General Introduction to Microstructure Technology p. 1 What is Microstructure Technology? p. 1 From Microstructure Technology to Microsystems

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1 General Introduction to Microstructure Technology p. 1 What is Microstructure Technology? p. 1 From Microstructure Technology to Microsystems Technology p. 9 The Parallels to Microelectronics p. 15 The Production of Single Crystal Wafers p. 15 Production of Silicon-Single Crystals p. 17 Production of GaAs Single Crystals p. 24 Basic Technical Processes p. 26 Film Deposition p. 27 Lithography (Film Patterning) p. 30 Surface Modification p. 31 Etching (Film Removal) p. 35 Packaging Technology p. 36 Requirements for Packaging Technology p. 36 Hybrid Technology p. 37 Clean Room Techniques p. 39 The Physical and Chemical Basics in Microtechnology p. 45 Crystals and Crystallography p. 45 Lattice and Types of Lattices p. 46 Stereographic Projection p. 48 The Silicon Single Crystal p. 53 Reciprocal Lattice and the Analysis of the Crystal Structure p. 55 Methods to Determine the Crystalline Structure p. 62 X-ray Diffraction p. 62 Electron Beam Diffraction p. 64 Basic Concepts of Electroplating p. 66 The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface p. 69 Polarization and Overpotential p. 73 Mechanisms of Cathodic Metal Deposition p. 74 Materials of Microsystems Technology p. 81 Basic Technologies in MEMS p. 109 Basic Principles of Vacuum Technology p. 109 The Mean Free Path p. 110 The Monolayer Time p. 112 Velocity of Atoms and Molecules p. 114 Gas Dynamics p. 115 The Classification of Technical Vacuums p. 116 Vacuum Production p. 117 Pumps for Rough- and Fine Vacuums p. 118 High Vacuum- and Ultrahigh Vacuum Pumps p. 119 Vacuum Measurement p. 125

2 Pressure Transducer p. 125 Thermal Conductivity Vacuum Gauge p. 126 Friction Type Vacuum Gauge p. 126 Thermionic Ionization Vacuum Gauge p. 127 Cold Cathode Ionization Gauge (Penning Principle) p. 127 Leakage and Leak Detection p. 128 Properties of Thin Films p. 129 Structure Zone Model p. 129 Adhesive Strength of the Layer p. 132 Physical and Chemical Coating Techniques p. 133 Evaporation p. 133 Sputtering p. 135 Ion Plating or Plasma Assisted Deposition p. 139 Ion Cluster Beam Technology p. 140 CVD Processes p. 143 Epitaxy p. 146 Plasma Polymerization p. 148 Oxidation p. 148 Structuring of Thin Films with Dry Etch Processes p. 151 Physical Etch Technologies p. 155 Combined Physical and Chemical Etch Technologies p. 158 Chemical Etching Technologies p. 162 Analysis of Thin Films and Surfaces p. 164 Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPM) p. 165 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) p. 166 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) p. 168 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) p. 168 Secondary Neutral Particle Mass Spectroscopy (SNMS) p. 169 Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) p. 169 Rutherford Back Scattering Spectroscopy (RBS) p. 169 Scanning Tunneling Microscope p. 170 Lithography p. 171 Overview and History p. 171 Resists p. 171 Process of Lithography p. 175 Computer Aided Design (CAD) p. 176 CAD-Layout p. 177 Alignment Patterns and Test Structures p. 178 Organization of the Design (Hierarchy, Layers) p. 181 Electron Beam Lithography p. 182 Gaussian Beams p. 182

3 Write Strategy with Gaussian Beams p. 185 Shaped Beams p. 187 Post Processor p. 189 Proximity Effect p. 190 Optical Lithography p. 192 Masks p. 193 Shadow Projection p. 194 Imaging Projection p. 196 Further Developments p. 198 Optical Lithography for Micromechanics p. 200 Ion Beam Lithography p. 202 X-Ray Lithography p. 202 Masks p. 203 X-Ray Sources p. 204 Synchrotron Radiation p. 204 Application of X-ray Lithography p. 208 Silicon Microsystem Technology p. 209 Silicon Technology p. 210 IC Processes and Substrates p. 210 Foundry Technologies p. 214 Silicon Micromachining p. 215 Introduction p. 215 Wet Etching p. 220 Basic Etch Shapes p. 227 Etching Control p. 234 Characterization of Anisotropic Wet Etchants p. 239 Dry Etching p. 241 Surface Micromachining p. 248 Polysilicon Micromachining p. 250 Sacrificial Aluminum Micromachining p. 253 Sacrificial Polymer micromachining p. 254 Stiction p. 255 Micro Transducers and Systems Based on Silicon Technology p. 257 Mechanical Devices and Systems p. 257 Thermal Micro Devices and Systems p. 263 Devices and Systems for Radiant Signals p. 273 Magnetic Devices and Systems p. 278 Chemical Microsensors p. 280 Micromachined Devices for Electrical Signal Processing p. 285 Summary and Outlook p. 287 The LIGA Process p. 289

