1 This paper is in a collection of "Historic Publications In Electrochemistry" which is part of Electrochemical Science and Technology Information Resource (ESTIR) (http://electrochem.cwru.edu/estir/)
2 PROCEEDINGS ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. From May 2, 1889, to November 30, VOL XLVI. LONDON: IIARRISON AND SONS, ST. 'MARTIN'S LANE, xrinttrs inl?rbinarlt to r, ajtestg. MDCCCXC.
3 v Page Report on the Effects of Contact Metamorphism exhibited by the Silurian Rocks near the Town of New Galloway, in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. By S. Allport, F.G.S., and Professor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc., F.R.S On some variations of Cardium edule, apparently correlated to the Conditions of Life. By William Bateson, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, and Balfour Student in the University On the Occurrence of Skatole in the Vegetable Kingdolm. By Wyndhlam R. Dunstan, M.A., F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry to, and Director of the Research Laboratory of, the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain The Conditions of the Reaction between Copper and Nitric Acid. By V. H. Veley, M.A., the University Museum, Oxford Notes on the Absorption-spectra of Oxygen and some of its Compounds. By G. D. Liveing, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, and J. Dewar, Mi.A., F.R.S., Jacksonian Professor, University of Cambridge Note on the Photographic Spectra of Uranus and Saturn. By William Huggins, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., and Mrs. Huggins The Physical Properties of Vulcanised India-rubber. By A. Mallock L ist of P resents No June 20, 1889 On the Cavendish Experiment. By C. V. Boys, A.R.S.M., F.R.S., Assistant Professor of Physics at the Normal School of Science, South K ensington On Time-lag in the Magnetisation of Iron. By J. A. Ewing, B.Sc., F.R.S., Professor of Engineering in University College, Dundee Note on the Thermo-electric Position of Platinoid. By J. T. Bottomley, M.A., F.R.S., and A. Tanakadate, Rigqakusi Specific Inductive Capacity of Dielectrics when acted on by very rapidly alternating Electric Forces. By J. J. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S., Cavendish Professor of Physics, Cambridge A new Form of Gas Battery. By Ludwig Mond and Carl Langer Contributions to the Chemistry of Storage Batteries. No. 2. By E. Frankland, D.C.L., F.R.S Contributions to the Anatomy of Fishes. I. The Air-bladder and Weberian Ossicles in the Siluridee. By T. W. Bridge, M.A., Professor of Zoology in the Mason College, Birmingham, and A. C. Haddon, M.A., Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin The Chemistry of the Urine of the Horse. By Fred Smith, M.R.C.V.S., F.I.C., Army Veterinary Department, Professor Army Veterinary School, A ldershot A Chemical Inquiry into the Phenomena of Human Respiration. By William Marcet, M.D., F.R.S
4 296 2Messrs. L. Mond and C. Langer. [June 20, V. "A new Form of Gas Battery." By LUDWIG MOND and CARL LANGER. Communicated by LORD RAYLEIGIH, Sec. R.S. Received June 13, In January, 1839, now over fifty years ago, Mr. (now Lord Justice) Grove published the first notice* of his startling discovery--the gas battery. This he followed up in 1842, 1843, and 1845 by three important paperst, two of which were read before this Society. Since that time very little attention has beea given by investigators to the subject. Papers by Sch6nbein,+ De la Rive,? Matteucci,1 Beetz,?T Gaugain,n* Morley,tt Peirce,++ Lord Rayleigh,?? Figuier, and Kendall,?[?r and a few patents describing ingenious but impracticable suggestions for improved gas batteries, comprise the principal contributions to the subject. This is the more surprising as Grove had published a large number of experiments leading, amongst other important results, to a complete list of the voltaic relations of gases to each other and to other substances, and had pointed out in his lucid manner the great scientific interest attaching to the gas battery, which forms the simplest instrument for generating electricity, possesses remarkable constancy of E.M.F., and " exhibits such a beautiful example of the correlation of natural forces." Grove states that he never thought of the gas battery as a practical means of generating voltaic power, but, nevertheless, he indicates clearly in what directions improvements with this object should be attempted, viz., by extending as much as possible the surface of contact between the gases, the absorbent and the electrolyte. We have been engaged for several years with investigations on gas batteries, which fully corroborate Grove's view, but show that he, as * Grove, ' Phil. Mag.,' vol. 14, 1839, p f Grove, 'Phil. Mag.,' vol. 21, 1842, p. 417; ' Roy. Soc. Proc.,' vol. 4, 1843, p. 463; vol. 5, 1845, p SchOnbein, 'Poggendorff, Annalen,' vol. 56, 1842, pp. 135 and 235; vol. 58, 1843, 361; vol. 62, 1844, 220; vol. 74, 1849, 244.? De la Rive, 'Arch. d'electric.,' vol. 3, 1843, p I! Matteucci, ' Comptes Rendus,' vol. 16, 1843, p. 846.? Beetz, 'Poggendorff, Annalen,' vol. 77, 1849, p. 505; vol. 90, 1853, p. 42; vol. 132, 1867, p. 460; ' Wiedemann, Annalen,' vol. 5, 1878, p. 1; 'Phil. Mag.,' vol. 7, 1879, p. 1. ** Gaugain, ' Comptes Rendus,' vol. 64, 1867, p tt Morley, 'Phil. Mag.,' vol. 5, 1878, p Peirce, 'Wiedenmann, Annalen,' vol. 8, 1879, p. 98.?? Rayleigh, ' Cambridge Phil. Soc. Proc.,' vol. 4,1882, p I] Figuier, ' Comptes Rendus,' vol. 98, 1884, p T? Kendall, ' Roy. Soc. Proc.,' vol. 36, 1884, p. 208.
