Mechanical Properties - Standard. Standard Mild Steel Studs AWS Type A

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1 General Material Specifications Material Specifications Nelson s studs may be made of one of the following materials, as specified on individual specification sheets. Certificates of chemical analysis and physical properties are available, upon request. All physical and chemical properties are independent of stud size or shape. 8 Mild Steel Standard mild steel studs manufactured by Nelson conform to ASTM A29 chemistry specifications for grades 1010 through 1020 mild steels. Physical properties of mild steel Nelson studs are in accordance with AWS D1.1. Special studs can also be manufactured of other weldable mild steels. Heat treatments and plating can be applied to mild steel studs, upon request. Mild Steel Chemical Compositioni Element Minimum wt% Maximum wt% C Mn P S Stainless Steel Standard Nelson studs manufactured of stainless steel conform to ASTM A276 or A493 specifications. Studs can be manufactured from other weldable stainless steel alloys. Mechanical properties of Nelson stainless steel studs depend on the cold working or heat treatment applied to the studs after forming. Stainless steel studs can be annealed, upon request. Stainless Steel Chemical Composition UNS (302HQ) UNS (304L) UNS (316L) Element Minimum wt% Maximum wt% Minimum wt% Maximum wt% Minimum wt% Maximum wt% C Cr Ni Mn Cu Minimum Values Mechanical Properties - Standard Mild Steel Shear and Concrete Anchors AWS Type B Standard Mild Steel Studs AWS Type A Mild Steel Deformed Bar Anchors AWS Type C Stainless Steel Studs, as formed AWS D1.6 Ultimate Tensile (psi), Rm 65,000 61,000 80,000 70,000 Yield, 0.2% offset (psi), Re 51,000 49,000 70,000 35,000 % Elongation, A5, in 2 gage length N/A 40 % Area Reduction (min) N/A N/A Minimum Values Mechanical Properties - Metric Mild Steel Shear and Concrete Anchors AWS Type B Standard Mild Steel Studs AWS Type A Mild Steel Deformed Bar Anchors AWS Type C Stainless Steel Studs, as formed AWS D1.6 Ultimate Tensile (MPa), Rm Yield, 0.2% offset (MPa), Re % Elongation, A5, in 2 gage length N/A 40 % Area Reduction (min) N/A N/A

2 General Material Specifications Aluminum Nelson manufactured aluminum studs are made from Aluminum Association (AA) alloys 1100, 5086, 5356, and Aluminum studs can be annealed upon request. The chemical composition and physical properties of these alloys are shown below. 9 Aluminum Alloy Chemical Composition Gas Arc, Stored Arc Drawn Capacitor Discharge Only¹ Element Alloy 1100 ASTM B211 Alloy 5356 Alloy 5086 ASTM B211 Alloy 6061 ASTM B211 Minimum wt% Maximum wt% Minimum wt% Maximum wt% Minimum wt% Maximum wt% Minimum wt% Maximum wt% Al Cr Cu Mn Si N/A N/A Fe N/A N/A Si+Fe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Zn Mg Ti Mechanical Properties Standard Minimum Values 1100 H H H T-6 Ultimate Tensile (psi), Rm 21,000 46,000 42,000 45,000 Yield, 0.2% offset (MPa), Re 20,000 32,000 30,000 40,000 % Elongation, A5, in 2 gage length % Area Reduction N/A N/A N/A N/A Mechanical Properties - Metric Minimum Values 1100 H H H T-6 Ultimate Tensile (psi), Rm Yield, 0.2% offset (MPa), Re % Elongation, A5, in 2 gage length % Area Reduction N/A N/A N/A N/A ¹TPA insulation pins are Alloy 1100