4 Overview p. 289 Mask Production p. 291 The Principle Construction of a Mask p. 291 Production of the Carrier Foil p. 294 Structuring of the Resist for X-ray Intermediate Masks p. 295 Electroplating with Gold for X-ray Masks p. 298 Production of Process Masks p. 299 Window for Alignment in X-ray Process Masks p. 301 X-ray Lithography p. 301 Production of Thick Resist Layers p. 302 Beam Induced Reactions and Development of Resists p. 303 Requirements on the Absorbed Radiation Dosage p. 306 Influences on the Quality of the Structure p. 310 Galvanic Deposition p. 316 Galvanic Deposition of Nickel for the Production of Microstructures p. 316 Mold Insert Fabrication p. 321 Electrodeposition of Further Metals and Alloys p. 322 Plastic Molding in the LIGA Process p. 324 Production of Microstructures by Reaction Injection Molding p. 324 Fabrication of Microstructures by Injection Molding p. 327 Fabrication of Microstructures by Hot Embossing p. 333 Production of Metallic Microstructures from Molded Plastic Structures (Second Electroplating) p. 337 Variations and Additional Steps of the LIGA Technology p. 341 Sacrificial Layer Technology p D-Structuring p. 344 Production of Light-Conducting Structures by Molding p. 347 Examples of Applications p. 349 Rigid Metallic Microstructures p. 349 Moving Microstructures, Microsensors and Microactuators p. 353 Fluidic Microstructures p. 366 LIGA-Structures for Optical Uses p. 368 Alternative Processes of Microstructuring p. 381 Mechanical Micromanufacturing p. 381 Production Process and Primary Structures p. 382 Examples of Applications p. 386 Electro-Discharge Machining p. 394 The Basics of EDM p. 394 Applications of EDM for Microsystems p. 397 Laser Micromachining p. 399 Packaging and Interconnecting Techniques (PIT) p. 403 Hybrid Technology p. 404

5 Substrates and Pastes p. 404 Layer Production p. 407 Placement and Soldering of the Circuit Components p. 408 Mounting and Contacting of Silicon Dies p. 412 Wire-Bonding Techniques p. 413 Thermocompression Wire-bonding (Hot-Pressure Welding Bonding) p. 413 Ultrasonic Wire-bonding (Ultrasonic Bonding) p. 414 Thermosonic Wire-bonding (Ultrasonic Hot-pressure Welding) p. 414 Ball-Wedge Bonding p. 415 Wedge-Wedge Bonding p. 416 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Wire-bond Processes p. 417 Test Processes and Alternatives p. 417 New Contacting Technologies p. 418 The TAB Technology p. 418 The Flip-Chip Technologies p. 420 Adhesion p. 422 Isotropic Adhesion p. 422 Anisotropic Adhesion p. 424 Anodic Bonding p. 425 Wafer-to-Glass Bonding p. 425 Wafer-to-Wafer Bonding p. 427 New Packaging Technologies p. 428 Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC) p. 428 System Technology p. 431 Definition of a Microsystem p. 431 Sensors p. 433 Actuators p. 438 Signal Processing p. 439 Signal Processing for Sensors in Microsystems p. 440 Neural Data Processing for Sensor Arrays p. 444 Interfaces of Microsystems p. 449 The IE-Transfer p. 452 The S-Transfer p. 455 The Module Concept of Microsystem Technology p. 456 Design, Simulation, Integration, and Test of Microsystems p. 461 Literatur p. 465 Table of Contents provided by Blackwell's Book Services and R.R. Bowker. Used with permission.