PRINCIPAL WORLD TUNGSTEN MINES IN Canada Canada Tungsten Mining Cantung Scheelite China Government Jiang*! Province? France

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1 173 APPENDIX TWO PRINCIPAL WORLD TUNGSTEN MINES IN 1980 Country Company Mine Ore type Australia Peko Wallsend King Island Scheelite Queensland Wolfram Mount Carbine Wolframite Austria Wolfram Bergbau M ittersill Scheelite Bolivia International Mining Chojlla Wolframite Brazil CQMIBOL Kani? Mineracao Tamaz Salustino Brejul 7 Canada Canada Tungsten Mining Cantung Scheelite China Government Jiang*! Province? France Societe Miniere D'Anglade Salau Scheelite N. Korea Government Various 7 Republic of Korea Korea Tungsten Mining Sang Dong Scheelite Portugal Beralt Tin and Wolfram Panasqueira Wolframite Thailand Various private Various 7 United States AMAX Climax Wolframite Teledyne Tungsten North Fork 7 Union Carbide Pine Creek Scheelite U.S.S.R* Government Various 7

2 174 APPENDIX THREE GRAPHS DEPICTING IMPORT/EXPORT TRENDS OF MINOR TUNGSTEN COMMODITIES

3 p ORES AND CONCENTRATES OF TUNGSTEN IMPORTS IN TONS H O OLO I CO \

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8 179 APPENDIX FOUR 1. North America Canada 14 PRINCIPAL PRODUCERS OF COBALT (i) Sherrit Gordon Mines, Saskatchewan - a primary producer, formerly mainly from the Lynn Lake mine, but also treating concentrates from sundry sources including South Africa- (ii) International Nickel Company of Canada Ltd. - a primary producer of a white metal matte at Port Colbourne, shipped South Wales for refining. ( ill) Falconbridge Nickel Mines Ltd. - a primary producer, mostly shipped to Kristiansand, Norway United States Amax Nickel Inc. - operating the Port Nickel refinery in Louisiana using imported concentrate Pikwe and Zaire. 2. Europe Belgium id mattes from various sources including Selebi- Metallurgie Hoboken-Overpelt S.A. - smelters and refiners using concentrates and mattes from Gecamines S.A. in Zaire. Finland Outokumpu Oy - primary producer as uell as refiner using pyritic concentrates from the Outokumpu mine with reserves from the Vuonos mine. France Pechiney Ugine Kuhlmann - smelters and refiners using concentrates largely from Morocco and New Caledonia. West Germany (i) Duisberger Kupferhutte (ii) Gesellsnhaft ftir Electrometallurgie ( iii) Herman C. Starck GmbH. All three companies use imported concentrates or mattes. Duisber-Q Kupferhutte make use of a wide variety of pyrite residues from Cyprus, Finland, Norway, Spain and Sweden from which various metals are recovered. Norway Falconbridge Nikkei A/S - Kristiansand, operating mainly on nickel-copper- cobalt matt from Falconbridge, Ontario, occasionally supplemented by concentrates from Kilembe in Uganda (if available) 1

9 United Kingdom International Nickel Ltd. - refining matte from the Port Colborne works in Ontario, shipped to Glybach, South Wales. 3. Asia U.5.5.R. Principal production is from the Norilsk combine, Pechenga and Monchegorsk copper-nickel sulphide deposits, but several of the cupriferous pyrite deposits of the Urals region also produce cobalt concentrates. The Khovuasky deposit, close to the border of Siberia and Mongolia is one of the few mines in which cobalt is the primary product. Japan (i) Nippon Mining Company - using concentrates from Australia. (ii) Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. - using a nickel/cobalt slurry from the Marinduque Mining Co. on the Nonuc Island in the Phillipines 4. Oceania (i) Broken Hill - small production from zinc concentrates. (ii) Western Mining Corp. - production from nickel/cobalt concentrates from Kamabalda, at Kivinana refinery. ( iii) Great Boulder Mines Ltd. - cobalt produced from nickel concentrates from the Scotia mine. (iv) Freeport Queensland Nickel Inc. - joint venture between Freeport Minerals and Metals Exploration Queensland Ltd. producing cobalt from basically a nickel ore. The ore is processed at Vabulu near Townsville and the cobalt, in crude form,exported mainly to Japan. Indonesia P T Pacific Nikkei Indonesia Ltd. New Caledonia (i) Penamax - joint venture between Amax and Pennarroya to work la te rite nickel/cobalt deposits, the matte sent for refining at the Port Nickel refinery in Louisiana. (ii) Societe le Nickel - cobalt matte and concentrates from la te ritic ores exported mainly to France. Phillipines (i) Marinduque Mining and Industrial Corp. - primary producer at Surigao mine, Nonoc Island exporting to Japan, although pure cobalt maybe produced at Surigao using the Sheritt Gordon process. (ii) Acoje Mining Co. - Zambales Province with very small output.