3 10 Cold Heading The primary method used by Nelson to produce stud welded fasteners is the Cold Forming process. Utilizing the same cold heading production equipment, Nelson produces an extensive line of non-welded, cold- formed parts. These parts can be custom designed to satisfy the specific requirements of individual customers. Pictured at right are just some of the many different cold-formed parts and shapes that Nelson is capable of producing. If you are currently purchasing cold-formed or screw-machined parts, Nelson may be able to offer cost savings and quality improvements. To understand Nelson s capabilities and to determine if cold forming will benefit you, consult the following specification: Should You Inquire About Nelson s Cold Forming Capability? The answer is YES if Your part is 1 or less in diameter, and the shank diameter is 1 or less, and the length is less than 15 Your part is assembled from several components Your annual part volume is 100,000 pieces or more You currently experience substantial material waste You need greater process control capability (higher CPK) You desire greater part strength and/or better surface finish is desired You have not shopped your part cost in several years You require closer tolerances Nelson s Capabilities Wire diameter ranging from 1/8 (0.125 ) through 1 Upset forming diameters up to 225% of wire diameter Cut-off length up to 15 Up to five dies and hammers can be used to progressively form complex shapes Upsets, forward and backward extrusions, punched and through holes, flanges, collars, heads, and other forming techniques can be accommodated Production rates from 45 to 450 pieces per minute Complete secondary operations In-house tool and die design and fabrication Submit the following information for a FREE Cost Quotation: Part drawing with critical dimensions Order quantity and annual volume A sample of the part you are currently purchasing Your target pricing

4 11 Standard Arc Welding Studs (AWS Type A) Tensile and Torque Strengths Mild Steel 61,000psi Minimum Ultimate, 49,000 psi Minimum Yield Thread Diameter META 1 (sq. in.) Yield Load² (lbs.) at 49,000 psi Ultimate Tensile Load (lbs) at 61,000 psi Yield Torque 2 (ft-lbs) at 49,000 psi Ultimate Torque (ft-lbs) at 61,000 psi Shear Strength (75% of Tensile Strength) UNC , UNF , /4-20 UNC ,553 1, ,450 1/4-28 UNF ,774 2, ,656 5/16-18 UNC ,558 3, ,388 5/16-24 UNF ,837 3, ,649 3/8-16 UNC ,788 4, ,536 3/8-24 UNF ,292 5, ,008 7/16-14 UNC ,194 6, ,850 7/16-20 UNF ,807 7, ,421 1/2-13 UNC ,938 8, ,478 1/2-20 UNF ,825 9, ,306 5/8-11 UNC ,054 13, ,321 5/8-18 UNF ,520 15, ,689 3/4-10 UNC ,366 20, ,281 3/4-16 UNF ,248 22, ,037 7/8-9 UNC ,599 28, ,100 7/8-14 UNF ,931 31, , UNC ,650 36, , UNF ,276 41, ,069 *Torque figures based on assumption that excessive deformation of thread has not taken relationship between torque/tension out of its proportional range. In actual practice, stud should not be used at its yield load. A factor of safety must be applied. It is generally recommended that studs not be used at more than 60% of yield strength, however, the factor of safety may vary up or down according to the particular application in which the studs are being used. The user of these studs will make this determination. Ultimate Tensile L = SA Ultimate Torque T = 0.2 x D x L 12 Yield Z = YA Yield Torque T = 0.2 x D x Z 12 Where D = Nominal Thread Diameter (in) A = Mean Effective Thread Area (META) (in²) S = Tensile Stress (psi) Y = Yield Stress (psi) L = Tensile Load (lbs) Z = Yield Load (lbs) T = Torque (ft-lbs) 1 META is used instead of root area in calculating screw lengths because of closer correlation with actual tensile strength. META is based on mean diameter, which is the diameter of an imaginary co-axial cylinder whose surface would pass through the thread profile approximately midway between the minor and pitch diameters. 2 In actual practice, stud should not be used at its yield load. A factor of safety must be applied. It is generally recommended that studs not be used at more than 60% of yield strength, however, the factor of safety may vary up or down according to the particular application in which the studs are being used. The user will make this safety factor determination.