5 1889.] A nezw Form of Gas Battery. 297 well as later investigators, overlook one important point, viz., the necessity of maintaining the condensing power of the absorbent unimpaired. We found that platinum black, the most suitable absorbent for gas batteries, loses its condensing power almost completely as soon as it gets wet, and that it is therefore necessary for our purpose to keep it comparatively dry. All attempts to attain this with various constructions of the gas battery involving the use of a liquid electrolyte failed. We have only succeeded by using an electrolyte in a quasi-solid form, viz., soaked up by a porous non-conduct ing material, in a similar way as has been done in the so-called dry piles and batteries. In order to procure as large a contact as possible between the gases, the electrolyte and the absorbent, and at the same time to obtain the greatest possible duty out of a given quantity of the latter, we have adopted the following construction:- A diaphragm of a porous non-conducting substance, such as plaster of Paris, earthenware, asbestos, pasteboard, &c., is impregnated by dilute sulphuric acid or another electrolyte, and is covered on both sides with thin perforated leaf of platinum or gold and with a thin film of platinum black. The platinum or gold leaf, which serves as conductor for the generated electricity (the platinum black being a very bad conductor), is placed in contact at small intervals with strips of lead or other good conductor in order to reduce the internal resistance of the battery to a minimum. In place of the platinum or gold leaf, fine wire gauze of the same metal or of carbon may be used. The diaphragms so prepared are placed side by side or one above the other, with non-conducting frames of pasteboard, wood, indiarubber, &c., intervening, so as to form chambers through which the gases to be employed (generally hydrogen and air) are passed, so that one side of the diaphragm is exposed to the one gas and the other to the other gas, and the spaces between the diaphragms are so connected that these gases pass in contact with a number of diaphragms. Of the numerous ways in which dry gas batteries can be constructed we will describe two. One of these constructions, suitable for laboratory work, shown in fig. 1, consists of an earthenware plate M, impregnated with sulphuric acid and cemented into an ebonite frame R. At a short distance from and all around the plate a copper wire A is let into the ebonite frame. The earthenware plate is covered with platinum leaf which has been perforated with a very large number (1500 per square cm.) of small holes, and which extends over and is in metallic contact with the copper wire. To protect the latter from corrosion, and to avoid local action, molten paraffin is put over the platinum leaf where it is in contact with the copper wire. Where the platinum leaf is in contact with the earthenware plate it is coated by
6 298 Messrs. L. Moind and C. Langer. [June 20, FIG. 1. means of a brush with a very thin film of platinum black, which penetrates through the pores and holes of the platinum leaf, and thus comes into contact with the electrolyte. The frame R is fixed by means of screws between the two ebonite plates E, E', with two india-rubber frames K, K' intervening, thus forming two gastight chambers G, G', through which the gases to be used are let by the tubes O, 0' and H, H'. FIG '' "''" \ liil The second construction consists of a number of elements each of which is composed of two frames of lead and antimony consisting of a broad edge R, conducting strips A, and flaps F with holes and channels 0, H, which form the inlets and outlets for the gases. These frames are coated with an insulating layer a of a mixture of guttapercha, beeswax, resin, and paraffin. Between the two frames we insert a thin sheet S, prepared by coating a piece of cloth with plaster of Paris, and made impervious round the edges by the same insulating mixture, and then the open spaces formed by the conducting strips A are filled up with plaster of Paris mixed up with dilute sulphuric acid, so as to obtain an even plate. This is now coated with platinum leaf and platinum black in the same way as before described. A number of these elements are put side by side or one above the other, with non-conducting frames K of pasteboard intervening, so as to
7 I A new Fo,rm of Gas Battery. 299 FIGA. 3. FIG. 4. form gas chambers GI, G2, QG, which are connected by means of cork or rubber washers Q, so that the gases admitted by the pipes 0 pass through the whole series of chambers. The first and the last gas chamber are formed by an additional pasteboard frame intervening between the last plates and two plates of zinc ZP, Z2, extending beyond the battery plates, which hold the set together. The whole