10 5. Africa Morocco Companie de Tifnout Tiranimine - operates Bou Azzer and Graara mines as primary producers. Originally developed with Soviet aid but now operating under French control. Concentrates exported to Belgium, France and China Reserves are limited. Botswana Botswana Concessions Ltd. - operating the Selebi-Pikwe nickel/copper mine, sending matte to the Amax refinery at Port Nickel, Louisiana. Uganda Kilembe Copper Cobalt Ltd. - since nationalisation in 1975 production has declined but concentrates have occasionally been sent to Norway. Zaire La Genersle des Carriers et des Mines (Gecamines) - formerly Union Miniere du Haut-Katanga. Main production is from Tenke-Fungurume, Kolwezi, Dikluwe and.mashamba mines. Cobalt is produced as white metal (matte), red alloy (copper-cobalt) and slags which are exported to Belgium. Electrolytic cobalt is produced from leaching concentrates at the Jadotville-Shituru refinery. Zimbabwe Empress Nickel Mines Ltd. South Africa Cobalt production is discussed in detail in section Latin America and the Caribbean Cuba Cubaniquel - cobalt is produced in the Driente Province at Nicaro and Moa Bay. Prior ro nationalisation in 1960 the concentrates were shipped to the Port Nickel refinery, owned then by Freeport Sulphur Corporation.

11 182 APPENDIX FIVE COBALT SULPHATE (cattle Feed) Heptahydrate Manohydrate Type: ((F.G.)) Pulverulent CoS04. 7Hz 0 Gd504.H20 Chemical Analysis Co approx % % Ni Fe Mn Cu ^0.001 Pb ^ SiDe CaO MgO Insoluble in Ha Apparent density (g/cm3) after tapping: 1.25 Size Analysis % Fine crystals after sieving (Tyler sieve with slight brushing) + 35 mesh mesh mesh mesh Standard packing woven polypropylene bags (interior polyethylene lining) 55 x 95cm 50kg. Other packing metal drums (interior polyethylene bag) 041 x 54 cm 50kg. metal drums (interior polyethylene bag) 035 x 49 cm 25kg. Company: SOCIETE GENERALE DES MINERAIS RUE DU MARAI BRUXELLES V Y

12 183 APPENDIX SIX MINOR PRODUCERS AMD EASTERN BLOC BAUXITE OUTPUT (million tons) Western Bloc Dominican Rep. 1,0 1,1 1,1 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,0 0,6 0,5 Malaysia 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,0 1,1 1,0 1,0 0,7 0,7 Indonesia 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,2 1,3 1,2 1,3 1,0 0,9 Haiti 0,7 0,8 0,7 0,7 0,8 0,8 \ 6 0,5 0,7 Sierra Leone 0,4 0,4 0,5 0,5 0,7 0,7 0,7 0,7 0,7 Ghana 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,3 0,3 Brazil 0,3 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,3 0,8 1,0 1,3 1,3 Italy 0,0 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,01 - Turkey - 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,7 0,6 0,5 Dominican Rep , , , , , ,4 Malaysia 0,6 0,6 0,4 0,9 0,7 0,6 Indonesia 1,3 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,2 1,0 Haiti 0,7 0,6 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,4 Sierra Leone 0,8 0,7 0,7 0,8 0,6 0,6 Ghana 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,2 0,3 0,2 Brazil 1,0 1,2 1,6 4,2 4,2 4,5 Italy - T urkey 0,6 0,5 0,2 0,4 0,5 0,5 Eastern Bloc ] U.S.S.R. 4,9 5,2 5,4 5,8 5,8 5,8 X X Hungary 1,8 1,9 2,0 2,1 2,4 2,7 2,7 2,8 : Rumania 0,6 0,6 0,8 0,8 0,9 0,9 X X China 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,6 X X TOTAL (EAST) 7,7 8,1 8,6 9,2 9,7 10,0 2,7 2, U.S.S.R. X X X X X X Hungary 3,1 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,1 3,0 Rumania X X X X X X China X X X X X X TOTAL (EAST) 3,1 3,[T 3,0 3,0 3,1 3,0 x fig u re s not published

