1 Figure 2.1 (p. 58) Basic fabrication steps in the silicon planar process: (a) oxide formation, (b) selective oxide removal, (c) deposition of dopant atoms on wafer, (d) diffusion of dopant atoms into exposed regions of silicon.
2 Figure 2.2 (p. 59) Evolution of IC technology. (a) First commercial silicon planar transistor (1959). (b) Diode-transistor logic (DTL) circuit (1964). (c) 256-bit bipolar random access memory (RAM) circuit (1970). (d) VLSI central-processor computer chip containing 450,000 transistors (1981). The different functions carried out by the IC are labeled on the figure. [(a), (b), and (c) courtesy of B.E. Deal Fairchild Semiconductor. (d) courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Co.]
3 Figure 2.3 (cont., p. 60) (e) Block diagram of Pentium 4 processor with 42 million transistors (2000). [Courtesy Intel Corporation.]
4 Figure 2.2 (cont., p. 60) (f) Minimum feature size versus year of first commercial production.
5 Figure 2.2 (cont., p. 61) (g) Another embodiment of Moore s law shows that the number of transistors per chip has doubled every months for approximately 30 years.
6 Figure 2.2 (cont., p. 61) (h) Along with decreasing feature size, the number of electrons in each device decreases. [(f)-(h) adapted from Mark Bohr, Intel; Howard Huff, Sematech; Joel Birnbaum, Hewlett-Packard; Motorola.]
7 Figure 2.3 (p. 63) Formation of a single-crystal semiconductor ingot by the Czochralski process: (a) initiation of the crystal by a seed held at the melt surface, (b) withdrawal of the seed pulls a single crystal.
8 Figure 2.4 (p. 65) The float-zone process. A molten zone passes through a polycrystalline-silicon rod, and a single crystal grows from a seed at the bottom end.
9 Figure 2.5 (p. 67) An insulating layer of silicon dioxide is grown on silicon wafers by exposing them to oxidizing gases in a high-temperature furnace.
10 Figure 2.6 (p. 67) Three fluxes that characterize the oxidation rate: F(1) the flow from the gas stream to the surface, F(2) the diffusion of oxidizing species through the already formed oxide, and F(3) the reaction at the Si-SiO 2 interface. The concentration of the oxidizing species varies in the film from C o near the gas interface to C i near the silicon interface.
11 Figure 2.10 (p. 73) The intrinsic carrier density n i in silicon between 300 and 1200 C .
12 Figures 2.11a and 2.11b (p. 75) (a) The areas from which the oxide is to be etched are defined by exposing a lightsensitive resist through a photographic negative (mask). (b) The hardened resist protects the oxide in the masked areas from chemical removal.
13 Figure 2.11c (p. 75) (c) In a stepper-type lithography system, exposure light passes through features on a mask. The image of each feature is reduced and focused on one die on the wafer, and all features on the die are exposed simultaneously. The wafer is then moved (stepped) to the next die position where the exposure process is repeated.
14 Figure 2.12 (p. 76) (a) The illumination intensity varies gradually near the edge of a fine feature because of diffraction. (b) The intensity between two closely spaced features does not reach zero. Shifting the phase of the electric field by 180 by locally changing the path length through the mask (c) allows the intensity to become zero between the features (d).
15 Figure 2.13a (p. 77) (a) Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph of a polysilicon gate approximately 180 nm across, the gate oxide under the polysilicon, and the surrounding shallow junctions in the silicon substrate (Courtesy of Accurel Systems International Corp.)
16 Figure 2.13b (p. 77) (b) Anisotropically etched lines 500 nm wide spaced 1.5 μm apart. Resist covers the double-layer structure consisting of 180 nm TaSi 2 over 260 nm of polycrystalline silicon. Note the uniformity of the vertical surface through the various layers. (Courtesy of G. Dorda, Siemens Corporation).
17 Figure 2.14 (p. 79) (a) Isotropic wet etching or dry etching that is dominated by chemical reactions cause significant undercut of the masking layer. (b) Anisotropic, ion-assisted, dry etching creates a near-vertical profile, retaining the dimensions of the masking layer.
18 Figure 2.15 (p. 80) In ion implantation, a beam of high-energy ions strikes selected regions of the semiconductor surface, penetrating into these exposed regions.
19 Figure 2.18 (p. 84) The increase in dopant concentration in a region dx is related to the net flux of atoms into the region: F(x) F(x + dx).
20 Figure 2.20 (p. 86) Temperature dependence of the diffusities (at low concentrations) of commonly used dopant impurities in silicon .