5 12 Stainless Steel (As Formed) 70,000 psi Minimum Ultimate, 35,000 psi Minimum Yield Thread Diameter META 1 (sq. in.) Yield Load² (lbs.) at 35,000 psi Ultimate Tensile Load (lbs) at 70,000 psi Yield Torque 2 (ft-lbs) at 35,000 psi Ultimate Torque (ft-lbs) at 70,000 psi Shear Strength (75% of Tensile Strength) UNC , UNF , ,045 1/4-20 UNC ,110 2, ,664 1/4-28 UNF ,267 2, ,901 5/16-18 UNC ,827 3, ,741 5/16-24 UNF ,027 4, ,040 3/8-16 UNC ,706 5, ,058 3/8-24 UNF ,066 6, ,599 7/16-14 UNC ,710 7, ,565 7/16-20 UNF ,148 8, ,221 1/2-13 UNC ,956 9, ,434 1/2-20 UNF ,590 11, ,384 5/8-11 UNC ,896 15, ,844 5/8-18 UNF ,943 17, ,414 3/4-10 INC ,690 23, ,535 3/4-16 UNF ,034 26, ,551 7/8-9 UNC ,142 32, ,213 7/8-14 UNF ,808 35, , UNC ,179 42, , UNF ,769 47, ,653 *Torque figures based on assumption that excessive deformation of thread has not taken relationship between torque/tension out of its proportional range. In actual practice, stud should not be used at its yield load. A factor of safety must be applied. It is generally recommended that studs not be used at more than 60% of yield strength, however, the factor of safety may vary up or down according to the particular application in which the studs are being used. The user of these studs will make this determination. Ultimate Tensile L = SA Ultimate Torque T = 0.2 x D x L 12 Yield Z = YA Yield Torque T = 0.2 x D x Z 12 Where D = Nominal Thread Diameter (in) A = Mean Effective Thread Area (META) (in²) S = Tensile Stress (psi) Y = Yield Stress (psi) L = Tensile Load (lbs) Z = Yield Load (lbs) T = Torque (ft-lbs) 1 META is used instead of root area in calculating screw lengths because of closer correlation with actual tensile strength. META is based on mean diameter, which is the diameter of an imaginary co-axial cylinder whose surface would pass through the thread profile approximately midway between the minor and pitch diameters. 2 In actual practice, stud should not be used at its yield load. A factor of safety must be applied. It is generally recommended that studs not be used at more than 60% of yield strength, however, the factor of safety may vary up or down according to the particular application in which the studs are being used. The user will make this safety factor determination.

6 13 High Strength Steel 110,000 psi Minimum Ultimate, 92,000 psi Minimum Yield Thread Diameter META 1 (sq. in.) Yield Load² (lbs.) at 92,000 psi Ultimate Tensile Load (lbs) at 110,000 psi Yield Torque 2 (ft-lbs) at 92,000 psi Shear Strength (75% of Tensile Strength) M10 (0.394 dia.) / / *Torque figures based on assumption that excessive deformation of thread has not taken relationship between torque/tension out of its proportional range. Dependent on diameter. Consult Nelson Stud Welding for additional information. In actual practice, stud should not be used at its yield load. A factor of safety must be applied. It is generally recommended that studs not be used at more than 60% of yield strength, however, the factor of safety may vary up or down according to the particular application in which the studs are being used. High Strength (HS) studs should not be welded to A36 structural steel. The user of these studs will make this determination. Ultimate Tensile L = SA Ultimate Torque T = 0.2 x D x L 12 Yield Z = YA Yield Torque T = 0.2 x D x Z 12 Where D = Nominal Thread Diameter (in) A = Mean Effective Thread Area (META) (in²) S = Tensile Stress (psi) Y = Yield Stress (psi) L = Tensile Load (lbs) Z = Yield Load (lbs) T = Torque (ft-lbs) 1 META is used instead of root area in calculating screw lengths because of closer correlation with actual tensile strength. META is based on mean diameter, which is the diameter of an imaginary co-axial cylinder whose surface would pass through the thread profile approximately midway between the minor and pitch diameters. 2 In actual practice, stud should not be used at its yield load. A factor of safety must be applied. It is generally recommended that studs not be used at more than 60% of yield strength, however, the factor of safety may vary up or down according to the particular application in which the studs are being used. The user will make this safety factor determination. Stored Arc Welding Studs Tensile/Yield Strengths Mild Steel 50,000 psi Ultimate, 35,000 psi Yield Stainless Steel 70,000 psi Ultimate, 35,000 psi Yield Aluminum 21,000 psi Ultimate, 20,000 psi Yield Thread Diameter META 1 (sq. in.) Ultimate Tensile Load (lbs) Yield Load (lbs) Mild Steel Stainless Steel Aluminum Mild Steel Stainless Steel Aluminum 6-32 UNC UNC UNC UNF /4-20 UNC /16-18 UNC

