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3 INDEX Introduction 0405 Bearings in general 0607 Characteristics of high performance ceramics Markets and applications 1213 Bearing types, sizes and informations 1417 Material data 1819 Contacts 20 FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 033

4 A few words about ALIAXIS UTILITIES & INDUSTRY and Friatec: Aliaxis Utilities & Industry is a part of the Aliaxis-conglomerate along with FRIATEC. FRIATEC is one of the oldest and most reknowned companies in the Mannheim area in Germany. Founded in 1860, the company has since been working with ceramics and the improvement of the material and processing technologies. Aliaxis Utilities & Industry has a wide range of ceramic products and solutions together with a wealth of knowhow and experience to support the oil and gas industry. At your disposal is our vast experience of customer specific manufacturing for the industry including choice of materials and product design. This makes us an excellent partner already in the development and design phase of a new product or application. If you have the idea, we will find the right ceramic solution for your purpose. Get in touch with us to assure highest quality and function of your products and applications. 4

5 You can always count on our vast experience FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics Our know-how and experienced team can be the solution to your demands. Regardless of whether you are looking for durability, a more economically viable solution or striving for an universal application, you can count on our vast experience. Kindly get in touch with us for your special application. Aliaxis is one of the leading manufacturers of high performance technical ceramic components for the industry. The products are manufactured from high purity ceramic materials: alumina, zirconia, silicon carbide and silicon nitride. FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 055

6 DURABLE MATERIALS GUARANTEE EXTENDED LIFE Critical applications are often limited by machine parts made of conventional materials. Bearings, slide bearings and rolling bearings must be made from materials that are durable, operate with minimum friction and show minimum wear in contact areas to guarantee extended life. In critical applications several additional requirements are strongly claimed for these machine elements; resistance to elevated temperatures, corrosion resistance and especially the capability of running dry or at least with a minimum demand for lubrication are contemplated exemplarily. High performances ceramics are designated materials for slide bearings and rolling bearings in critical applications: Silicon Nitride (Si 3 ) Silicon Carbide (SiC) Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) Ceramic slide bearings can run against another ceramic partner or against components like hardened or hard coated steel. Ball and roller bearings, generically called rolling bearings, can be designed as ceramic bearings as well as hybrid bearings. In ceramic rolling bearings rings and rolling elements The bearings can be designed as full ceramic or hybrid bearings are made of ceramics. In hybrid bearings only the rolling elements consist of ceramic materials while the rings are made of sophisticated bearing steels. 6

7 High-Performance Ceramics can be your solution To utilize the total gain of advantages of these bearing designs, the derivative components in rolling bearings like ball retainers, seals or shields come into focus. High performance plastics and composites like PEEK or PTFE with low friction and outstanding properties in corrosion, temperature and wear resistance are chosen for maximum performance. Due to special mechanical properties in particular zirconia (ZrO 2 ) and silicon nitride (Si 3 ) are used for ceramic rolling bearings. These ceramics have outstanding material properties compared with conventional bearing steels. FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 07

8 CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH- PERFORMANCE CERAMICS Outstanding physical characteristics of high performance ceramic materials enable extraordinary solutions with ceramic or hybrid bearings. Low chemical affinity against other materials is one of the key characteristics and results in very limited adhesive wear. This allows completely new solutions for bearings operating under poor lubrication conditions or even without any lubricant. Ceramic bearings therefore have excellent emergency running properties and do not fail spontaneously. Low friction coefficient in combination with state of the art lubrication leads to highly efficient bearing systems. Bearings operate with massively reduced friction which results in lower temperatures and increased maximum rotational speeds. Excellent corrosion resistance makes it possible to run ceramic bearings in aggressive environments and FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics have outstanding material properties in areas where the use of standard steel bearings is out of question. New design solutions can be realized with the help of ceramics and new bearing technology. COMPARISON MATERIAL PROPERTIES 100% 75% 50% 25% bearing steel zirconia silicon nitride 0% density Young s modulus thermal exp. coeff. hardness HV10 operating temperature 088

9 Extremely good high temperature properties Thermal expansion needs to be considered very carefully. By choosing the right material combination, solid operational conditions of ceramic and hybrid bearings are maintained over a wider temperature range. Both silicon nitride and zirconia have a wide operating temperature range. Theoretical operating temperatures up to C are possible. Alumina has a maximum working temperature of C. FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 099