13 - **r g T - v g f '*< ncr 183 APPENDIX SIX MINOR PRODUCERS AND EASTERN BLOC BAUXITE OUTPUT (million tons) Western Bloc Dominican Rep. 1,0 1,1 1,1 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,0 0,6 0,5 Malaysia 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,0 1,1 1,0 1,0 0,7 0,7 Indonesia 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,2 1,3 1,2 1,3 1,0 0,9 Haiti 0,7 0,8 0,7 0,7 0,8 0,8 0,6 0,5 0,7 Sierra Leone 0,4 0,4 0,5 0,5 0,7 0,7 0,7 0,7 0,7 Ghana 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,3 0,3 Brazil 0,3 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,3 0,8 1,0 1,3 1,3 Italy 0,0 0,2 0,2 0,2 0, Turkey - 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,7 0,6 0, Dominican Rep. 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,4 0,4 Malaysia 0,6 0,6 0,4 0,9 0,7 0,6 Indonesia 1,3 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,2 1,0 Haiti 0,7 0,6 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,4 Sierra. Leone 0,8 0,7 0,7 0,8 0,6 0,6 Ghana 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,2 0,3 0,2 Brazil 1,0 1,2 1,6 4,2 4,2 4,5 Italy - w* - - Turkey 0,6 0,5 0,2 0,4 0,5 0,5 Eastern Bloc U.S.S.R. 4,9 5,2 5,4 5,8 5,8 5,8 X X X Hungary 1,8 1,9 2,0 2,1 2,4 2,7 2,7 2,8 3,0 Rumania 0,6 0,6 0,8 0,8 0,9 0,9 X X X China 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,6 X X X TOTAL (EAST) 7,7 8,1 8,6 9,2 9,7 10,0 2,7 2,8 3, U.S.S.R. X X X X X X Hungary 3,1 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,1 3,0 Rumania X X X X X X China X X X X X X TOTAL (EAST) 3,1 3,0 3,0 3,0 3,1 3,0 x fig u re s not published

14 184 APPENDIX SEVEN MINOR ALUMINIUM COMMODITY TRADE STATISTICS 30 Aluminium foil of the thickness not exceedinq 0,2mm (item 76.04) YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS Quantity (tons) Ualue(current) Quantity (tons) Ualue(current) 1968 X X X X X X X X X X X X X i 076 L X Aluminium p o w d e r s and flakes (item 76.05) 1968 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 't

15 185 Tubes, pipes and blanks; hollow bars of aluminium (item 76.06) 30 YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS Quantity (tons) Value (current) Quantity (tons) Value ( c m 1968 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Tube and pipe fittings, of aluminium ( item 76.07) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 4 264

16 186 Casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar containers of aluminium for the conveyance or packinq of goods (item 76,10) 30 YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS R Quantity (tons) Value (current) Quantity (tons) R Value (current) 1968 X X X X X X Z6 132 X k X X X X X X X Containers of aluminium, for compressed or liquefied qas(item X X X X 1969 X X X , X X X X ? 530 X X X X X

17 Structures, complete or incomplete, and parts of alumlnlumcitsm 75.08) YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS Quantity (tons) Value (current) Quantity (tons) Value (current) 1968 x x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Reservoirs, tanks, vats a n d s i m i l a r c o n t a i n e r s, f o r any m a t e r i a l ( e x c l u d i n q c o m p r e s s e d o r l i q u e f i e d q a s ) o f a l u m i n i u m, o f a c a p a c i t y exceeding 300 l i t r e s, w h e t h e r o r n o t l i n e d o r h e a t i n s u l a t e d, b u t n o t f i t t e d w i t h m e c h a n i c a l o r t h e r m a l e q u i p m e n t (item 76.09) 1968 X X X X , , , , , X , , X , X , X , X X