7 Stud Dimensions The length dimension, L, shown throughout the specification sheets, is the overall stud length before weld. The after weld in-place length will be shorter, depending on the size of the stud, the welding process, and weld settings. Approximate length reductions are shown in the table below. Stud Diameter Weld Process Length Reduction 10 (0.134 ) and 12 gauge (0.105 ) TPC pins Stored Arc through 1/4-20, ATC, ATS, ATA, and FTC studs Stored Arc 1 / gauge (0.134 ) P2P pins Electric Arc 3 / 32 3/16 through 1/2" diameter studs Electric Arc 1 / 8 5/8 through 7/8 diameter studs Electric Arc 3 / 16 1 diameter or larger studs Electric Arc 1 / 4 " 1/4" and 1/2" H4L Weld Through Metal Deck Electric Arc 3 / 16 ¼ 5/8 H4L Weld Through Metal Deck Electric Arc 5 / 16 3 / 8 3/4" S3L Weld Through Metal Deck Electric Arc 3 / 8 7 / 16 M6 and 6mm diameter studs Electric Arc 2mm M8, 8mm, M10, 10mm, and M12 diameter studs Electric Arc 3mm 12mm, M16, and 16mm diameter studs Electric Arc 4mm M20, 19mm, and 20mm diameter studs Electric Arc 5mm M24, 22mm, and 24mm diameter studs Electric Arc 6mm The stud length reduction is also often known as burn-off. The stud end configuration (chamfer, concentricity, and manufacturer s identification) of studs and pins will be selected at our option, depending on production requirements. Threads The standard external threads on studs are UNC-2A, and internal threads are UNC-2B, prior to plating. Other threads are available upon request. Standard thread length is 3. Longer thread lengths may be ordered. Whenever possible, threads are cold-rolled. The surface quality and strength of rolled threads is greatly improved compared to cut threads. The surface finish on rolled threads is less subject to wear and offers more corrosion resistance than cut threads. Flux Flux quality and quantity is an essential factor for obtaining consistent weld results. All standard stud weld Nelson studs 5/16 diameter and greater have a solid flux load. Rectangular studs 1/8 x 5/8 and less are not fluxed. Plating Plating is useful to increase a stud s corrosion resistance. Unless otherwise specified at the time of order, all Nelson studs will be supplied un-plated. Upon request, the following types of surface protection are available: 14 Zinc Plating ASTM B-633 Zinc Dichromating ASTM B633 Fe/Zn 8 Copper Plating Nickel Plating Zinc plating will adversely affect the weld quality. For this reason, the weld ends of stud weld studs are not plated. Annealing Nelson studs can be post annealed to a maximum of 75 Rockwell B hardness (HRB) for low carbon steel and 85 HRB for stainless steel. An extra charge is applicable for annealing and will be quoted if specified at the time of order. Ferrules For weld integrity, certain stud types must be welded using a ceramic ferrule. Appropriate ceramic ferrules are included in the stud purchase price. Ferrules will be shipped with studs, when required. Ferrules for welding special applications should be specified when orders for studs are placed.

8 Accessories Accessories depend on the stud type, diameter, length, and the ferrule being used, along with any specific fixturing or job conditions or restrictions. For accessory information, please refer to the stud, ferrule, and accessory specifications. Weld Flash When a stud is end-welded, weld metal forms around its base. The weld flash dimension is controlled by the design of the ferrule used. The diameter of the weld metal is generally larger than the diameter of the stud. Consideration is required in the design of mating parts that involve weld flash. Refer to the appropriate stud specification sheets for recommended weld flash clearance hole diameters. Ordering Each stud ordered from Nelson Stud Welding should be listed separately along with the appropriate ferrule. The stud style should be specified as well as the length, diameter, material, quantity, and any other information according to the stud specification sheet. Your Nelson representative will be happy to advise you on the accessories required for welding the stud ordered, and is also available to aid in determining the proper stud for your application requirements. Weight Charts for Shipping Threaded Studs Approximate Weight of Threaded Studs per 1000 (length before welding is used to determine weight) Weights are in pounds. To convert to kilograms, multiply values below by Stud Length Diameter 1 / 4 5 / 16 3 / 8 7 / 16 1 / 2 5 / 8 3 / 4 7 / 8 ¾ ¼ ½ ¾ ¼ ½ ¾ ¼ ½ ¾ ¼ ½ ¾ Each Additional Inch Add for Collar Studs Ferrule

