2 HomeWork # obtain data on the thermal properties of various commonly used cutting fluids. Identify those which are basically effective coolants and those which are basically effective lubricants. Due Saturday 27/3/2010
3 Case Study 2 Contact several different suppliers of cutting tools, or search their websites. Make a list of the costs of typical cutting tools as a function of various sizes, shapes, and features. Due Saturday 27/3/2010
5 Introduction Cutting Tool Material Hardnesses Table 22.1 and 22.2: General Characteristics of Tool Materials Table 22.3: General operating characterstics of cutting tool materials
6 HIGH SPEED STEELS Good wear resistance, relatively inexpensive Because of their toughness and high resistance to fracture, HSS are especially suitable for: high +ve rake-angle tools interrupted cuts machine tools with low stiffness that are subjected to vibration and chatter. HSS tools are available in wrought, cast, and sintered forms They can be coated for improved performance HSS tools may also be subjected to: surface treatments for improved hardness and wear resistance steam treatment at elevated temperatures to develop a black oxide layer for improved performance
7 HIGH SPEED STEELS Two basic types of HSS: 1. Molybdenum (M series) Up to about 10% Mo, with Cr,Vn, W, Co as alloying elements 2. Tungsten (T series) 12% -18% W, with Cr, Vn, and Co as alloying elements M series generally has higher abrasion resistance than T series, undergoes less distortion during heat treating, and is less expensive Example 22.1: List the major alloying elements in HSS and describe their effects in cutting tools
8 CAST-COBALT ALLOYS 38%-53% Co, 30%-33% Cr, and 10%-20%W High hardness, good wear resistance, can maintain their hardness at elevated temperatures They are not as tough as HSS and are sensitive to impact forces Stellite Tools These alloys are cast and ground into relatively simple tool shapes. used only for special applications that involve deep, continuous roughing cuts at relatively high feeds and speeds, as much as twice the rates possible with HSS
9 CARBIDES Hardness over a wide range of temperatures. high elastic modulus and thermal conductivity. low thermal expansion. Tungsten carbide (WC): Composite material consisting of WC particles bonded together in a cobalt matrix Manufactured with powder-metallurgy techniques WC particles, 1-5 μm in size As Co content increases, the strength, hardness, and wear resistance of WC decrease, while its toughness increases because of the higher toughness of cobalt
10 CARBIDES Titanium Carbide (TiC): Higher wear resistance than WC but is not as tough With a nickel-molybdenum alloy as the matrix, TiC is suitable for machining hard materials, mainly steels and cast irons, and for cutting at speeds higher than those for WC.
11 CARBIDES - Inserts Individual cutting tools with several cutting points A square insert has 8 cutting points Figure 21.2: Typical carbide inserts with various shapes and chip-breaker features The holes in the inserts are standardized for interchangeability
12 CARBIDES - Insert Attachment Figure 21.3 Methods of attaching inserts to toolholders: a. Clamping b. Wing lockpins c. Examples of inserts attached to toolholders with threadless lockpins, which are secured with side screws d. Insert brazed on a tool shank
13 CARBIDES - Edge Insert Strength Insert shape affects strength of cutting edge To further improve edge strength and prevent chipping, all insert edges are usually honed, chamfered, or produced with a negative land.
14 CARBIDES General notes Stiffness of the machine tool is of major importance when using carbide tools Light feeds, low speeds, and chatter are detrimental because they tend to damage the tool's cutting edge. Light feeds, for example, concentrate the forces and temperature closer to the edges of the tool, increasing the tendency for the edges to chip off Low cutting speeds tend to encourage cold welding of the chip to the tool Cutting fluids, if used to minimize heating and cooling of the tool in interrupted cutting operations, should be applied continuously and in large quantities.
15 CARBIDES Classification Table 22.4: ISO classification of carbide cutting tools according to use Table 22.5: Classification of Tungsten Carbides according to machining applications
16 COATED TOOLS Because of their unique properties, such as lower friction and higher resistance to cracks and wear, coated tools can be used at high cutting speeds, reducing both the time required for machining operations and costs. Coated tools can have tool lives 10 times longer than those of uncoated tools.