18 IBB Stranded wire, cables, cordage, ropes, plaited bands and the like, of aluminium wire (item 76.12) 30 YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS Quantity (tons) Value (current) Quantity (tons) Value (current) 1968 X X X X X X ? 809 X X X X X X 897 X X X X X X X X Gauze, c l o t h, p r i l l, n e t t in g, r e in f o r c in q f a b r ic and ju s i m i l a r m a t e r ia ls. o f alum inium w ir e (it e m 76.13) 19GB X X X X 1969 X X X X X X X * X * sta tistic s included under item post-1976 V %

19 Expanded metal, of aluminium (item 76.14) YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS Quantitv (tons) Value (current) Quantity (tons) Value (cun 1968 X X X X , , , , , , , X , X ,2 795 X * 1, X 136 in 189 Articles of a kind commonly used for domestic purposes, sanitary ware for indoor use, and parts of such articles 30 and ware of aluminium (item 76.15) 1968 X X X X X X X 167 Feb X X X X X X * sta tistic s included under item post 1976 \

20 - to i i ifttf*- 190 Other articles of aluminium (item 76.16^ YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS R Quantity (tons) Value (current) Quantity (tens) Value (current) 1968 X X X X , " X X X X X X X X X X x for a ll the above tables indicates figures not recorded for public use.

21 191 APPENDIX EIGHT Components of risk assessment by country These components are assessed on a scale from 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest) risk., Grouped together they form the basis for the country risk factor assessment. 1. AUSTRALIA (4,26) Factor LABOUR Strike incidence Quality of labour General unrest POLITICS History Stability External dangers LOCATIONS Hostile borders C ritical land/sea routes MINERAL RESOURCES Adequacy of reserves Costs of production Development appeal FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC Currency performance Vulnerability to manipulation External indebtedness Productivity Foreign ownerships Rating Comment volatile in porks and iron ore mining high level of sk ill, local and immigrant low English based, stable probable constitutional change soon low, strongly pro-west practically indefensible none locally excellent and expanding rising abnormally in labour sector good in long run but difficult near term subject to marginal pressures only not a major constraint containable vulnerable in spite of excellent geology high but now subject to restriction ENERGY AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES Domestic energy sources 6 Domestic energy j. "o duct ion 7 Sources of outside supplies 2 DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN NATURAL 2 RESOURCES s t i l l weak in oil and gas expanding but vulnerable in oil not necessary low

22 CANADA (3.94) Factor Rating LABOUR Strike incidence 7 Quality of labour 3 General unrest 6 POLITICS History S Stability 6 External dangers 2 LOCATION Hostile borders 2 C ritical land/sea routes 1 MINERAL RESOURCES Adequacy of reserves 3 Costs of production 7 Development appeal 5 FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC Currency performance 7 Vulnerability to manipulation 7 External indebtedness 6 Productivity 6 Foreign ownerships 8 ENERGY AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES Domestic energy sources 1 Domestic energy production 2 Sources of outside supplies 1 DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN NATURAL 2 RESOURCES Comment high by Western standards high proportion of skilled workers some interprovincial some French/Epglish conflict danger of provincial fragmentation low, close to U.S. border low, bordering to U.S.A. none excellent high medium, history of political interference very poor against the US js high medium medium high high in a ll sectors good, though recession effects evident not necessary low \

23 CHILE (5.77) Factor LABOUR Rating Strike Incidence 6 Quality of labour 7 General unrest 6 POLITICS History Stability External dangers 5 LOCATION Hostile borders 5 C ritical land/sea routes 6 MINERAL RESOURCES Adequacy of reserves 4 Costs of production 6 Development appeal 5 FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC Currency performance 4 Vulnerability to manipulation 8 External indebtedness 4 Productivity 5 Foreign ownerships 4 ENERGY AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES Domestic energy sources 8 Domestic energy production 7 Sources of outside supplies 4 DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN NATURAL 6 RESOURCES B G Comment recurrent but stric t labour laws pertain adequate in mining sector long history of problems, currently steady troubled, predominantly right-wing currently well controlled d ifficulties with Argentina long border, disputes with Argentina Cape Horn and Panama Canal for export very large in narrow range of minerals containable growing large improvements since 1980 high with copper exports priced in US 8 reducing exchange rate fixed to US 8 good encouraged lacking oil and gas coal being increased wide choice, few restrictions range of key minerals produced is small V