21 Figure 2.22 (p. 88) Temperature dependence of the solid solubilities of several elements in silicon .
22 Figure 2.23 (p. 92) (a) Scanning electron micrograph showing cross section through a bipolar transistor, (b) sketch identifying the regions shown. The boron-doped base region has been pushed ahead (emitter push) by the concentration-dependent diffusion effects associated with heavy phosphorus doping in the emitter .
23 Figure 2.24 (p. 93) Section of a silicon wafer showing deeper diffused n-type region (dark area) under oxidized silicon surface (bottom) than underneath a surface protected from oxidation (top) .
24 Figure 2.25 (p. 96) (a) Lightly doped epitaxial layer grown on heavily doped silicon substrate. (b) Singlewafer, epitaxial deposition system showing silicon wafer on support plate that is heated by infrared lamps located outside the quartz deposition chamber.
25 Figure 2.26 (p. 98) LOCal Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS). (a) Defined pattern consisting of stress-relief oxide and Si 3 N 4 covering the area over which further oxidation is not desired, (b) thick oxide layer grown over the bare silicon region, (c) stress-relief oxide and Si 3 N 4 removed by etching to permit device fabrication, (d) scanning electron micrograph (5000 X) showing LOCOSprocessed wafer at step (b).
26 Figure 2.27 (p. 99) Trench isolation is used to form very narrow isolation regions between adjacent devices. After the trench pattern is etched in a masking material (a), the trench is etched directionally using a reactive ion etch process (b). A thin, high-quality oxide is formed (c), and the trench is filled with polysilicon or with oxide [shown for oxide in (d)]. The excess material is removed by chemical-mechanical polishing (e).
27 Figure 2.28 (p. 100) (a) Section along horizontal, open-flow reactor showing gas flow parallel to the wafer surface and indicating the location of the boundary layer in which the gas flow is nearly perpendicular to the wafer surface, (b) representation of gas velocity distribution across the reaction chamber.
28 Figure 2.31 (p. 102) (a) Gases in a high-capacity reactor flow through the annular space between the wafers and reactor wall and then diffuse between the closely spaced wafers. (b) The basic elements of a LPCVD reactor.
29 Figure 2.32a (p. 103) (a) Schematic cross section of a remote plasma-enhanced CVD reactor, in which the plasma generation, the chemical reaction, and the ion bombardment are partially decoupled.
30 Figure 2.32b (p. 103) (b) Schematic cross section of an electron cyclotron resonance, highdensity plasma reactor.
31 Figure 2.33 (p. 104) A thin layer of aluminum can be used to connect various doped regions of a semiconductor device.
32 Figure 2.34 (p. 105) (a) In the salicide process Ti is deposited over the entire wafer and annealed to form TiSi 2 over the exposed silicon. The unreacted Ti over the oxide is then removed by wet chemical etching. (b) Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph of silicide formed by the salicide process over the gate, source, and drain regions of an MOS transistor. (Courtesy of Accurel Systems International Corp.)
33 Figure 2.35 (p. 107) Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph of three levels of a multilevel interconnection system. Three levels of aluminum metallization and associated barrier layers are visible, along with the tungsten-filled (black) vias between metal layers. Polysilicon lines are visible just above the substrate. (Courtesy of Rudolph Technologies, Inc.)
34 Figure 2.36 (p. 107) Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph showing a more detailed view of tungsten plugs connecting the underlying silicide layer and the overlying aluminum first metallization layer. (Courtesy of Accurel Systems International Corp.)
35 Figure 2.37 (p. 111) Electromigration mechanism in a conducting stripe. Directions of electron flux F e, electrostatic force qξ and resultant atomic flux F A (upper left). Scanning electron micrograph showing void formation to the left of the break and accumulation of material in the form of hillocks to the right of the break (lower figure). The steps leading to electromigration failure are indicated at the upper right .
36 Figure 2.38 (p. 112) The IC chip is mounted in a package, and wires are connected to the external leads.
37 Figure 2.39 (p. 115) Electrical device performance can be improved by combining two semiconductors with different bandgaps. However, lattice mismatch and the associated strain limit the useful heteroepitaxial combinations of materials.