17 COATED TOOLS Effect of Coating Materials Because of their unique properties, such as lower friction and higher resistance to cracks and wear, coated tools can be used at high cutting speeds, reducing both the time required for machining operations and costs. Coated tools can have tool lives 10 times longer than those of uncoated tools.
18 COATED TOOLS - Coating Materials Coatings thickness of 2-15 μm, are applied on cutting tools and inserts by the following techniques: 1. Chemical-vapor deposition (CVD), including plasma-assisted CVD 2. Physical-vapor deposition (PVD) Coatings for cutting tools, as well as dies, should have the following general characteristics: 1. High hardness at elevated temperatures 2. Chemical stability to the workpiece material 3. Low bonding to the substrate to prevent flaking or spalling 4. Little or no porosity Honing of the cutting edges is an important procedure for the maintenance of coating strength; otherwise, the coating may peel or chip off at sharp edges
19 COATED TOOLS - Coating Materials Titanium Nitride coating (gold in color): low friction coeff, high hardness, resistance to high temp, and good adhesion to the substrate. perform well at higher cutting speeds and feeds Flank wear is significantly lower than that of uncoated tools do not perform as well at low cutting speeds because the coating can be worn off by chip adhesion Titanium Carbide coatings: on tungsten-carbide inserts have high flank-wear resistance in machining abrasive materials
20 COATED TOOLS - Coating Materials Ceramics Coatings: Chemical inertness Low thermal conductivity Resistance to high temperature Resistance to flank and crater wear Most commonly used ceramic coating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). However oxide coating generally bond weakly to the substrate.
21 COATED TOOLS - Coating Materials Multiphase Coatings: Carbide tools with 2 or 3 layers of such coatings. Particularly effective in machining cast irons and steels. Typical applications of multiple-coated tools: High-speed, continuous cutting: TiC/Al 2 O 3. Heavy-duty, continuous cutting: TiC/Al 2 O 3 /TiN. Light, interrupted cutting: TiC/TiC + TiN/TiN.
22 COATED TOOLS - Coating Materials Multiphase Coatings: Figure 21.7 Multiphase coatings on TiC substrate. 3 alternating layers of Al 2 O 3 are separated by very thin layers of TiN Inserts with as many as 13 layers of coatings Coating thickness: 2 to 10 μm.
23 COATED TOOLS - Coating Materials Multiphase Coatings: Functions of coatings: 1. TiN: low friction 2. Al2O3: high thermal stability 3. TiCN: fiber reinforced with a good balance of resistance to flank and crater wear for interrupted cutting 4. A thin carbide substrate: high fracture tougness 5. A thick carbide substrate: hard and resistant to plastic deformation at high temperatures.
24 COATED TOOLS - Coating Materials Diamond-Coated Tools: Thin films are deposited on substrates with PVD and CVD techniques. Thick films are obtained by growing a large sheet of pure diamond, which is then laser cut to shape and brazed to a carbide shank. Diamond-coated tools are particularly effective in machining nonferrous and abrasive materials, such as Al alloys containing Si, fiber-reinforced and metalmatrix composite materials, and graphite.
25 ALUMINA-BASED CERAMICS Consist primarily of fine-grained, high-purity Al 2 O 3. They are cold-pressed into insert shapes under high pressure and sintered at high temp; the end product is referred to as white, or cold-pressed, ceramics. Additions of TiC and ZrO help improve toughness and thermal-shock resistance. Alumina-based ceramic tools have very high abrasion resistance and hot hardness. More stable than HSS and carbides, so they have less tendency to adhere to metals during cutting leading to lower tendency to form a BUE. Consequently, in cutting cast irons and steels, good surface finish is obtained with ceramic tools. Ceramics lack toughness, and their use may result in premature tool failure by chipping or catastrophic failure. Effective in high-speed, uninterrupted cutting operations. -ve rake angles are preferred in order to avoid chipping. Tool failure can be reduced by increasing stiffness & damping capacity of machine tools, mountings, & workholding devices, thus reducing vibration and chatter.