8 300 Miessrs. L. Mond and C. Langer. FJune 20, set of plates is now coated on the four sides not covered by the zinc plates with a mixture of beeswax and resin, so as to obtain a block which is perfectly gastight all round, and the space V left between the two zinc plates is then filled up with plaster of Paris, so as to obtain one solid compact block with no openings except the entrances and exits for the gases. This is closed by four more zinc plates, Z3, Z4, Z;, Z6, which are soldered together so as to form a box. The E.M.F. of this battery we found to vary considerably, according to the way in which the platinum black is prepared. The best and most regular results we have obtained from platinum black made by neutralising a boiling solution of PtCl4 with NaSCO3, and adding this slowly to a boiling solution of sodium formiate. With this we obtain an electromotive force of 0'97 volt with the open circuit. The internal resistance varies considerably with the thickness of the porous plates, the amount of the electrolyte contained in these, and the surface of these plates. Plates of gypsum of 8 mm. thickness and 350 cm. surface gave an internal resistance of 0'02 ohm. The currelnt obtainable from these batteries varies necessarily with the external resistance. It is possible to obtain 8 amperes from one such element, but the E.M.F. of the battery sinks at a very much more rapid rate than with constant batteries if a strong current is taken out, and the work done by the battery is not, as in constant batteries, at its maximum when the internal and external resistance are equal. Thus we found with a small battery of 42 sq. cm. surface and 0-36 ohm internal resistance the following results:- It. R1. P. S. E. El. D. A. i ' I,, ,, ,, '02 0*240,, 22' ' ,, 4 G00 '700 0 ' ,, 8 ' *81 0' I,, R. Internal resistance in ohmis. R1. External resistance in ohms. P. Difference of potential at the poles. S. Strength of current in aimperes. E. E.M.F. in volts, determined by the first deflection of the galvanometer needle 1 second after opening the circuit. E1. Calculated E.lM.. in volts. D. Difference of E and E1 = increase of E.MI.F. during 1 second, showing rapidity of absorption of the gases with varying saturation of the platinum. A. Work done by thle battery in watts.
9 1889.] A new Form of Gas Battery. 301 These figures show that in the case of the battery experimented with the maximum of work was obtained with an external resistance of about double the internal resistance. This result is probably due, as pointed out by Dr. C. A. Wright, to the fact established by Favret and Berthelot,+ that the gases occluded or condensed by platinum black evolve less and less heat per unit weight of gas the more gas the platinum black had previously condensed. The heat evolved by the condensation of the gases by the platinum black, or a certain portion of this heat, is in all probability lost for the production of the current; it follows that the more the platinum black is saturated the less energy will he lost by the condensation of the gases, and vice versa. Now, probably the rate of absorption of gas by the platinum black will rapidly diminish as it is more and more saturated with gas, so that in order to maintain it saturated or nearly saturated only a moderate amount of current can be obtained from a given surface, while if it is kept far below the saturating point it will condense the gases very rapidly, and a very large current can consequently be obtained. As a practical limit we prefer to work the battery with an E.M.F. with closed circuit of about 0'73 volt. This allows us to take from 2 to 2 amperes (1% watt) out of an element with an active surface of 700 sq. cm., covered with 0'35 gr. of Pt leaf and 1 gr. of Pt black, which gives a useful effect of very nearly 50 per cent. of the total energy contained in the hydrogen absorbed in the battery. We have found practically no difference in these results, whether we were using O and H or air and gases containing 30 per cent. to 40 per cent. of H, such as can be obtained by the action of steam or air and steam on anthracite, coke, or coal. With a useful effect of 50 per cent., one-half of the heat piroduced by the combination of the H with the 0 is set free in the battery, and raises its temperature. By passing through the battery a sufficient excess of air, we can keep the temperature of the battery constant at about 40? C., and at the same time carry off the whole of the water formed in the battery by means of the gases issuing from it, so that the platinum black is kept sufficiently dry, and the porous plate in nearly the same state of humidity. The E.M.F. of the open battery is very considerably below what it should be according to Thomson's theorem. The combustion of 1- and 0 should produce an E.M.F. of 1'47 volts, while we only obtain 0'97. It does not seem to us probable that this difference can be explained in the same way as the deviations from this theorem in a number of ' Phil. Mag.,' vol. 9, 1881, p t 'Comptes Rendus,' vol. 77, 1873, p 'Annales de Chimie,' vol. 30, 1883, p. 519.