24 S.111.A./NAMIBIA (6.83) Factor Rating LABOUR Strike incidence 7 Quality of labour 7 General unrest 9 POLITICS History 7 Stability 9 External dangers 8 LOCATION Hostile borders 7 C ritical land/sea mutes 8 MINERAL RESOURCES Adequacy of reserves 3 Costs of production 7 Development appeal 7 FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC Currency performance 5 Vulnerability to manipulation 5 External indebtedness 4 Productivity 4 Foreign ownerships 8 ENERGY AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES Domejtic energy sources 8 Domestic energy production 7 Sources of outside supplies 8 DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN NATURAL 6 RESOURCES Comment growing low very high uneasy highly unstable high Angola, South Africa could become hostile high profile on both good and capable of expansion low on labour, high on infrastructure very low now, could improve tied to South Africa tied to South Africa low high through diamond sector high low but improving coal very low but coal could sta rt shortly South African manipulation in oil high but mostly coming from South Africa

25 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (4.30) Factor Rating LABOUR Strike incidence 3 Quality of labour 3 General unrest 3 Comment low, good union discipline good, high level of mechanisation low, some ethnic problems POLITICS History Stability External dangers LOCATION Hostile borders C ritical land/sea routes MINERAL RESOURCES Adequacy of reserves Costs of production Development appeal FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC Currency performance Vulnerability to manipulation External indebtedness Productivity Foreign ownerships U long established democratic system very good none foreseeable none possible problems in Gulf of Mexico shortage (absence of several key minerals) medium but rising excellent in selected industries volatile but strengthening high as the leading convertible currency high but balanced by production capacity high but trailing Japan fairly low ENERGY AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES Domestic energy sources 4 Domestic energy production 3 Sources of outside supplies S DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN NATURAL RESOURCES excellent but s t i l l o il importing growing rapidly dependence on OPEC and Mexico serious in some key minerals but these could mostly be developed domestically in an emergency X. \

26 ZAIRE (6.79) Factor LABOUR Rating Strike incidence 7 Quality of labour 6 General unrest 8 POLITICS History 8 Stability 6 External dangers 8 LOCATION Hostile borders 7 C ritical land/sea routes 8 MINERAL RESOURCES Adequacy of reserves 3 Costs of production 8 Development appeal 7 FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC Currency performance 9 Vulnerability to manipulation 8 External indebtedness 8 Productivity 7 Foreign ownerships 3 ENERGY AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES Domestic energy sources 4 Domestic energy production 5 Sources of outside supplies 8 DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN NATURAL 7 RESOURCES Comment medium - high medium for the region recently high troubled well held, rests on persona)ities trouble via Congo and Angola proximity to Angola, Congo high profile in E,W,S direction excellent high moderate, but well qualified risks very poor high high but assisted by IMF low but improving low but encouraged some oil, good hydro potential low but improving critical of forex/transport considerations high but could be reduced by domestic expansion

27 ZAMBIA (6.83) Factor Rating LABOUR Strike incidence 8 Quality of labour 7 General unrest B POLITICS History 5 Stability 7 External dangers 4 LOCATION Hostile borders 4 C ritical land/sea routes 8 MINERAL RESOURCES Adequacy of reserved 6 Costs of production 7 Development appeal 6 FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC Currency performance 8 Vulnerability to manipulation 7 External indebtedness 8 Productivity 7 Foreign ownerships 4 ENERGY AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES Domestic energy sources 8 Domestic energy production 7 Sources of outside supplies 8 DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN NATURAL 8 RESOURCES Comment high in recent years slowly improving but high expatriate turnover disaffection due to low living standards same leadership since 1964 strains of Kuanda leadership showing lower since end of Rhodesia's U.D.I. long term unpredictable, currently calm land locked, ra il links prone to disruption limited to Cu,Co,Fb,Zn low grades high, including import dependence low but supported by W. Bloc poor, consistent downward realignments high high medium - low now greatly reduced very low, no o il, poor coal low, some hydro from Kariba Dam limited by ti^r,sport and forex high