9 16 Weight Charts for Shipping Unthreaded Studs Approximate Weight of Threaded Studs per 1000 (length before welding is used to determine weight) Weights are in pounds. To convert to kilograms, multiply values below by Diameter Length 3 / 16 ¼ 5 / 16 3 / 8 7 / 16 ½ 5 / 8 ¾ 7 / 8 ¾ ¼ ½ ¾ ¼ ½ ¾ ¼ ½ ¾ ¼ ½ ¾ Each Additional Inch Ferrule

10 Weight Charts for Shipping General Stud Specifications 17 Shear Connectors Approximate Weight of Threaded Studs per 1000 (length before welding is used to determine weight) Weights are in pounds. To convert to kilograms, multiply values below by S3L Shear Connector Description Small Shear Cartons Weight Per Box, w/o Box Quantity Per Box Quantity Per Pallet Weight Per 1000 Pieces Net Weight of Pallet 3/4 x 3 3 / , ,643 3/4 x 3 3 / , ,589 3/4 x 3 7 / , ,625 3/4 x 4 3 / , ,499 3/4 x 4 7 / , ,466 3/4 x 5 3 / , ,529 3/4 x 5 3 / , ,519 3/4 x 5 7 / , ,529 3/4 x 6 3 / , ,345 3/4 x 7 3 / , ,403 3/4 x 8 3 / ,080 1,067 1,158 7/8 x 3 11 / , ,656 7/8 x 4 3 / , ,642 7/8 x 5 3 / , ,584 7/8 x 6 3 / ,350 1,153 1,528 7/8 x 7 3 / ,080 1,320 1,426 7/8 x 8 3 / ,473 1,391 Headed Anchors Approximate Weight of Threaded Studs per 1000 (length before welding is used to determine weight) Weights are in pounds. To convert to kilograms, multiply values below by H4L Headed Anchor Description Weight Per Box w/o Box Quantity Per Box Small Shear Cartons Quantity Per Pallet Weight Per 1000 Pieces Net Weight of Pallet 1/4 x 2 11 / , ,188 1/4 x 4 1 / , /8 x 4 1 / , ,569 3/8 x 6 1 / , /2 x 2 1 / , ,836 1/2 x 3 1 / , ,678 1/2 x 4 1 / , ,370 1/2 x 5 5 / , ,107 1/2 x 6 1 / , ,114 1/2 x 8 1 / , /8 x 2 11 / , ,658 5/8 x 4 3 / , ,518 5/8 x 6 9 / , ,232 5/8 x 8 3 / , ,070

11 Weight Charts for Shipping General Stud Specifications 18 Weights listed in tables do not include weight of box. Empty shear carton: 1.00 lb. each Pallet size: 36 x 36 Shear cartons: 27 per pallet Approximate volume of pallet: 18 cu. ft. (0.51 cu. meter) NOTE: All dimensions have been calculated at the mean dimensions of the tolerance allowance, and will vary if the product is at a minimum or maximum of tolerance. Insulation Fastener Quantities Insulation Pin Type Quantity Per Carton Insulation Pin Type Quantity Per Carton 10 ga. P2P less than 2-1/2 5, ga. and 12 ga. TPC less than 2-1/2 5, ga. P2P 3 long 4, ga. and 12 ga. TPC 2-1/2 through 6 2, ga. P2P 3-1/2 through 6 long 2,000 1 x 1-1/4 Rectangular Speed Clip 5, ga. CHP with 1-3/16 dia. head, all lengths 1, /2 Square Speed Clip 3, ga. CHP with 1-1/2 dia. head, all lengths 1, /2 Round Speed Clip 5, ga. CHP with 1-1/2 dia. head, 2 through /2 Square Speed Clip 1,000 2 Round Speed Clip 1,000 Deliveries Delivery on stock items will be made within three (3) days following the date of order receipt. Non-stock items or special items, which require manufacture, will be acknowledged in writing with a delivery promise. Extra Charges Stock items are not subject to additional charges. With approval from Nelson, a non-stock item may be given production priority if required before the acknowledged delivery date. Should such a service be required and approved, the customer will be charged an extra break-in fee. A non-stock or special stud that requires manufacturing may be subject to a set-up charge for setting dies onto the machines and changing production processes.