26 CUBIC BORON NITRIDE (CBN) made by bonding mm layer of polycrystalline CBN to a carbide substrate by sintering under pressure CBN tools are also made in small sizes without a substrate Figure 21.9 Construction of a polycrystalline CBNor a diamond layer on a TiC insert
27 CUBIC BORON NITRIDE (CBN) Because CBN tools are brittle, stiffness of machine tool and fixturing is important in order to avoid vibration and chatter to avoid cracking due to thermal shock, machining should generally be performed dry, particularly in interrupted cutting operations such as milling. Figure Inserts with polycrystalline CBN tips (top row) and solid polycrystalline CBN inserts (bottom row)
28 SILICON-NITRIDE BASED CERAMICS Consist of SiN with various additions of Al 2 O 3, yttrium oxide, and TiC Toughness, hot hardness, and good thermal-shock resistance. An example of a SiN-base material is sialon, composed of : Si, Al, On, and N It has higher thermal-shock resistance than silicon nitride recommended for machining cast irons and nickelbased super-alloys at intermediate cutting speeds Because of chemical affinity to iron, SiN-based tools are not suitable for machining steels
29 DIAMOND Low friction High wear resistance Ability to maintain sharp edge Used when good surface finish and dimensional accuracy are req. (soft non-ferrous & abrasive nonmetallic materials) Low rack angles are generally used > strong cutting edge Used at high speed Most reasonable for light uninterrupted finishing cut Diamond is not recomm for mach plain carbon steels or titanium, because of its strong chem. Affinity
30 CUTTING FLUIDS Function: Reduce friction & wear, improving tool life & surface finish Reduce forces and energy consumption Cool the cutting zone, reducing workpiece temp and thermal distortion Wash away chips Protect machined surface from envir onmental corrosion Situation in which cutting fluid is harmful: Interrupted cutting operations May cause the chip to become curlier, thus concentrating the stresses closer to the tool tip, so concentrate the heat closer to the tool tip which reduces tool life
31 CUTTING FLUIDS Types of cutting fluids Oils Emulsions Semisynthetics Synthetics Methods of application 1. Flooding Flow rates = 10L/min for single point tools to 225L/min per cutter for multiple tooth cutters 2. Mist fluid is supplied to inaccessible areas better visibility of the workpiece effective with water based fluids & in grinding operations at air pressures of 70 kpa-600kpa requires venting limited cooling capacity 3. high pressure systems 5.5MPa-35MPa acts as a chip breaker 4. Through the cutting tool system
32 CUTTING FLUIDS Figure Schematic illustration of proper methods of applying cutting fluids in various machining operations: a. Turning b. Milling c. Thread grinding d. Drilling
33 CUTTING FLUIDS Effects of cutting fluids on workpiece material on machine tool biological and environmental effects
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Tool Material & Cutting Fluid 1 CUTTING TOOL MATERIAL Success in metal cutting depends on the selection of the proper cutting tool (material and geometry) for a given work material.
CUTTING TOOL TECHNOLOGY Tool Life Tool Materials Tool Geometry Cutting Fluids Cutting Tool Technology Two principal aspects: 1. Tool material 2. Tool geometry Three Modes of Tool Failure Fracture failure
INTRODUCTION Think HSS SUMMARY METALLURGY 2 Excellent strength 3 A super sharp edge 4 Safe and reliable tools Alloy elements 6 The influence of alloy elements 7 Standard compositions of HSS 8 The HSS-PM
1 Cutting Tool Materials of common use Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to (i) Identify the needs and cite the chronological development of cutting tool materials.
