1.3.2 Nanotechnology Nanoporosity Deposition Methods Dissolution Methods

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1 Table of Contents 1. Metal Finishing Introduction Description of Industrial Activity Covered Environmental and Legislative Background Emerging Technology or Research? Definition of the Spectrum and Capabilities of Emerging Technologies Surface Finishing Metal and Alloy Electroplating Chromium and Cadmium Plating Drivers and Barriers Replacement of Chrome Replacement of Cadmium Environmental mitigation of Chrome Processes Other Metal and Alloy Plating Precious Metal Plating and Electronics Applications Miscellaneous Electroless Plating Electroless Nickel Other Electroless Plating Coating Organic and Powder Coatings Inorganic Coatings Other Metal Surface Treatments Surface Treatment of Plastics Process and Environmental Management Best Management Practice and BAT Substrate Preparation and Cleaning Bath Characterization and Maintenance Reagent Retention, Recycling and Recovery Metrology Review of Research Activities Surface Finishing Nanotechnology Nanoporosity Deposition Methods Dissolution Methods Applications Ionic Liquids High Energy and Reactive Beams Contribution by SATS-IPM Introduction Identification of the emerging and growing technologies in wet plating 57

2 1.4.3 Identification of the emergent technologies in dry process and heat treatment PVD CVD The chemical and thermo-chemical treatments The projection Duplex Treatment, multicoated and dissimilar The loading by laser Conclusion 61 2 Printed Circuit Technologies Emerging Technologies Introduction Laser Direct Imaging High Density Interconnects Embedded Passives Flexible Circuit Technology and Flex-rigid technology Digital Manufacturing Polymer Electronics Adhesives in Electronics Laminate Materials Pb-free solder Surface/solderable Finishing Optical Interconnects Moulded Interconnect Devices Microwave Technology System-in-Package (SiP) Technology End-of-Life Electronics Review of Research Activities Embedded Passives Process development for PWB compatible embedded capacitors New non-reinforced substrates for use as embedded capacitors Cryptography and authentication on RFID passive tags for apparel products Fodel microresistors--processing and basic electrical properties Embedded Passives Technology for PCBs: Materials, Design, and Process Embedded Passives InSite Embedded Resistor and Capacitor Technologies Digital Manufacturing Making printed circuit boards (PCBs) using an LPKF plotter Fabrication of Passive Elements Using Ink-Jet Technology Application of Printable Electronics for LCD Manufacturing: Printing of TFT Gate Layers and Pillar Spacers A Study of Electrophotography Process for Manufacturing Printed Circuit Board Nano-inks in development for printable moisture sensors Printed memory finds security applications M Inventors Develop Shrink Film Printed Circuit - Technology 111

3 2.2.3 Optical Interconnects Integrated waveguides for optical interconnects Characterization of organic multi-mode optical waveguides for Electrooptical printed circuit boards (EOPCB) Aqueous base compatible waveguide materials for optical interconnect applications Direct-write embedded waveguides and integrated optics in bulk glass by femtosecond laser pulses Metallisation Solderability of electroless deposited Ni-P coatings with lead free solder alloys Effect of surface roughness on the adhesion properties of Cu/Cr films on polyimide substrate treated by inductively coupled oxygen plasma Electroplating Catalytic anodes for electrodeposition: a study for acid copper printed circuit board (PCB) production Copper electroplating technology for microvia filling Modified mixed metal oxide coated anodes for reduced additive consumption in base metal plating baths Microvia filling plating technology for IC substrate applications Advances in Copper Plating Technology Bi-polar (DC+AC) Pulse-Reverse Technique for the Deposition of Metal Coatings with Improved Properties Tin Whisker Accelerated Test Project Tin Whisker Info Brief IONMET New Ionic Liquid Solvent Technology to Transform Metal Finishing Surface Finishing Direct Immersion Gold (DIG) as a final finish A new fine-grained matte pure tin for semiconductor lead-frame Applications Qualitative electroless Ni/Au plating considerations for the solder mask on top of sequential build-up layers Superior, whisker-reducing immersion tin technology Preventing whiskers in electrodeposited tin for semiconductor lead frame applications The new immersion tin generation in practical operation Development of an electroless nickel immersion gold process for PCB final finishes Surface coatings for fluxless soldering of copper Tin-Bismuth Finishes and the Phenomenon of Whiskers Pulsed Electrodeposited Sn-Cu Alloys for Use as Lead-Free Component Finishes in Microelectronic Applications Materials Dual metal core multilayer boards (MLBS)-a better option for high speed spacecraft electronic packaging applications SAVIA, an advanced multilayer parallel lamination technique for high density, high performance printed circuit boards How advanced low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) laminates and prepregs can improve the reliability of printed circuit boards (PCBs) 121

4 A novel process for the manufacture of advanced interconnects Renewable resources for use in printed circuit boards A novel method for sequentially-building multi-layer circuits using LCP laminates, cap-layers and bond plys An innovative ChemicalVia process for the production of high density interconnect printed circuit boards Non-planar interconnect Pb-Free Nano-Solder Project Nanodeposition of active ordered structures by cold atoms technologies Nanoimprinted devices for integrated organic electronics Organic and polymer transistors for electronics Nanotechnology: Role in emerging nanoelectronics Microwave Research Group in Microwave Technology Adhesion to Fluoropolymers, Rapra Review Report High frequency conductor loss impact of oxide and oxide Alternative processes Design D PCB architecture for next generation high speed interconnections A software tool for estimation of PCB substrate utilisation Efficiency statistics from scanned images Heat Transfer Project Flexible Circuits New materials and build-up constructions for advanced rigid-flex PCB application Ultrasonic Flip Chip Bonding Nano Skins Show Promise as Flexible Electronic Devices Adhesives High performance anisotropic conductive adhesives for lead-free interconnects Recent advances of conductive adhesives as a lead-free alternative in electronic packaging A study on UV-curable adhesives for optical pick-up Thixotropy flow behaviour of solder and conductive adhesive pastes Adhesion strength and contact resistance of flip chip on flex packages-- effect of curing degree of anisotropic conductive film Halogen-free flame retardant radiation curable coatings Medical inemi Medical Grade Components Reliability Specifications Project Microfabricated drug delivery devices System-in-Package (SiP) Technology Single-Pass Assembly Of SiP 134

5 Pb-Free Technology Improving the performance of lead-free solder reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes De-mystifying materials selection for lead-free Soldering High-temperature reliability of Flip Chip assemblies Evaluation of lead-free SnAg solder ball deposition and reflow processes for flip chip applications A study of the lead-free hot air solder levelling process A new approach of creating Au-Sn solder bumps from electroplating A systematic procedure for the selection of a lead-free solder paste in an electronics manufacturing environment Drop impact reliability testing for lead-free and lead-based soldered IC packages Inspection and Repair 137 Appendix 1 Contribution by EIPC 139 Appendix 2 IeMRC Research Awards as at 26 April, Appendix 3 EPPIC Research Priority List 193