10 302 Messrs. L. Mond and C. Langer. [June 20, abnormal voltaic batteries have lately been explained by Chroustchoff and Sitnikoff,* viz., by the Peltier effect, which would probably not be different for the combinations HPt,SO4H2 and SO4H2,PtO; nor do the causes by which Herrount explains this deviation appear to us to be applicable to the gas battery. It seems more probable-and what we have stated above respecting the rapid loss of the E.M.F. when taking out larger currents favours this view-that this loss of energy is to some extent due to the heat given out in the condensation of the gases by the platinum black. Favret found the heat given out by the condensation of 1 gram of H by platinum to vary from 23,000 to 13,000 calories, and concluded that this condensation was analogous to the condensation of carbonic acid by carbon, a purely capillary action. He did not determine the heat of condensation of oxygen. Berthelot? found the heat of condensation of H by platinum to vary per gram of H condensed from 17,000 to 8700 cal., and concluded that the H formed two distinct combinations with the platinum, the first taking place with a disengagement of 17,000 cal., and then combining with another equivalent of H with a disengagement of 8700 cal. Berthelot also attempted to determine the heat given out by the absorption of O by platinum, which gas he found to be absorbed only in very small quantities, so that he could not determine the caloric effect with any amount of certainty; but he calculates it from the figures he obtained at at least 17,000 cal. for 8 grams of O. But these figures would lead to a much larger loss of energy than we find actually to take place. According to Berthelot, the condensation by platinum of 1 gram of H and 8 grams of O produces 25,700 to 34,000 cal. We obtain in the battery out of 34,187 cal. (resulting from the combination of 1 gram of H with 8 grams of 0) cal. as electricity, thus losing 11,666 cal. We are engaged upon an investigation of this rather difficult subject, with a view to further elucidating its effect upon the gas battery. The fact that PdH, which, according to Favre, 1 is formed with an evolution of only 4150 cal. per 1 gram of HJ (a figure which agrees fairly well with that obtained by calculation from the tension of PdH), produces, if opposed to PtO, a smaller E.M.F. than PtH, has also to be considered in studying this question. Using Pd black on gold foil opposed to Pt black on Pt foil in our battery, we found the E.M.F. PdH, H2SO,PtO = 0'91 volt, as compared to 0-97 volt for PtH,H2SO, PtO. ' Comptes Renclus,' vol. 108, 1889, p f 'Phil. Mag.,' vol. 27, 1889, p 'Comptes Renclus,' vol. 77, 1873, p. 649.? 'Annales de Chimie,' vol. 30, 1883, p 'Comptes Rencus,' vol. 68, 1869, p
11 1889.] A new Form of Gas Battery. 303 In the hope of throwing some light upon tile question of the disappearance of energy in the gas battery, we haye determined the E.M.F. of the following combinations by means of a block of plaster of Paris impregnated with sulphuric acid, one end of which was covered with platinum foil and platinum black and arranged so that it could be exposed to H or 0, while the other end was plunged into a beaker which contained the liquid electrolyte and the electrode which we wished to examine. Found. Theory. Difference. Ptlf,:2S04,PtO = 0-97 volt = 22,512 cal.* instead of 34,178 cal.t-11,666. Zn,H12SO4,PtO = 1-77 voltt = 41,078 cal. instead of 53,043 cal. -11,965. Cd,H2S04,PtO = voltt = 33,171 cal. instead of 44,928 cal. -11,767. Cu,II2S04,PtO = 0-70 voltt = 16,245 cal. instead of 27,978 cal. -11,733. PF'tF,H2SO4,CuSO4,Cu = 031 volt = 7,194 cal. instead of 6,200 cal PtH,H2SO4HN03,C = 1-19 volt = 27,617 cal. instead of 29,175 cal. -1,55S. PtO,H2S04,1HNO3,C = 0-22 volt. These figures show that the loss of energy is very nearly the same per equivalent of O consumed, when PtO is used as the negative electrode, whether PtH, zinc, cadmium, or copper is used as positive electrode, and also that PtH with copper in copper sulphate, or carbon in nitric acid, as negative electrodes, gives