10 OPERATES EVEN IN STRONG MAGNETIC FIELDS Non-magnetic properties are important in many applications. Silicon nitride and in particular zirconia fulfill the requirements and allow operation even in strong magnetic fields. Electric insulation is an advantage for many tasks. We also have ceramics on request that have even conductive properties. The combination of state of the art bearing steels and the excellent properties of ceramics can be transferred into hybrid bearings. The combination of corrosion resis- tant and heat resistant (up to 450 C) high performance bearing steel races with superior resistance against overall-fatigue allow bearing designs with properties much closer to ceramic bearings than to common steel bearings. The life time for hybrid or full ceramic bearings are significantly longer DIN/ISO standards do not specify any calculation methods for the determination of load ratings of ceramic or hybrid bearings. If the classical fatigue theory is used, the load ratings and the service life will be lower than those for steel bearings. However, experience shows that the actual service life is significantly longer. Due to this, we use the same maximum dynamic load ratings* as for conventional bearings. 150% STATIC AND DYNAMIC LOAD CAPACITY FOR DIFFERENT BEARING MATERIALS 125% 100% 75% 50% static load cap. dynamic load cap.* dynamic load cap. 25% 0% steel brg. hybrid brg. ceramic brg. ceramic brg. ceramic brg. (ZrO 2 ) (Si 3 ) (ZrO 2 /Si 3 ) 10

11 Ceramic materials are compatible with extreme environments Summarizing, these sophisticated ceramic materials offer reduced friction and are compatible with extreme environments, stable at high temperatures, electrical insulating and extraordinary durable in advanced bearing applications. Compared to common bearing steels, ceramics are much harder and have an incomparable level of wear and corrosion resistance. This allows, in many cases, media lubrication or even complete dry running conditions. FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 11

12 Markets and applications Due to these very special material characteristics, ceramic and hybrid bearings are dedicated for applications and markets where the focus is on: Extreme performance: Machine tools Aviation and aerospace Motor sports Harsh environment: Offshore and Subsea industry Chemical industry Clean room technology: Food industry Medical industry Pharmaceutical industry Vacuum technology Semiconductor industry 12

13 FROM SUBSEA TO SPACE Hybrid Bearings have been in use in high speed machine tool spindles for decades. In innumerable applications hybrid bearings are indispensable for reliable operation of spindles with excellent performance parameters. In aviation and aerospace, ceramic bearings are nowadays used widely. The flagship project is the U.S. Space Shuttle with tailor-made hybrid bearings in the three main engines finally allowed a reliable, efficient and cost effective operation under extreme conditions. Today, hybrid and ceramic bearings are used in jet engines, gears and motion drives in aviation and also in actuation systems for satellites and similar applications. In motor sport, all challenges faced by racing teams, within many different racing disciplines, lead to performance enhancement in mechanical transmission and suspension systems. Formula 1, racing and rally cars are all equipped with hybrid bearings in their wheels, gearboxes In aviation and aerospace ceramic bearings are on the advance and engines. Weight saving, reduced friction and an extraordinary durability pushed the designs to new limits. FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 13

14 Ceramic bearings can be used in the most critical production processes Offshore and subsea industries are highly interested in employing ceramic bearings due to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties in their applications. Extreme environmental operating conditions can not be overcome without additional effort spent to protect conventional bearing solutions against external corrosive impact. With ceramic bearing, design rules for drive technologies can be defined in a new way. Corrosion resistant ceramic and hybrid bearings are used in offshore applications for example in equipment for sea water desalination on oil rigs worldwide. Ceramic bearings successfully proved their outstanding performance under extreme maritime conditions on America s Cup yachts, as well as in wavepower equipments in renewable energy areas. In chemical processing, ceramic bearings can operate in close contact with process media without sealing or directly in aggressive environment under corrosive attack, in high temperatures and in many cases without any additional lubrication. Applications could be found in thin film evaporators, polyethylene reactors, gas induction reactors and control leakage shaft seals. Ceramic bearings have shown particularly excellent running properties over conventional slide bearings under dry running conditions. 14

15 CERAMIC BEARINGS CAN OPERATE IN CLOSE CONTACT WITH PROCESS MEDIA Clean room technology uses all different types of processing where clean processes are crucial for high quality products, such as ceramic bearings. Food and drug processing requires clean machinery equipment. More and more equipment for aseptic food, drug and beverage processing is installed worldwide. With respect to the productivity and the large inline production lines, all motion drives are directly integrated in the process room. The need of lubrication free, corrosion resistant motion drives is increasing permanently. Ceramic bearings close the gap perfectly to fulfill these requirements. Similar needs can be found in pharmaceutical and medical industry as well as in vacuum and semiconductor technology. With superior wear rates and negligible particle emissions, ceramic bearings can be used in special areas of processing. Ceramic bearings show excellent properties under dry running conditions Particularly in areas close to the critical production processes where lubricants are prohibited. FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 15