28 198. LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Agaruial, J.C. and Reddy, 3.J, 'The Role of Cobalt in Industrial Society1. Charles River Associates Inc. 2. Andrews, R.W. ' Cobalt - Overseas Geological Survey1. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. 3. Barbier, C. 'The Economics of Tungsten'. 4. Bilbrey, 3.H. ' Cobalt - A Materials Survey'. BuMines Internal Circular Bilhorn, W.W. 'Molybdenum'. Engineering and Mining Journal, March Brubaker, S. 'Trends in the World Aluminium Industry'. 7. Bureau for Economic Research, 'Medium Term Macroeconomic Forecast for South Africa'. University of Stellenbosch. 8. Charles River Associates, ' Economic Analysis of the Tungsten Industry' 9. Coetzee, G.L. ' Copper, Cobalt and Nickel Contents of Some S.A. Pyrites' MSc. Dies. University of the Witwatersrand, Crowsan, P. 'Minerals Handbook '. 11. CSIR, 'Getting along without Molybdenum1. Co-operative Research programme. 12. Dana, 0. 'Manual of Mineralogy1, 3rd. Ed. 13. Duke, V.W.A. 'The Supply of Molybdenum for South Africa', PR3/7S, Minerals Bureau. 14. 'Cobalt - A Mineral Commodity Review', IM 6, Minerals Bureau. 15. 'Tungsten - Mineral Commodity Review', Minerals Bureau, Hargreaves, D. and Fromson,S. 'World Index of Strategic Minerals'. 17. Heymamm, C.G. 'Molybdenum: Price Forecast and South African Consumption'. Unpublished memorandum, GEIMCQR Keyser, U. 'Molybdenum'. Mineral Resources of South Africa. 19. 'Tungsten'. Mineral Resources of South Africa. 20. Hammerbeck, E.C.I. 'Cobalt'. Mineral Resources of South Africa. 21. LeRoy, 3. 1Cobalt1. Engineering and Mining Journal, March Lowe, B.C. 'Cobalt hits the Headlines'. CIPEC Quarterly Review, October - December Mero, J.L. 'The Mineral Resources of the Sea1, Metal Bulletin, London, Sundry Issues.

29 «r w * Metal Bulletin. F irst International Aluminium Congress', Madrid Metals Week. 'Tungsten'. Proceedings of the First International Tungsten Symposium, Stockholm Metallgescllschaft Aktiengesellschyft,M etalletatistiek, Issues Mining Journal, 'Mining Annual Review', Mdnnis, til. 'Molybdenum - A Materials Survey1. BuMines Internal Circular Monthly Abstract of Trade S tatistics, , Department of Customs and Excise. 31. Northcott, L. "Molybdenum", Pinkney, E.T. ' Cobalt in South Africa1. Paper read at the Gorham International Cobalt Crisis Conference, May Roskill Information Services, ' Roskills Metals Data Book1, January Sinclair, J.E. and Parker, R. ' Strategic Metals War', SRI International. 'Aluminium'. Metallic Minerals Program Thurber, W.C. 'Tungsten1. Engineering and Mining Journal, March Tien, J.H. 'Cobalt Availability and Superalloys1. Journal of Metals, October UNCTAD 'The Wnrld Market for Bauxite: Characteristics and Trends'. August lbd United States Bureau of Mines,, 'Mineral Facts and Problems' Ed. 40. Yih, S.W.H. and Wang, C.T. 'Tungsten - Properties, Applications and Metallurgy'. 41. Various private communications. 42. U.S. Bureau of Mines. ' Bauxite - Aluminium industry1. (U.S. Technology transfer to Resource Rich Developing Countries).!'" 43. Aluminium Association of U.S. 'Uses of Aluminium'. 44. ' Aluminium S tatistical Review Drewery. ' Ocean Shipping of Bauxite and Alumina'» Study No a Simonsen. 'A review of the World's M industry with particular reference to S.A. '. 47. U.S. Aluminium Association. ' Energy and the Aluminium Industry'.