38 Figure 2.45 (p. 129) (a) An IC resistor defined by diffusing acceptors into selected regions of an n-type wafer. The p + regions are highly doped to assure good contact between the metal electrodes and the p-type resistor region. (b) The dimensions of a thin region in the resistor having conductance dg given by Equation
EE 330 Lecture 9 IC Fabrication Technology Part II -Oxidation -Epitaxy -Polysilicon -Planarization -Resistance and Capacitance in Interconnects Review from Last Time IC Fabrication Technology Crystal Preparation
Chapter 3 Silicon Device Fabrication Technology Over 10 15 transistors (or 100,000 for every person in the world) are manufactured every year. VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) ULSI (Ultra Large Scale
EE 330 Lecture 9 IC Fabrication Technology Part 2 Quiz 8 A 2m silicon crystal is cut into wafers using a wire saw. If the wire diameter is 220um and the wafer thickness is 350um, how many wafers will this
ECEN454 Digital Integrated Circuit Design Fabrication and Layout ECEN 454 3.1 A Glimpse at MOS Device Polysilicon Aluminum ECEN 475 4.2 1 Material Classification Insulators Glass, diamond, silicon oxide
Chapter 3 CMOS processing technology (How to make a CMOS?) Si + impurity acceptors(p-type) donors (n-type) p-type + n-type => pn junction (I-V) 3.1.1 (Wafer) Wafer = A disk of silicon (0.25 mm - 1 mm thick),
Suggested Reading EE40 Lec 22 IC Fabrication Technology Prof. Nathan Cheung 11/19/2009 300mm Fab Tour http://www-03.ibm.com/technology/manufacturing/technology_tour_300mm_foundry.html Overview of IC Technology
CHAPTER - 4 CMOS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Samir kamal Spring 2018 4.1 CHAPTER OBJECTIVES 1. Introduce the CMOS designer to the technology that is responsible for the semiconductor devices that might be designed
Microelettronica Planar Technology for Silicon Integrated Circuits Fabrication 26/02/2017 A. Neviani - Microelettronica Introduction Simplified crosssection of an nmosfet and a pmosfet Simplified crosssection
HOMEWORK 4 and 5 March 15, 2009 Homework is due on Monday March 30, 2009 in Class. Chapter 7 Answer the following questions from the Course Textbook: 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6*, 7.7, 7.9*, 7.10*, 7.16, 7.17*,
EECS130 Integrated Circuit Devices Professor Ali Javey 9/13/2007 Fabrication Technology Lecture 1 Silicon Device Fabrication Technology Over 10 15 transistors (or 100,000 for every person in the world)
EE 434 Lecture 9 IC Fabrication Technology Quiz 7 The layout of a film resistor with electrodes A and B is shown. If the sheet resistance of the film is 40 /, determine the resistance between nodes A and
Chapter 5 PROCESSING OF DEVICES A discussion of crystal growth, lithography, etching, doping, and device structures is presented in the following overview gures. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE PROCESSING: AN OVERVIEW
Fabrication Process Crystal Growth Doping Deposition Patterning Lithography Oxidation Ion Implementation 1 Fabrication- CMOS Process Starting Material Preparation 1. Produce Metallurgical Grade Silicon
VLSI Digital Systems Design CMOS Processing cmpe222_03process_ppt.ppt 1 Si Purification Chemical purification of Si Zone refined Induction furnace Si ingot melted in localized zone Molten zone moved from
Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design Layout, Fabrication, and Elementary Logic Design CMOS Fabrication CMOS transistors are fabricated on silicon wafer Lithography process similar to printing press On each
Contents: VI Sem ECE 06EC63: Analog and Mixed Mode VLSI Design PROCESS FLOW AN INSIGHT INTO CMOS FABRICATION PROCESS 1. Introduction 2. CMOS Fabrication 3. Simplified View of Fabrication Process 3.1 Alternative
ELEC 3908, Physical Electronics, Lecture 4 Basic Integrated Circuit Processing Lecture Outline Details of the physical structure of devices will be very important in developing models for electrical behavior
CMOS Fabrication Dr. Bassam Jamil Adopted from slides of the textbook CMOS Fabrication CMOS transistors are fabricated on silicon wafer Lithography process similar to printing press On each step, different
Lecture 2: CMOS Fabrication Mark McDermott Electrical and Computer Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Agenda Last module: Introduction to the course How a transistor works CMOS transistors This
Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design Lecture 1A: Manufacturing& Layout David Harris Harvey Mudd College Spring 2004 Steven Levitan Fall 2008 1 The Manufacturing Process For a great tour through the IC manufacturing