16 Types, materials, dimensions and specifications SLIDE BEARINGS: MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS Ceramic slide bearings are always custom made and are mainly used in zones exposed to abrasion, corrosion and high temperature together with electrical and/or magnetic fields. Slide bearings can be manufactured from Ø 2 to max 400 mm. The inner and outer bushing can be fit together with very small gaps of some microns. Surfaces with Ravalues of < _ 0.8 micron are possible. The construction can be designed as a ceramic-to-metal solution, where the ceramic bushing will be shrinked into a housing of stainless steel or other special steels. The ceramic-to-metal shrink fit will remove any fear of thrust and fracture sensibility of the ceramic. Sizes From Ø 2400 mm Design Design Design Possible gaps Possible surface values Lubrication required Customized, radial and/or axial With or without grooves for lubrication Full ceramic or shrinked into metal housing 210 micron, depending on size < _ 0.8 micron Product media or water Materials Al 2 O 3, ZrO 2, SiC, Si 3 16

17 ROLLING BEARINGS: TYPES, DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS Bearing types: Dimensions and specifications: Radial and thrust rolling bearings Ceramic rolling bearings: Hybrid rolling bearings: Deep groove ball bearings ISO standard dimensions ISO standard dimensions Angular contact ball bearings From 4 mm bore to 200 mm From 1 mm bore to mm outer diameter outer diameter Spherical ball bearings Standard types: ball bearings Standard types: ball and roller from 6100 mm bearings from 4400 mm Cylindrical roller bearings Rings and balls/rollers ZrO 2 Rings conv. bearing steel, balls/rollers Si 3 Custom designed bearings Rings and balls/rollers Si 3 Rings corrosion and heat resistant HNS steels, balls/rollers Si 3 Precision grades Rings ZrO 2, balls/rollers Si 3 Customized specialty steel rings, balls/rollers Si 3 or ZrO 2 FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 17

18 FRIALIT - DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics Material Alumina AI 2 O 3 F99.7 DD 57 AL 23 AL 24 AL 25 FZT Structural properties: Density (g/cm 3 ) > 3.4 > Open porosity (%) Grain size (µm) Mechanical properties: Hardness (Knoop) (N/mm 2 ) (MPa) Compressive strength (N/mm 2 ) (MPa) Bending strength (N/mm 2 ) (MPa) Weibull modulus > 10 > 10 > 10 > 15 E-modulus E (GPa) Poisson ratio v Thermal properties: Max. operating temperature in air ( C) Specific heat 20 C (J/kg K) Thermal conductivity 100 C (W/m K) Coefficient of expansion C (10-6 /K) *** Electrical properties: Specific resistance 20 C Ω cm 500 C Ω cm 1000 C Ω cm Colour: ivory red ivory ivory white white * at C ** at 900 C *** at 20 C The data shown in the table above is valid according to German industrial standard DI0685, where the given values only pertain to the measured test specimen. The given values must be taken as a guideline value and may not be applicable to other shapes of the same material. 18

19 Zirconia ZrO 2 Silicon Carbide SiC Silicon Nitride Si 3 Comparision to conventional steel FZM FZY FZM/K SiC 198 SiC 198D HP 79 GP 79 Structural properties: > Density (g/cm 3 ) < Open porosity Grain Size Mechanical properties: Hardness (HRC) > Yield strength (N/mm 2 ) (MPa) Tensile strength (N/mm 2 ) (MPa) > 15 9 > Fatique life L10 (mill. Circles) E-modulus E (GPa) Poisson ratio v 0.30 Thermal properties: * *** *** 3.2 Max. operating temperature ( C) Spec. heat ( C) (J/kg K) 480 Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 45 Coefficient of expansion C (10-6 /K) 12 Electrical properties: ** Specific resistance 20 C (Ω cm) 10-6 yellow white white black black black black FRIALIT -DEGUSSIT High-Performance Ceramics 19

20 Norway, Sweden and Finland Denmark Production site Slide & Rolling Bearings KM Aliaxis Utilities & Industry AB Ceramics Division Stormbyvägen 6 - SE Spånga - Sweden Tel: Fax: Filial Aliaxis Utilities & Industry AB Trekroner Centervej 57 - DK-4000 Roskilde Tel: FRIATEC AG Ceramics Division Postfach D Mannheim Steinzeugstraße 50 - D Mannheim - Germany Tel: / Fax: /