Superabrasive CUTTING TOOLS & WEAR PARTS CUTTING TOOLS Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) PCD Cutting Tools PCD tools are as abrasion resistant as natural diamond tools and are much tougher. The diamond layer
STEELS & COATINGS FOR CUTTING TOOL APPLICATIONS Requirements for cutting tools There are several characteristics that are essential to the good performance of a cutting tool. Powder Metal High Speed Steels
GRINDING AND OTHER ABRASIVE PROCESSES Grinding Related Abrasive Process Abrasive Machining Material removal by action of hard, abrasive particles usually in the form of a bonded wheel Generally used as
... Pollution Prevention in Machining and Metal Fabrication A Manual for Technical Assistance Providers Excerpts March 2001... CHAPTER 5 Innovative Pollution Prevention Technologies Industry vendors have
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Direct -Straightforward steady forward force by hydraulic ram Indirect -Has the advantage that there is no friction between billet and chamber (no movement) -Note dummy block at face of ram
PES INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BANGALORE SOUTH CAMPUS Hosur Road, (1K.M. Before Electronic City), Bangalore 560 100 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SOLUTION 3 rd INTERNAL TEST Subject : Machine Tools
Nontraditional Machining Processes The NTM processes can be divided into four basic categories: I. Chemical (Chemical reaction), II. Electrochemical (Electrolytic dissolution), III. Mechanical (Multipoint
Selection of Tool & Die Steels Introduction The success of a metal forming tool depends on optimizing all the factors affecting its performance. Usually, operating conditions (applied loads, abrasive environments,
MATERIALIZING VISIONS Bohler-Uddeholm H13 TOOL STEEL Bohler-Uddeholm H13 General Bohler-Uddeholm H13 is a chromium-molybdenumvanadium alloyed steel which is characterized by: Good resistance to abrasion
T OOL STEEL FACTS AISI A2 Cold work tool steel Great Tooling Starts Here! General AISI A2 is an air- or oil hardening chromiummolybdenum-vanadium alloyed tool steel characterized by: Good machinability
Module 3 Machinability Lesson 14 Failure of cutting tools and tool life Instructional objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) State how the cutting tools
LUBRICATION & MACHINING OF COMPACTED By R. Evans, F. Hoogendoorn, & E. Platt, Quaker Chemical Corporation, Metalworking Division Laboratory SCOPE Compacted graphite iron (CGI) continues to gain use within
Uddeholm Formvar FORMVAR is a trade mark registered in the European Union UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright
About our Products Nanostructured and Amorphous Materials Inc.(NanoAmor ) introduces a new line of Superhard Materials products. Manufactured using diamond and cubic boron nitride (CBN), these products
UDDEHOLM DIEVAR Uddeholm Dievar is a specially developed steel grade by Uddeholm, which provides the best possible performance. The chemical composition and the very latest in production technique make
Investigation of Surface Roughness and Flank Wear by CBN and PCBN Tools on Hard Cr-Mo Steel S.Thamizhmanii* and S.Hasan Abstract Hard turning is the latest technology and is used to turn hard materials
Thermal Spray Coatings in Severe Service Elaine Motyka 3/2/2017 In this session Basics of Thermal Spray Coatings Defining Thermal Spray Common processes Coating microstructures Properties affected by process
BZN* Tool Blanks and Inserts Machining of Ferrous Materials BZN* Tool Blanks and Inserts Diamond Innovations manufactures a complete line of high quality polycrystalline CBN products for machining ferrous
MAXIMILL 491 MILLING SYSTEM ENGINEERED SIMPLICITY 8 Cutting Edges. More milling. More parts. More profits. www.ceratizit.com 22 We work hard to make things easy. It takes a lot of engineering and know-how
Highly Efficient Cutter with a Cutting Edge Angle Highly Efficient Cutter with a Cutting Edge Angle Economical Inserts with 10 Cutting Edges. Reduces Chattering with Low Cutting Force Design Reduces Cutting
Your Best Choice For Carbide Components 2890 Ligonier St. Latrobe, PA 15650 Phone 724.532.3041 Fax 724.532.3043 Toll Free 800.862.7066 www.extramet.net OUR HISTORY OUR MISSION Extramet s Primary Objective
Tooling for Composites and Aerospace Materials Diamond coated, carbide and PCD tools Routers, drills, and end mills Full special design capabilities DIAMOND COATED DRILLS Material-specific design and sub-micron
T O O L S T E E L F A C T S QRO 90 Hot work tool steel Great Tooling Starts Here! Cover photo: Bo Dahlgren This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general
EML2322L MAE Design and Manufacturing Laboratory Drilling Speeds and Feeds The speed of a drill is measured in terms of the rate at which the outside or periphery of the tool moves in relation to the work
Questions concerning the contents of the lecture Manufacturing Manufaturing I 1. Introduction to Manufacturing No related questions 2. Measuring and Testing in Production 1. Explain systematic errors and
Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 8 Vol III WCE 8, July 2-4, 8, London, U.K. Investigating Flank Wear and Cutting Force on Hard Steels by CBN Cutting Tool by Turning SThamizhmanii* and S.Hasan
HIGH PERFORMANCE PRODUCT SYNCHRO TAPS (HSS-PM) High Speed, High Precision for CNC Machining Synchro Tap has an optimized short thread length and high thread reliefs. We guarantee you shorter cycle time,
ighly Efficient Cutter with a Cutting Edge Angle MFN88 ighly Efficient Cutter with a Cutting Edge Angle MFN88 Economical Inserts with 8 Cutting Edges. Reduces Cost in houlder Roughing Cost reduction in
YE-SY16 Coated HSS-PM (Powder Metallurgy) Taps for High-Speed Tapping on Rigid CNC Machine FEATURES OF GEOMETRY Shorter thread length will reduce chip trouble at higher speed tapping conditions Tolerance
Vol. 34, N o 1 (2012) 24-28 Tribology in Industry www.tribology.fink.rs RESEARCH PVD-Alumina Coatings on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools: A Study About the Effect on Friction and Adhesion Mechanism S.E.