INTRODUCTION TO Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology SECOND EDITION Hong Xiao TECHNISCHE INFORMATIONSBiBUOTHEK UNIVERSITATSBIBLIOTHEK HANNOVER SPIE PRESS Bellingham,Washington USA Contents Preface to
The Physical Structure (NMOS) Al SiO2 Field Oxide Gate oxide S n+ Polysilicon Gate Al SiO2 SiO2 D n+ L channel P Substrate Field Oxide contact Metal (S) n+ (G) L W n+ (D) Poly 1 3D Perspective 2 3 Fabrication
Digital Integrated Circuits A Design Perspective Chapter 2 Manufacturing Process 1 CMOS Process 2 CMOS Process (n-well) Both NMOS and PMOS must be built in the same silicon material. PMOS in n-well NMOS
CMOS VLSI Design Introduction ll materials are from the textbook Weste and Harris, 3 rd Edition CMOS VLSI DESIGN Introduction Chapter previews the entire field, subsequent chapters elaborate on specific
Problem 1 Lab Questions ( 20 points total) (a) (3 points ) In our EE143 lab, we use Phosphorus for the source and drain diffusion. However, most advanced processes use Arsenic. What is the advantage of
EECS 40 Spring 2003 Lecture 19 Microfabrication 4/1/03 Prof. ndy Neureuther How are Integrated Circuits made? Silicon wafers Oxide formation by growth or deposition Other films Pattern transfer by lithography
2. CMOS Fabrication, Layout, Design Rules Last module: Introduction to the course How a transistor works CMOS transistors This module: CMOS Fabrication Design Rules CMOS Fabrication CMOS transistors are
Microfabrication of Integrated Circuits OUTLINE History Basic Processes Implant; Oxidation; Photolithography; Masks Layout and Process Flow Device Cross Section Evolution Lecture 38, 12/05/05 Reading This
AND FABRICATION ENGINEERING ATTHE MICRO- NANOSCALE Fourth Edition STEPHEN A. CAMPBELL University of Minnesota New York Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS CONTENTS Preface xiii prrt i OVERVIEW AND MATERIALS
ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Isolation Technology Dr. Lynn Fuller Motorola Professor 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604 Tel (585) 475-2035 Fax (585) 475-5041
Transistors on a Chip Lecture #18 Fabrication OUTLINE IC Fabrication Technology Introduction the task at hand Doping Oxidation Thin-film deposition Lithography Etch Lithography trends Plasma processing
Lecture 030 Integrated Circuit Technology - I (5/8/03) Page 030-1 LECTURE 030 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGY - I (References [7,8]) Objective The objective of this presentation is: 1.) Illustrate integrated
SILICON OXIDATION Silicon Oxidation Many different kinds of thin films are used to fabricate discrete devices and integrated circuits. Including: Thermal oxides Dielectric layers Polycrystalline silicon
VLSI Design and Simulation CMOS Processing Technology Topics CMOS Processing Technology Semiconductor Processing How do we make a transistor? Fabrication Process Wafer Processing Silicon single crystal
FABRICATION OF CMOS INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Dr. Mohammed M. Farag Outline Overview of CMOS Fabrication Processes The CMOS Fabrication Process Flow Design Rules EE 432 VLSI Modeling and Design 2 CMOS Fabrication
Chapter : ULSI Process Integration (0.8 m CMOS Process) Reference. Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology : Michael Quirk and Julian Serda (00). - (00). Semiconductor Physics and Devices- Basic Principles(/e)
Low Power VLSI Circuits and Systems Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 02 MOS Transistors - I Hello and welcome to today
Physics and Material Science of Semiconductor Nanostructures PHYS 570P Prof. Oana Malis Email: email@example.com Today Bulk semiconductor growth Single crystal techniques Nanostructure fabrication Epitaxial
Chapter 3 Fabrication of CMOS Integrated Circuits Jin-Fu Li Department of Electrical Engineering National Central University Jungli, Taiwan Background Outline The CMOS Process Flow Design Rules Latchup
EE 330 Lecture 10 IC Fabrication Technology Part III Metalization and Interconnects Parasitic Capacitances Back-end Processes Devices in Semiconductor Processes Resistors Diodes Review from Last Lecture
- Scaling and Integration Moore s Law Unit processes Thin Film Deposition Etching Ion Implantation Photolithography Chemical Mechanical Polishing 1. Thin Film Deposition Layer of materials ranging from
Semiconductor Technology from A to Z Oxidation www.halbleiter.org Contents Contents List of Figures List of Tables II III 1 Oxidation 1 1.1 Overview..................................... 1 1.1.1 Application...............................
