted in the Jo u r n a l. A. R. P o w e l l. Handbook ior Oxy-Acetylene Welders : a Practical Guide to Oxy-Acetgene Welding. 8vo. Pp London: The British Oxygen U>m pany, Ltd. (3s. 6d. net.) This is a revised and enlarged edition o f the " H andbook for O xy-a cetylene c i * L. M. F o x, published in 1D2S b y A lle n L iversidge, L t d. lio th high-pressure and low l - system s are considered. The plant and accessories, instructions i o r ^ e m b h g and hand s are dealt w ith in the first six chapters. Elem en tary instructions!!! w elding technique ( nclm g a very sh ort note on rightw ard» w elding) are then given, w ith a chapter o n p r ^ o n M W to expansion and contraction, preheating, cooling and annealing, and th e use o f chill».,s chapter on the properties o f m etals follow s, and detailed instructions arc g * e n fo rw e ld in g steels, Cast-Iron and m alleable iron, alum inium, n ickel, copper, and its allo ys, M oncl m e ta la n d E ld r t i o i.. A fte r a chapter on m etal cutting, a discussion o f air-a cety le n e p r o c e s s e s brazing, p l i m o i ^ soldering, paint-burning concludes the m a in part o f the book.' SJ S,, gas cylinder give m elting points o f m etals, flam e tem peratures, com positions o f c o m m o n a i l ^ g ^ c j nnuer calculations, temperature conversion tables, and the Hom e Office Safety Sieasu c 1I1! S S» w elding tex t-b o o k s, the n on-ferrous m etals arc n o t t r e j t i a t length or w ith sufficient care. W e are am azed to learn th a t a t th e present tim e, wehh S processes are n o t extensively applied to copper an d its a llo y s Can it b e t h a t <3auzler ro d is regarded as a so ld er? T h e binding, printing, and illustrations o f the b o o k are excellent blank pages are inserted a t in terv als for w elders' n o te s ; and there is a very fine tw o -p age p late showing various types of flame. II. W. G. HiGNETT. Electrical Machinery and Apparatus Manufacture. A Complete Work by Practical Specialists Describing Modem Practice in the Construction ana Manufacture of Apparatus and Machinery. Edited by llu lip lvemp. Cr. Svo. In seven volumes. Pp. 1820, illustrated. 1931; 193l. Lone on, Bath, Melbourne, Toronto, and New Y o rk : Sir Isaac Pitman and bons, Ltd. (65. per volume.) In these volu m es, the principal products o f the electrical in du stry are grouped under 19 headings, and a series o f accounts m ore or less detailed is given o f the salient features 0 each product and th e m eth od s used in its m anufacture. In ad dition, fou r general sections a included, dealing w ith draw ing office practice, electrical m aterials, testing m e th od s, a n a w o organization, respectively.. The treatm ent o f the various sections is som ew hat uneven (perhaps in evitably so wnere so m an y authors are concerned), h u t on the w hole it m a y be said th a t each presents a reaua c and interesting account of modern practice in the industry with which it deals. ^ P rom the m etallurgical view p oin t, it is unfortunate th a t the section o n Electrical M aterials is one o f the w eakest. I t is d ecidedly sketch y, and gives an im pression of h avm g been w ritten up a t second h and. F o r instance, th e statem en t regarding alu m in ium t ia for m o st engineering purposes the product (o f the reduction furnace), w hich lias a put' y o f per cen t., need n o t be further refln ed * indicates a fundam ental m isconception of the process. I t is ad m ittedly no ea sy m atter to give an intelligible and com prehensive survey 0 1 the properties o f the large range of raw m aterials used in the electrical industry in th e com pass of a few pages. The task is obviou sly one o f selection, and om issions are in evitable. 1 ie presence of irrelevant m atter is, how ever, a ll the m ore difficult to excuse. Conversationa statements such as that tungsten is the strongest metal known (p. 402) or that selenium