PRELIMINARY BROCHURE Uddeholm Vanadis 8 SuperClean UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder. This information
Advantages of Powder Metallurgy Virtually unlimited choice of alloys and non metallicswith associated properties. * A variety of metal or non metal powders can be used. * Refractory materials are popularly
International Journal of Science Engineering and Technology Vol. 2, No. 3, 2009 ISSN: 1985-3785 Available online at: www.ijset.org 2009 ILRAM Publisher Tool Wear when Finish Turning Inconel 718 under Dry
UDDEHOLM VIDAR 1 ESR This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed as a warranty
The best of both worlds CoroMill 210 the ultimate roughing cutter for modern machining techniques Use CoroMill 210 for plunge milling to mill away large volumes of metal or for high feed milling of flat
CHAPTER 2 ABRASIVE WATER JET MACHINING 2.1 INTRODUCTION Abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is a mechanical material removal process used to erode holes and cavities by the impact of abrasive particles
UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESS UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION Prepared by S. SENTHIL KUMAR AP / MECH SVCET INTRODUCTION Conventional machining process Metal is removed by means of tool which is harder than work
Multi-edge cutter for cast iron Double-sided insert with free cutting geometry to resist chatter 1 usable cutting edges per insert. ough edge with low cutting forces. New CVD grade C42M for longer tool
Predicting Surface Roughness, Tool Wear and MMR in Machining Inconel 718: A Review Prof. S.C.Borse Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, DIEMS, Aurangabad, Maharashtra Abstract- Increasing
PRELIMINARY BROCHURE Uddeholm Caldie UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission of the copyright holder. This information is based
PCD / PCBN Cutting Tools for Metal Working. Stationary Diamond Dressers. Shinhan Diamond Industrial Co., Ltd. has produced a variety of diamond tools from products for construction and stone to those for
International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research & Practice P a g e 17 Analysis of Cutting Forces in High Speed Turning of Inconel 718 by using Ceramic Tools Ganesh. S. Sonawane 1 1 PG Student, Mechanical
EUROPEAN PRECISION AND QUALITY SAWS HIGH SPEED STEEL, COBALT & CARBIDE METAL CUTTING SAWS TMX Saws A History of European Quality & Craftsmanship The history of TMX saws dates to 1921 Poland with manufacturing
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING 1. What is Manufacturing? 2. Materials in Manufacturing 3. Manufacturing Processes 4. Production Systems 5. Organization of the Book Manufacturing is Important
Industrial Heating Magazine, Heat & Corrosion Resistant Materials/Composites December 3, 2015 Heat-Treat Rack Material Selection Based on Thermal Performance The choice of heat-treat rack material is important
QRO 90 SUPREME Hot work tool steel This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed
RAMAX 2 Prehardened stainless holder steel This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be
Ferrous Alloys Ferrous alloys those of which iron is the prime constituent are produced in larger quantities than any other metal type. They are especially important as engineering construction materials.
