1 Figure 2.1 (p. 58) Basic fabrication steps in the silicon planar process: (a) oxide formation, (b) selective oxide removal, (c) deposition of dopant atoms on wafer, (d) diffusion of dopant atoms into exposed regions of silicon.
2 Figure 2.2 (p. 59) Evolution of IC technology. (a) First commercial silicon planar transistor (1959). (b) Diode-transistor logic (DTL) circuit (1964). (c) 256-bit bipolar random access memory (RAM) circuit (1970). (d) VLSI central-processor computer chip containing 450,000 transistors (1981). The different functions carried out by the IC are labeled on the figure. [(a), (b), and (c) courtesy of B.E. Deal Fairchild Semiconductor. (d) courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Co.]
3 Figure 2.3 (cont., p. 60) (e) Block diagram of Pentium 4 processor with 42 million transistors (2000). [Courtesy Intel Corporation.]
4 Figure 2.2 (cont., p. 60) (f) Minimum feature size versus year of first commercial production.
5 Figure 2.2 (cont., p. 61) (g) Another embodiment of Moore s law shows that the number of transistors per chip has doubled every months for approximately 30 years.
6 Figure 2.2 (cont., p. 61) (h) Along with decreasing feature size, the number of electrons in each device decreases. [(f)-(h) adapted from Mark Bohr, Intel; Howard Huff, Sematech; Joel Birnbaum, Hewlett-Packard; Motorola.]
7 Figure 2.3 (p. 63) Formation of a single-crystal semiconductor ingot by the Czochralski process: (a) initiation of the crystal by a seed held at the melt surface, (b) withdrawal of the seed pulls a single crystal.
8 Figure 2.4 (p. 65) The float-zone process. A molten zone passes through a polycrystalline-silicon rod, and a single crystal grows from a seed at the bottom end.
9 Figure 2.5 (p. 67) An insulating layer of silicon dioxide is grown on silicon wafers by exposing them to oxidizing gases in a high-temperature furnace.
10 Figure 2.6 (p. 67) Three fluxes that characterize the oxidation rate: F(1) the flow from the gas stream to the surface, F(2) the diffusion of oxidizing species through the already formed oxide, and F(3) the reaction at the Si-SiO 2 interface. The concentration of the oxidizing species varies in the film from C o near the gas interface to C i near the silicon interface.
11 Figure 2.10 (p. 73) The intrinsic carrier density n i in silicon between 300 and 1200 C .
12 Figures 2.11a and 2.11b (p. 75) (a) The areas from which the oxide is to be etched are defined by exposing a lightsensitive resist through a photographic negative (mask). (b) The hardened resist protects the oxide in the masked areas from chemical removal.
13 Figure 2.11c (p. 75) (c) In a stepper-type lithography system, exposure light passes through features on a mask. The image of each feature is reduced and focused on one die on the wafer, and all features on the die are exposed simultaneously. The wafer is then moved (stepped) to the next die position where the exposure process is repeated.
14 Figure 2.12 (p. 76) (a) The illumination intensity varies gradually near the edge of a fine feature because of diffraction. (b) The intensity between two closely spaced features does not reach zero. Shifting the phase of the electric field by 180 by locally changing the path length through the mask (c) allows the intensity to become zero between the features (d).
15 Figure 2.13a (p. 77) (a) Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph of a polysilicon gate approximately 180 nm across, the gate oxide under the polysilicon, and the surrounding shallow junctions in the silicon substrate (Courtesy of Accurel Systems International Corp.)
16 Figure 2.13b (p. 77) (b) Anisotropically etched lines 500 nm wide spaced 1.5 μm apart. Resist covers the double-layer structure consisting of 180 nm TaSi 2 over 260 nm of polycrystalline silicon. Note the uniformity of the vertical surface through the various layers. (Courtesy of G. Dorda, Siemens Corporation).
17 Figure 2.14 (p. 79) (a) Isotropic wet etching or dry etching that is dominated by chemical reactions cause significant undercut of the masking layer. (b) Anisotropic, ion-assisted, dry etching creates a near-vertical profile, retaining the dimensions of the masking layer.
18 Figure 2.15 (p. 80) In ion implantation, a beam of high-energy ions strikes selected regions of the semiconductor surface, penetrating into these exposed regions.
19 Figure 2.18 (p. 84) The increase in dopant concentration in a region dx is related to the net flux of atoms into the region: F(x) F(x + dx).
20 Figure 2.20 (p. 86) Temperature dependence of the diffusities (at low concentrations) of commonly used dopant impurities in silicon .