144 6 4 Metallurgical Abstracts V o l. 1, 1934 m----- « femd a U>e EeiaBär suse (p. M i) could on y be regarded as oat of place, even " S T O S S ' tbs «050 «E S ä c r f by A G. R d ü t t e, on Electric Furnaces, can be n c m a d a t All the principal tjpe* of are and indurtjoq melting furnaft- ill«nwir r b-atfez isr& if«a «described and illustrated by photographs and clear ^ x m a a S e A «d t e - Tbt Outstanding eo==traitionaldetai!s are - - i z x t t r e s a s deals w ith in so m e d e ta il. T h e result is a r e m a r ^ W y com plete a e ew st o f efcttrie i c t u t construction. l ew omissions call for notice. Bather_ 0 -i * «V e te e n «S*en t o th e use o f forced air circulation in lo w -te o p e n t u ie f -rn iae* (Aratrieaa practice is not mentioned ) and to the precautions necessary E K ia lte g k a l f n ie r * * - ^ A ccum ulators. * m a y be m entioned f o r ^ i r T te s e contain, respectively, descriptions o f the construction o e k c tn x fe s a s i * e o» - - s o f the casting an d e l d i n g ot lead «^ d a t o r i t o t t e. B e a r d i n g tb s -S-Ofeses a s a w h o le, their greatest appeal m i l undoubted ly b e t o t h e ou ng T t e y ir e o o t s m S d e n tly detailed t o b e reference b o o to, and in general ia r e to o d ^» W w t e o f C «i t valu e t o those engaged in the industries described.. ^ d, b o * e ^ in c s ^ ^ K form a good deal of information which Is n ot ^ ncr^, ' 1Ub ' eocjpfeie «ö e s o» 3 d t e read with considerable profit by any engineering ^ e _ CHiST0S- Seibt Export Catalogue. Official Handbook of the Federation of German Industries. (Reichsverband der Deutschen Industrie.) _Jfc-ditecl A r ts Seibt. S] X l i t in. Pp München: M. Müller & Son. j. T h e first feciio n o f th e catalogue deals w ith th e F e d m H o n o f A r a c iz a tio n the v c o a d section gives a list o f products wit h their classification n u m b «arrange«s S y, t hird. «i o n provides a classified list o f w ith th e ir addresses, th e products supplied being given in red in a M de-colum n under th u r classification num ber. In th e fou rth section the firms w hich supply th e g ood s in th e 1 W clau - l i i S S d in alphabetical order in each class. W ith thisarrange,nient, t s p o ^ b lle 1lo discover very quictlv the firms who supply a given article or the product* manufactured b. French, G erm an, an d E nglish equivalents o f the nam es o f th e p ro d u ct. are given in most eases. A. R. Powell. Chemical Engineering and Chemical Catalogue. A Catalogue of Heavr and Fine Chemicals, Raw Materials, Machinery, Plant, and Equipmcnt Apphcable to Production Industries, Standardized, Condensed and Cross-Indexed- Edited by D. M. Xewitt. Compiled -with the co-operation of ieachngbntidi manufacturers. Ninth edition. Demy 4to. Pp. 10 i ~r - 1! lxxiii London : Leonard Hill, Ltd., Strand, \Y.0.2. T O s ^ I d i t i o n o f this now w ell-know n catalogue is alm ost except th a t th e thu m b in dentation s for finding the various sections. ha\ e be< 11 r t p L i c ^ D y ^ b ^ ^ S m - M ain In d e x an d th e B o o k B ib lio g r a p h y se c t n * i v e «n - ought u p-to -d a te, but n o changes appear t o h ave been m a d e in the section d a o t e d t o u a ta a n a Tables. The firms taking space this year number 7 7 ; in addition, there a 1 1 seven publishers. A. K. Powell. i»' Who s Who, An Annual Biographical Dictionary with which is m- eorporated Men and Women of the Time. Eighty-sixth year of i&> - p its v o. Pp. hay London: A. & C. Black, Ltd. (2 * U r - W h o S W h o "in c r e a s e s in usefulness and In b u lk. T h e 1934 volu m e «* «W larger th a n its predecessor a fact that suggests th e a d dition o f m a n y hundred> o f n o U grap hi-s to la st year's to ta l o f ~ about (th e publisher's estim ate). W h o s W h o is far from being m erely a chronicle o f th ose w ho have achieved d i s t i n c t i o n no international boundaries. W o rk ers o f a ll countries are included ^ T h us th e first tw o entries refer to a W e lsh m an and a Persian, resp ecth e l>, w hlw t th* t o biographies ending the v o lu m e d eal w ith Z.'s " residing. r i ^ K i t l v e b. ln ^ a t a l an d l b.^. T h is m on um en tal w ork is invaluable t o those w ho h a v e o ccasion to k eep m to u ih the activities o f leaders in the various branches of huimin activity * that O f a ll the non-technical b ooks o f reference received a t th e In stitu te o f ^ n d i d i v w ould be m issed m ost could its non-appearance b e im agined w ould Ix th is splc compiled set o f biographical notices. E d.

145 iïla c le b EXTRUDED RODS AND SECTIONS l 8 w m P R E S S IN G S. CHILL CAST BARS, AND INGOTS. Brass Rods, Stam pings and Non-ferrous Ingot M etal Manufacturers. M E T A L W O R K S : R O T T O N P A R K S T R E E T, B IR M IN G H A M 16 Telephone: Edgbastopi 0380 (6 it ms). Tele grants : " McKrchnie, FHrrningha)',.~ LO N D O N 17 Victoria St., Westminster, S.V,\ I. N E W C A S T L H -O N -T Y N E-90 Pil-rim Street- M A N C H E S T E R 511 *13C orn E xchange Bid* s. < L E E D S - Prudential BuUdimrs. Park Row. SMELTING WORKS! W IDN ES, LAN CS. REFRACTORIES High Alumina Type Alumina Fusion Point ALITE, No 1 68% i790 - i825 C. ALITE D 4 i% i730 ~n50 c - D1 37% i690 - i7i9o G. Semi-Silica Type FJR.D. 1 N il. Contraction J i i690 C. Fire-Clay Type A 33% i6go0-i 7 i o 0 C. E. J. & J. PEARSON LTD. STOURBRIDGE

146 "Teledium" Brand Tellurium-Lead Pipes, when compared with ordinary Lead Pipes, have:- Twice the resistance to bursting by frost. 4$ Greater resistance to corrosion. & Three times the resistance to vibration stresses. $ G reater tensile strength and the ability to develop at least 60 per cant, g reater strength (o r toughness) whan strained. Strains normally responsible for the failure of ordinary Lead Pipes, such as frost, vibration, bending, etc., actually strengthen Tellurium-Lead Pipes. '«'TELEDIUM brano TELLURIUM-LEAD SHEETS AND PIPES Supplied in both ordinary and chemical qualities. fo r fu tl p articulars, samples, prices, etc., w rite Department D, GOODLASS WALL & LEAD INDUSTRIES LTD. London House, 3, New London Street, London, E.C.3 THE MORE YOU USE THEM THE STRONGER THEY GET 3 Pitwrxo i n GiSAT B r i t a i n s y R i c h a r d C l a y a x o S o n s, Ltd., B u n c a y, SuFiotK.