More Case Studies in Materials Selection Material for a pressure vessel Short term thermal insulation Energy efficient kilns More info: Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Chapters 5 and 6 ME 474-674
A NEW ERA? 3M CUBITRON II REVEALS FULL POTENTIAL OF BEVEL-GEAR GRINDING Reinventing the world of grinding processes: 3M s geometrically defined sintered corundum technology, Cubitron II, meets the stringent
Technical Information Quality LUKAS carbide burrs are manufactured using high quality types of carbide and modern CNC automatic grinding machines in order to guarantee precision and repeatability of angle,
Uddeholm Vanax SuperClean 1 Vanax is a trade mark registered in the European Union and in the U.S. UDDEHOLMS AB No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without
Joining 10. Tool Design for Joining Nageswara Rao Posinasetti The joining processes are generally divided into two classes: mechanical and physical. Mechanical joining does not ordinarily involve changes
ANCA > How to run a Grinding Test How to run a Grinding Test Often, the full potential of grinding wheels is not completely utilised. This may be due to a lack of systematic approach. The following describes
Materials Science, Vol. 48, No. 4, January, 2013 (Ukrainian Original Vol. 48, No. 4, July August, 2012) WEAR AND BLANKING PERFORMANCE OF AlCrN PVD-COATED PUNCHES M. Çöl, 1 D. Kir, 2 and E. Erişir 1,3 Blanking
Increasing the Efficiency of Metalform Tooling for Advanced High Strength Steels By: Brett Krause and Tom Bell of Bohler Uddeholm Corporation Introduction Information on Bohler Uddeholm Newly developed
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN COMPUTER APPLICATIONS AND ROBOTICS ISSN 2320-7345 A SHORT NOTE ON MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF METAL POWDERS 1 R.Raja, 2 M.Rajkumar 1 Assistant Lecturer, St. Joseph College
Keeping the Customer First Tungaloy Catalogue TE0707-E2 2007 Cutting Tools www.tungaloy-eu.com Selection Guides List of... 410 Selection Guides... 412 Specifications Solid Carbide s For High Speed Deep
2017 PRIREV We are the only Portuguese company that provides Decorative PVD services in several business areas. Our mission is make our partners more competitive in their markets with higher added value
Research Article International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology E-ISSN 2277 4106, P-ISSN 2347-5161 2014 INPRESSCO, All Rights Reserved Available at http://inpressco.com/category/ijcet Tool
Review of Manufacturing Processes ME 682 Dr. Han P. Bao Mechanical Engineering, ODU ME 682 Module 3 1 Engineering Materials The four major categories: Metal Plastics Ceramics Composites 1- Metals: Cast:
What Are Metal Standards and Why Are They Important? Table of Content Metallurgy101...3 Pure Metals...3 Component Metals...4 Characteristics of Metal Standards...5 Metal Standards and Testing Standards...6
RODS & PREFORMS US www.ceratizit.com rods & preforms MAIN CATALOG 4 5 Dear customer, With innovative production technologies and newly developed carbide grades for the precision tool industry, we offer
Cutter for Cast Iron High Efficiency Multi-edge Cutter for Cast Iron Double-Sided Insert with Free Cutting Geometry to Resist Chatter 1 usable cutting edges per insert ough edge with low cutting forces
Diamond blades exceptionally wear resistant and extremely sharp P. Gluche 1, S. Strobel 1, H.-J. Fecht 2 1 GFD Gesellschaft für Diamantprodukte mbh, Lise-Meitner-Str. 13, 89081 Ulm, Germany 2 University
Vanax SuperClean Uddeholm Vanax SuperClean ASSAB is a trademark of voestalpine High Performance Metals Pacific Pte Ltd. The information contained herein is based on our present state of knowledge and is
Heat Treating Basics-Steels Semih Genculu, P.E. Steel is the most important engineering material as it combines strength, ease of fabrication, and a wide range of properties along with relatively low cost.
Basic Workshop 1 أت ارش There are thousands of materials available for use in engineering applications. Most materials fall into one of three classes that are based on the atomic bonding forces of a particular
SG Powdered Metal Drills Features of SG-Drill Powder Metal with a TiCN Based Multi-Layered Coating End Mill Shank for High Precision Drilling Features: High Accuracy 3 Rake Relief (SG-ESS) 2 Rake + X-Thinning
Product handbook Milling _ SILVER, BLACK, STRONG The new force in machining. Yesterday, it was machining. Today, it s tigering. Cutting tool materials with the Tiger tec technology brand are setting the