30 «c Metal Bulletin. 'F irst International Aluminium Congress', Madrid 19BD. 26. Metals Week. 'Tungsten'. Proceedings of the First International Tungsten Symposium, Stockholm Metallgesellschaft flktiengesellschaft, M etallstatistiek, Issues Mining Journal, 'Mining Annual Review', Mclnnis, W. 'Molybdenum - A Materials Survey1. BuMines Internal Circular" Monthly Abstract of Trade S tatistics, , Department of Customs and Excise. 31. Northcott, L. ' Molybdenum', Pinkney, E.T. ' Cobalt in South Africa1. Paper read at the Gorham International Cobalt Crisis Conference, May Roskill Information Services, ' Roskills Metals Data Book1, January Sinclair, J.E. and Parker, R. ' Strategic Metals War', SRI International. 'Aluminium'. Metallic Minerals Program Thurber, W.C. 'Tungsten1. Engineering and Mining Journal, March Tien, J.K. 'Cobalt Availability and Superalloys'. Journal of Metals, October UNCTAD 'The World Market for Bauxite: Characteristics and Trends'. August United States Bureau of Mines. ' Mineral Facts and Problems' Ed. 40. Yih, 5.W.H. and Wang, C.T. 'Tungsten - Properties, Applications and Metallurgy', 41. Various private communications. 42. U.S. Bureau of Mines. ' Bauxite - Aluminium industry'. (U.S. Technology transfer to Resource Rich Developing Countries). 43. Aluminium Association of U.S. 'Uses of Aluminium ' Aluminium S tatistical Review'. 45. Drewery. ' Ocean Shipping of Bauxite and Alumina1. Study No Simonsen. 'A review of the World's A1 industry with p a rticular reference to S.A. '. 47. U.S. Aluminium Association. 'Energy and the Aluminium Industry'. \ \ y - T. ^ _. W1<: > «-. r

31 48. S.A. - Geological Survey. 'A Reconnaissance 'urvey of Bauxitic Material in Southern Natal S.A. Council for Mineral Technology. Beneficiation tests on two samples of bauxite from Natal'. 50. MINTEM. 'Possible Research and Development on the production of cell-qrarie Alumina from domestic raw m aterials'. Report No Fitzgeralo. 'Aluminium - the next twenty years'. v - '- t t. i f t

32 200. LIST OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1. Prof. D.G Krige, Mineral Economics - Department of Mining Engineering, University of the UJitiuatersrand, Johannesburg. 2. Dr. P. Hugo, Chief Director Minerals Bureau. 3. Mr. Engelbrecht, Industrial Development Corporation. 4. Dr. C.G. Heymann, Minerals Intelligence. GENCOR. 5. Mr. Bredell, Geological Survey, Pretoria. 6. Mr. V. Duke, Head Ferrous Metals Sub-Division, Minerals Bureau. 7. Mr. J. Diemont' Marketing Manager, A1JJSAF. 8. Mr. E.C.G. Smith, Southern Cross Steel. 9. Mr. Pinkney, Sentrachem. 10. Mrs. A.L. Dudas, Typist of this report. The author would like to express his appreciation for the guidance and assistance in the work done in the final production of the project report which he received from the above-mentioned people.

33 V sir _ -

34 Author Dudas J S J Name of thesis Future supply and demand of certain strategic metal imports in South Africa - a commodities study 1984 PUBLISHER: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2013 LEGAL NOTICES: Copyright Notice: All materials on the U n i ve r si t y o f t h e Wi tw a te r s r an d, J o h a n n e sb u rg Lib r a r y website are protected by South African copyright law and may not be distributed, transmitted, displayed, or otherwise published in any format, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Disclaimer and Terms of Use: Provided that you maintain all copyright and other notices contained therein, you may download material (one machine readable copy and one print copy per page) for your personal and/or educational non-commercial use only. The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is not responsible for any errors or omissions and excludes any and all liability for any errors in or omissions from the information on the Library website.