nearly the theoretical E.M.F. It would thus seem as if the loss of energy in the gas battery occurred on the PtO electrode; but the question is undoubtedly a complicated one, and requires further study before an explanation of it can be attempted. This battery differs from all other gas batteries in showing all the characteristics of polarisation after it has been at work for some length of time. It loses within an hour from 4 to 10 per cent. of its E.M.F. As the chemical processes taking place at the electrodes could not explain this, we had to look out for its cause in another direction, and found it to be the transport of the sulphuric acid from the O to the H electrode, resulting in the acid becoming gradually more concentrated on the positive side and weaker on the other, which we have established by analysing the gypsum scraped off below the platinum leaf at both sides. Probably this difference of concentration of the acid sets up a counter-current. In order to counteract this disturbing influence and to keep the current constant, we interchange the gases in the battery from time to time, say once an hour, so that the current goes in an opposite way through the porous diaphragm, and transports the sulphuric acid back. This necessitates, * 1 Daniell = 25,065 cal. = 1 '08 volts. t Calculated from Thomsen's data (' Thermochemisclie Untersuchungen') divided by 2, so as to refer to O = 8. + Wright and Thompson found 1'75, 15, and 0'78 respectively (' Roy. Soc. Proc.,' vol. 44, 1888, p. 182). VOL. XLVI. Z
12 il Or4 Dr. E. Frankland. Co,ntritbtions to [June 20 where constant currents are wanted for a longer period, the working of a number of elements or batteries connected by means of a com- mutator in such a way that one element or battery will always be out of the circuit, and have its gases changed, and be replaced in the circuit at the moment when the next element or battery is switched out for the same purpose. In using, in place of sulphuric acid, a solution of sodium chloride as electrolyte, we found, after working the battery for some time, sodium hydrate on one side and HC1 on the other side of the battery, and have been able to determine in this case the polarisation to be equal to 0'54 volt, which very nearly accounts for the difference between the E.M.F. of the open battery and the E.M.F. calculated according to Thomson's theorem. The E.M.F. of PtH,NaClAq,PtO we found equal 0'86 volt, which, added to the polarisation of 0'54 volt just mentioned, gives a total of 1'40 against the theoretical figure for H, O = 147. By changing the gases after the polarisation was fully established, the battery showed an E.M.F. of 1'39 volts. This observation, as well as the determinations of Peirce,* of the E.M.F. of gas batteries with the same gases and different electrolytes, shows that the electrolyte also has considerable influence upon the E.M.F. We hope by further investigation to arrive at assigning their proper value to the various causes affecting the E.M.F. of gas batteries. VI. " Contributions to the Chemistry of Storage Batteries. No. 2." By E. FRANKLAND, D.C,L., F.R.S. Received June 18, Under this title I communicated to the Royal Society, in February, 1883,j the results of some experiments on the reactions occurring during the charging and discharging of a storage cell. I showed that no appreciable part of the storage effect was due to occluded gases, as had been previously suggested by some chemists and physicists; but that the act of charging consisted essentially in the decomposi- tion of lead sulphate whilst the discharge was produced by the re- composition of this salt. The establishment of these, as practically the only reactions going on in a storage cell, enabled me to prescribe a very simple method by which the charge in any cell could be ascertained; for as sulphuric acid is liberated during the charging and absorbed by the active material of the plates during discharge, the amount of charge could * Wiedemann, Annalen,' vol. 8, 1879, p. 98. t ' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' vol. 35, p. 67.