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Fall 2010 EE143 Midterm Exam #2 Family Name First name SID Signature Solution Make sure the exam
Chapter 4 UEEP2613 Microelectronic Fabrication Oxidation Prepared by Dr. Lim Soo King 24 Jun 2012 Chapter 4...113 Oxidation...113 4.0 Introduction... 113 4.1 Chemistry of Silicon Dioxide Formation... 115
Unit processes Thin Film Deposition Etching Ion Implantation Photolithography Chemical Mechanical Polishing 1. Thin Film Deposition Layer of materials ranging from fractions of nanometer to several micro-meters
Schematic creation of MOS field effect transistor. Gate electrode Drain electrode Source electrode Gate oxide Gate length Page 1 Step 0 The positively doped silicon wafer is first coated with an insulating
TOWARD MEMS!Instructor: Riadh W. Y. Habash Students are presented with aspects of general production and manufacturing of integrated circuit (IC) products to enable them to better liaise with and participate
EE 330 Lecture 8 IC Fabrication Technology Part II?? - Masking - Photolithography - Deposition - Etching - Diffusion Review from Last Time Technology Files Provide Information About Process Process Flow
ECE 440 Lecture 27 : Equilibrium P-N Junctions I Class Outline: Fabrication of p-n junctions Contact Potential Things you should know when you leave Key Questions What are the necessary steps to fabricate
Microstructure of Electronic Materials Amorphous materials Single-Crystal Material 1 The Si Atom The Si Crystal diamond structure High-performance semiconductor devices require defect-free crystals 2 Crystallographic
2014 Ajay Kumar Gautam [VLSI TECHNOLOGY] VLSI Technology for 3RD Year ECE/EEE Uttarakhand Technical University Page1 Syllabus UNIT 1 Introduction to VLSI Technology: Classification of ICs, Scale of integration,
CMOS Technology Flow varies with process types & company N-Well CMOS Twin-Well CMOS STI Start with substrate selection Type: n or p Doping level, resistivity Orientation, 100, or 101, etc Other parameters
CMOS Manufacturing process Circuit design Set of optical masks Fabrication process Circuit designer Design rule set Process engineer All material: Chap. 2 of J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, B. Nikolic, Digital
FABRICATION of MOSFETs CMOS fabrication sequence -p-type silicon substrate wafer -creation of n-well regions for pmos transistors, -impurity implantation into the substrate. -thick oxide is grown in the
Mark T. Bohr Intel Senior Fellow, Technology and Manufacturing Group Director, Process Architecture and Integration INTEL CORPORATION Patents» 6762464, N-P butting connections on SOI substrates, 7/13/2004.»
Chemical Vapor Deposition ESS4810 Lecture Fall 2010 Introduction Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) forms thin films on the surface of a substrate by thermal decomposition and/or reaction of gas compounds
1 In an IC, devices on the same substrate must be isolated from one another so that there is no current conduction between them. Isolation uses either the junction or dielectric technique or a combination
Silicon Wafer Processing PAKAGING AND TEST Parametrical test using test structures regularly distributed in the wafer Wafer die test marking defective dies dies separation die fixing (not marked as defective)
UNIT 4 By: Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering, Dehradun Syllabus METALLIZATION: Applications and choices, physical vapor deposition, patterning, problem areas.
Silicon Manufacturing Group Members Young Soon Song Nghia Nguyen Kei Wong Eyad Fanous Hanna Kim Steven Hsu th Fundamental Processing Steps 1.Silicon Manufacturing a) Czochralski method. b) Wafer Manufacturing
VLSI Technology Dr. Nandita Dasgupta Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 33 Problems in LOCOS + Trench Isolation and Selective Epitaxy So, we are discussing
SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TIRUPACHUR DEPARTMENT OFELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EE6303 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS 1. Define an Integrated circuit.
Construction Analysis Intel Pentium Processor W/MMX Report Number: SCA 9706-540 Global Semiconductor Industry the Serving Since 1964 15022 N. 75th Street Scottsdale, AZ 85260-2476 Phone: 602-998-9780 Fax:
EE 330 Lecture 12 Devices in Semiconductor Processes Review from Lecture 9 Copper Interconnects Limitations of Aluminum Interconnects Electromigration Conductivity not real high Relevant Key Properties
3.155J / 6.152J Micro/Nano Processing Technology TAKE-HOME QUIZ FALL TERM 2005 1) This is an open book, take-home quiz. You are not to consult with other class members or anyone else. You may discuss the
VLSI Technology Dr. Nandita Dasgupta Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 36 MOSFET I Metal gate vs self-aligned poly gate So far, we have discussed about