21 Figure 2.22 (p. 88) Temperature dependence of the solid solubilities of several elements in silicon .
22 Figure 2.23 (p. 92) (a) Scanning electron micrograph showing cross section through a bipolar transistor, (b) sketch identifying the regions shown. The boron-doped base region has been pushed ahead (emitter push) by the concentration-dependent diffusion effects associated with heavy phosphorus doping in the emitter .
23 Figure 2.24 (p. 93) Section of a silicon wafer showing deeper diffused n-type region (dark area) under oxidized silicon surface (bottom) than underneath a surface protected from oxidation (top) .
24 Figure 2.25 (p. 96) (a) Lightly doped epitaxial layer grown on heavily doped silicon substrate. (b) Singlewafer, epitaxial deposition system showing silicon wafer on support plate that is heated by infrared lamps located outside the quartz deposition chamber.
25 Figure 2.26 (p. 98) LOCal Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS). (a) Defined pattern consisting of stress-relief oxide and Si 3 N 4 covering the area over which further oxidation is not desired, (b) thick oxide layer grown over the bare silicon region, (c) stress-relief oxide and Si 3 N 4 removed by etching to permit device fabrication, (d) scanning electron micrograph (5000 X) showing LOCOSprocessed wafer at step (b).
26 Figure 2.27 (p. 99) Trench isolation is used to form very narrow isolation regions between adjacent devices. After the trench pattern is etched in a masking material (a), the trench is etched directionally using a reactive ion etch process (b). A thin, high-quality oxide is formed (c), and the trench is filled with polysilicon or with oxide [shown for oxide in (d)]. The excess material is removed by chemical-mechanical polishing (e).
27 Figure 2.28 (p. 100) (a) Section along horizontal, open-flow reactor showing gas flow parallel to the wafer surface and indicating the location of the boundary layer in which the gas flow is nearly perpendicular to the wafer surface, (b) representation of gas velocity distribution across the reaction chamber.
28 Figure 2.31 (p. 102) (a) Gases in a high-capacity reactor flow through the annular space between the wafers and reactor wall and then diffuse between the closely spaced wafers. (b) The basic elements of a LPCVD reactor.
29 Figure 2.32a (p. 103) (a) Schematic cross section of a remote plasma-enhanced CVD reactor, in which the plasma generation, the chemical reaction, and the ion bombardment are partially decoupled.
30 Figure 2.32b (p. 103) (b) Schematic cross section of an electron cyclotron resonance, highdensity plasma reactor.
31 Figure 2.33 (p. 104) A thin layer of aluminum can be used to connect various doped regions of a semiconductor device.
32 Figure 2.34 (p. 105) (a) In the salicide process Ti is deposited over the entire wafer and annealed to form TiSi 2 over the exposed silicon. The unreacted Ti over the oxide is then removed by wet chemical etching. (b) Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph of silicide formed by the salicide process over the gate, source, and drain regions of an MOS transistor. (Courtesy of Accurel Systems International Corp.)
33 Figure 2.35 (p. 107) Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph of three levels of a multilevel interconnection system. Three levels of aluminum metallization and associated barrier layers are visible, along with the tungsten-filled (black) vias between metal layers. Polysilicon lines are visible just above the substrate. (Courtesy of Rudolph Technologies, Inc.)
34 Figure 2.36 (p. 107) Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph showing a more detailed view of tungsten plugs connecting the underlying silicide layer and the overlying aluminum first metallization layer. (Courtesy of Accurel Systems International Corp.)
35 Figure 2.37 (p. 111) Electromigration mechanism in a conducting stripe. Directions of electron flux F e, electrostatic force qξ and resultant atomic flux F A (upper left). Scanning electron micrograph showing void formation to the left of the break and accumulation of material in the form of hillocks to the right of the break (lower figure). The steps leading to electromigration failure are indicated at the upper right .
36 Figure 2.38 (p. 112) The IC chip is mounted in a package, and wires are connected to the external leads.
37 Figure 2.39 (p. 115) Electrical device performance can be improved by combining two semiconductors with different bandgaps. However, lattice mismatch and the associated strain limit the useful heteroepitaxial combinations of materials.
38 Figure 2.45 (p. 129) (a) An IC resistor defined by diffusing acceptors into selected regions of an n-type wafer. The p + regions are highly doped to assure good contact between the metal electrodes and the p-type resistor region. (b) The dimensions of a thin region in the resistor having conductance dg given by Equation
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