ELECTROCHEMISTRY: ELECTROPLATING Hello, I m Hafizah, a chemistry teacher from Muar Science School in Malaysia. We are going to discuss about an interesting chemistry topic related to electroplating but
Data Sheet CORROSION CONTROL Corrosion control is the application of engineering principles and procedures to minimise corrosion to an acceptable level by the most economical method. It is rarely practical
Related topics Electrolysis, electrode polarisation, decomposition voltage, galvanic elements, Faraday s law. Principle and task In a PEM electrolyser, the electrolyte consists of a protonconducting membrane
CLASS: X NCERT (CBSE) SCIENCE: Chemistry Page: 1 Question 1: Compare the properties of a typical metal and a non-metal on the basis of the following. Fill in Column A, B. Properties A Metal B Non- metal
Why Does Rust Occur? 7.1 IN GENERAL Rust damage on products costs large sums every year, and can also cause breakdowns through various kinds of corrosion weakening supporting structures. There are therefore
. 370 SAMESIMA: [Ser. 2, Vol. 8, The Electromotive-force and the Change of Inner State of the Daniell Cell. Zitusaburo SAMESIMA. [READ OCTOBER 16, 1915.] 1. History. The Daniell cells were already studied
Circular No. 61 1957 STATE OF ILLINOIS WILLIAM G. STRATTON, Governor by R. V. SKOLD AND T. E. LARSON Issued by DEPARTMENT OF REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION VERA M. BINKS, Director STATE WATER SURVEY DIVISION
Nickel Electroplating In a galvanic or voltaic electrochemical cell, the spontaneous reaction occurs and electrons flow from the anode (oxidation) to the cathode (reduction). In an electrolytic cell, a
SURFACE TEMPERATURE SENSORS These sensors are thermocouples and resistance thermometers for surface temperature measurement of objects. C400 R400 Magnet sensors measurement and monitoring of objects such
7.9.6 Magnetic Poles 85 minutes 117 marks Page 1 of 37 Q1. The diagram shows an electromagnet used in a door lock. (a) The push switch is closed and the door unlocks. Explain in detail how this happens.
Electroplating 1 What is Electroplating? An electrochemical process where metal ions are transferred from a solution and are deposited as a thin layer onto surface of a cathode. The setup is composed DC
APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMISTRY SPONTANEOUS REDOX REACTIONS APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS BATTERIES A galvanic cell, or series of combined galvanic cells, that can be used as a source of direct
Introduction to Cathodic Protection Course No: T02-004 Credit: 2 PDH J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A., Fellow ASCE, Fellow AEI Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY
Chemistry: 6. Water Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC14 Use cobalt chloride paper or anhydrous copper sulfate to test
W.S.51. Chemical reactions. All of the different materials around us have been formed by chemical reactions from about one hundred simple elements. The diagram below shows a chemical reaction between the
CATHODIC PROTECTION Cathodic protection is a proven corrosion control method for protection of underground and undersea metallic structures, such as oil and gas pipelines, cables, utility lines and structural
CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT Your elders might have cautioned you against touching an electrical appliance with wet hands. But do you know why it is dangerous to touch an electrical appliance with
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, & BATTERIES Introduction Electrochemical Cells In this part of the experiment, four half cells are created by immersing metal strips of zinc, copper,
DETERMINATION of the EMPIRICAL FORMULA One of the fundamental statements of the atomic theory is that elements combine in simple whole number ratios. This observation gives support to the theory of atoms,
Silver and Sulfur: Case Studies, Physics, and Possible Solutions C. Hillman, S. Binfield, J. Seppi, and J. Arnold DfR Solutions April 15, 2009 2004-2007 Introduction Silver is a common metal in electronics
Fusion Consumable Electrode SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding SAW Submerged Arc Welding Non-Consumable Electrode GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding PAW Plasma Arc Welding High Energy
WATER COOLED DEVICES Galvanic Corrosion Prevention Guide for Water Cooling Systems November 2017 White Paper Created by Helen E. Kane, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. Water Cooled Devices Abstract This
124 Assistance for decisions: Burnt-on sand 125 Assistance for decisions: Burnt-on sand A Clay-bonded sand B Moulding plant Examine lustrous carbon production Measure active carbon in moulding sand, examine
METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS Metals are elements whose atoms ionize by electron loss, while non-metals are elements whose atoms ionize by electron gain. Metals are in groups 1, 2 and 3 of the periodic table.
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology Vol. 17, September 2010, pp. 381-385 Electrolytic deposition of Zn-Mn-Mo alloys from a citrate bath Renu Rastogi* & Archana Pandey Department of Chemistry, Brahmanand
St. Joseph s Anglo-Chinese School First Term Examination 2014-2015 F.2 Integrated Science Name : Total Pages : 10 pages Class : Class No.: Total Marks : 100 marks Date : 9 th January, 2015 Time Allowed
PROJETOS DE INVESTIGAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA E DESENVOLVIMENTO TECNOLÓGICO RELATÓRIO REFERENTE AO PROJETO PTDC/ECM/099250/2008 Comportamento em serviço de estruturas de betão: uma abordagem multi-física das tensões
An Inexpensive Corrosion Laboratory Experiment - Suitable for All Ages. John R. Williams Purdue University Statewide Technology Kokomo, IN 46904-9003 Abstract One of the most obvious effects of corrosion
How to Test for Iron and Nickel Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) Notes 17/4 by Lyndsie Selwyn Also available in French. Également publié en français. Government of Canada, Canadian Conservation Institute,
INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT SENIOR SECTION DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY CLASS X- PRACTICAL WORKSHEET Different types of chemical reactions Experiment No: 1(a) Combination reaction Objectives: To study the Combination
28 Principles of Electronics 2 Electron Emission 2.1 Electron Emission 2.2 Types of Electron Emission 2.3 Thermionic Emission 2.4 Thermionic Emitter 2.5 Commonly Used Thermionic Emitters 2.6 Cathode Construction
Metal Chem,inc. Metal Finishing Products and Service 29 Freedom Court Greer, SC 29650 864.877.6175 Fax 864.877.6176 DATA SHEET META-MATE ZINCATE 40 "A CONCENTRATED LIQUID ZINCATE FORMULATION FOR THE PRETREATMENT
General Lesson Notes Electrochemistry is defined as the branch of chemistry that deals with oxidationreduction reactions that transfer electrons to form electrical energy rather than heat energy. An electrode
RTO OR RCO FOR VOC CONTROL: HOW TO DECIDE INTRODUCTION Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) are widely accepted for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions.
CHAPTER 3 1 Elements SECTION Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is an element? How do elements differ from
Permanent Buried Reference Electrodes: Technical Note on Significant Inaccuracies and Medium Term Trials Brian S Wyatt Eur Ing, BSc (Hons), CEng, MIMMM, FICorr, FCS Corrosion Control, 3 Ivy Court, Acton
Volume 13 September 007 SACRIFICIAL ANODE CATHODIC PROTECTION OF LOW CARBON STEEL IN SEA WATER Dr. Aprael S. Yaro Dr. Khalid W. Hameed University of Baghdad / College of Engineering ABSTRACT Cathodic protection
Doc No. CED 50 (7780) BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS DRAFT FOR COMMENTS ONLY (Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Amendment) Draft AMENDMENT NO. 1 TO IS 12235 (Part 17):2004 THERMOPLASTICS
2. Crystallization A. Background Crystallization is one of several available techniques available to purify organic compounds. Unlike other techniques, however, crystallization is specific to the purification
THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF CONCRETE Tamás K. Simon PhD Viktória Vass The determination of the corrosion risk of embedded steel in a non-destructive way is a common necessity. The corrosion risk significantly
3 5 PHASE CHANGES PHASE CHANGES Name(s) The activities presented here focus on the energy changes that occur in substances undergoing a phase change. The first activity will take the most time to complete.
Elcometer 118/2 English Moisture Meter Operating Instructions English The Elcometer 118/2 Moisture Meter has been tested in accordance with EU regulations governing Electro-magnetic compliance and it meets
Boiler Water Problems and Its Causes Water is the essential medium for steam generation. Conditioning it properly can increase the efficiency of boiler and as well as extend the boiler s life. Treating
CHAPTER 4 1 Elements SECTION Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is an element? How do elements differ from
The Leader in Oilfield Coating Technology ISO 9001:2008 www.ssplating.com Who We Are S&S Plating/Coating Dynamics is the leading provider of electro plated coatings to the oilfield, power generation and
Ag plating in HBLED packaging improves reflectivity and lowers costs JONATHAN HARRIS, President, CMC Laboratories, Inc., Tempe, AZ Various types of Ag plating technology along with the advantages and limitations
Oxidation and Reduction An oxidation reaction is one in which oxygen is added to a substance. Example: Methane is oxidised when it burns in air. Oxygen is added to the carbon in methane, forming carbon
Cleaning Before Coating Presented by Jigar Patel, Senior Process Engineer Cleaning Before Coating Influencing factors Failure mechanisms Coating failures Cleaning before coating Analytics and test methods
De Montfort Mark 7 Incinerator (Flatpack) Introduction This design is specially for those occasions when a large number of incinerators are to be built at one location and transported to the places where
Introduction Jeremy Hailey, P.E. Engineer with 16 years experience Started NW 10 years ago Focus on corrosion control system designs, troubleshooting, and some installation work Conduct training seminars
DE 02 GB 06 CondenseSpot Pro NL 10 DK 14 FR 18 ES 22 IT 26 PL 30 FI 34 PT 38 SE 42 NO 46 8 m ø 1 m Laser 650 nm TR RU 50 54 UA 58 42 108 CZ 62 52 EE 66 161 LV LT 70 74 RO 78 BG 82 GR 86 Function/Application
Brit. J. Pharmacol. (1964), 22, 590-596. THE MEASUREMENT OF ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF INHALATION DRUGS GIVEN IN SUB-ANAESTHETIC CONCENTRATIONS BY M. J. NEAL AND J. M. ROBSON From the Department of Pharmacology,
Data sheet DS/6515 EN Rev. C 6515 Series Measurement of CO2 in Flue Gases A simple Katharometer-type measuring system for CO2 in flue gases as a guide to combustion efficiency Fuel Economy and CO 2 Measurements
298 CHEMISTRY: KRA US AND TOONDER PROC. N. A. S. were treated with 7.5 N potassium hydroxide. The gases produced in the reaction were carried through standard sulphuric acid to absorb the ammonia and the
GCSE BITESIZE Examinations General Certificate of Secondary Education AQA SCIENCE A CHY1A Unit Chemistry C1a (Products from Rocks) AQA Chemistry Unit Chemistry C1a (Products from Rocks) FOUNDATION TIER
Anirban Som 25-01-14 Instrumental technique presentation Electron Microscopy (EM) Grid What I will talk about Some basic topics about EM grid Home-made grid preparation Grid cleaning Carbon coating and
INTRODUCTION The structure of a Tantalum Wet Electrolytic Capacitor consists of four main elements: a primary electrode (anode), dielectric, a secondary electrode system (cathode) and a wet (liquid) electrolyte.
4 Shielded Metal Arc Welding* * Abbreviated MMA (Manual metal arc welding). American designation: shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is an AW process that uses a consumable
THE INFLUENCE OF ANODISING PARAMETERS ON THE CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF ANODISED COATINGS ON MAGNESIUM ALLOY AZ91D Zhiming Shi, Guangling Song, and Andrej Atrens (CRC for Cast Metals Manufacturing (CAST),
Applications of electrochemistry Electrochemistry has a number of different uses, particularly in industry. The principles of cells are used to makeelectrical batteries. In science and technology, a battery
How to achieve uniform thickness of the anodic aluminum oxide film? Leonid M. Lerner AlZi Anodizing Solutions Co. 2014 AAC Conference September 16-18, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 1 How to achieve uniform thickness
Metals And Their Properties- Physical and Chemical All the things around us are made of 100 or so elements. These elements were classified by Lavoisier in to metals and non-metals by studying their properties.
Crystallization of Sodium Sulfate 171 RHYTHMIC CRYSTALLIZATION OF SODIUM SULFATE IN THIN AGAR-AGAR FILMS. P. 0. ANDEREGG and G. W. Daubenspeck, Purdue University. The so-called Liesegang phenomenon, the
2008 NEC Guide Lines for Home Owner Doing Electrical Work on their Property A brief summary of the most used code references for residential wiring State of Idaho Division of Building Safety Electrical
Product specification For capacitor tissue paper, electrolytic paper, cable paper and insulating paper The paper factory SPO was established in June 1828. Our industrial production started with the manufacture
PSI-SR-1261 Electroactive Polymer for Controlling Overcharge in Lithium-Ion Batteries A. Newman R. Pawle K. White J. Lennhoff A. Newman, R. Pawle, K. White, J. Lennhoff, "Electroactive Polymer for Controlling
Hydration Process and Pore Structure of Portland Cement Paste Blended with Blastfurnace Slag J. Zhou 1, G. Ye 1, 2* and K. van Breugel 1 1) Microlab, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft
HITACHI CHEMICAL DATA SHEET Hitachi Anisotropic Conductive Film ANISOLM AC-7106U 1. Standard Specification, Bonding and Storage Conditions, Reparability, and Characteristics... 1 Page 2. Precautions in
Metal and Non Metals Malleable Ductile Sonorous Conductor Insulator KEYWORDS Rusting Brass Calcium Chloride Galvanising Reactivity Metals on the Periodic table Metals Non Metals Metals and their properties
Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials Question Mark Science A Unit Chemistry C1 Chemistry Unit Chemistry C1 Tuesday 9 June 2015 General
, Inc. Manufacturers of Vibration Control Products 350 Rabro Drive 2101 W. Crescent Ave., Suite D Hauppauge, NY 11788 Anaheim, CA 92801 631/348-0282 714/535-2727 FAX 631/348-0279 FAX 714/535-5738 Info@Mason-Ind.com
SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking Product Identifier Product name: Product Code: Watt-hour rating Relevant Identified Uses: Lithium Ion Battery NB-11L 6212B
High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of DS GTD-111 in Oxidizing and Sulfidizing Environments Matthew D. Trexler, Preet M. Singh, and Thomas H. Sanders Jr. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia