HIGH-EFFICIENCY DILUTE NITRIDE MULTIJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS: INFLUENCE OF POINT DEFECTS ON THE DEVICE PERFORMANCE

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1 HIGH-EFFICIENCY DILUTE NITRIDE MULTIJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS: INFLUENCE OF POINT DEFECTS ON THE DEVICE PERFORMANCE Ville Polojärvi, Arto Aho, Antti Tukiainen, Marianna Raappana, Timo Aho, Mircea Guina Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology Tampere, FINLAND

2 Outline General motivation Concept Main methods Results on defect studies Multi-junction solar cell performance Summary

3 Motivation Space applications, satellites Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV)

4 Motivation: CPV 02/Fresnel-Lens-Basic-Principle-450x505.jpg By SolarGIS 2013 GeoModel Solar, CC BY-SA 3.0,

5 Concept

6 Methods: MBE Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) Solid sources, RF Plasma source for nitrogen 6

7 Methods: CV measurements 7

8 Methods: DLT(F)S D. Lang, "Deep level transient spectroscopy: A new method to characterize traps in semiconductors", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 45, pp , S. Weiss and R. Kassing, "Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy (DLTFS) A technique for the analysis of deep level properties", Solid- State Electronics, vol. 31, pp ,

9 Influence of material fluxes V. Polojärvi et al. / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 149 (2016) GaIn 0.1 N 0.03 As i-region V/III beam equivalent pressure(bep) ratio varied During the growth of the dilute nitride i-region: Sample1 (S1): 6 Sample2 (S2): 7 Sample3 (S3): 9 9

10 Background doping and defects Sample1 (S1): BEP=6, Sample2 (S2): BEP=7, Sample3 (S3): BEP=9 V. Polojärvi et al. / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 149 (2016)

11 Trap parameters V. Polojärvi et al. / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 149 (2016)

12 Influence on solar cell performance V. Polojärvi et al. / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 149 (2016)

13 Linear dependency on V/III BEP ratio V. Polojärvi et al. / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 149 (2016)

14 Origin of the defects No evidence on dislocations or extended defects Background doping could be caused by N-V Ga compelex Deep levels can not be identified 14

15 Influence of Sb composition Ville Polojärvi et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, (2016) Dilute nitride i-region, material composition varied: S1: GaIn 0.11 N 0.04 As S2: GaN AsSb 0.06 S3: GaIn 0.05 N 0.03 AsSb

16 Background doping and defects Ville Polojärvi et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, (2016) 16

17 Trap parameters S1: GaIn 0.11 N 0.04 As S2: GaN AsSb 0.06 S3: GaIn 0.05 N 0.03 AsSb 0.03 Ville Polojärvi et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, (2016) 17

18 Influence of thermal annealing S2: GaN AsSb 0.06 Ville Polojärvi et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, (2016) 18

19 EQE Concentration normalized current density(ma/cm 2 ) GaInNAs vs GaInNAsSb in GaInP/GaAs/dilute nitride multijunction solar cell GaInNAsSb bottom junction GaInNAs bottom junction (nm) 10 AM1.5 8 GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs(Sb) 6 solar cells, bottom junction: GaInNAs, =22 % 4 GaInNAsSb, =31 % 2 GaInNAsSb, 70 suns, =37-39 % Voltage (V) 3-junction solar cells including dilute nitride bottom junctions with and without Sb. LIV characteristics of 3-junction solar cells with dilute nitride bottom junctions. fill factor that increases from 80% to 90% when the bottom junction is no longer limiting the current 19

20 EQE SoA GaInNAsSb solar cells at ORC 1.0 AM1.5G 0.8 J sc = 13.3 ma/cm 2 J sc = 13.6 ma/cm 2 J sc = 16.0 ma/cm GaInP GaAs GaInNAsSb Wavelength (nm) Current density (ma/cm 2 ) Theoretical limit for the 1 ev sub-cell 90% EQE AM1.5G Development year Arto Aho et al.: proceedings CPV-11, April 2015, France

21 Future plans 4+ junctions for 50% conversion efficiency 21

22 Conclusions Defects influence remarkably on solar cell performance background doping, depletion region width nonradiative recombination, carrier lifetimes, diffusion lengths Defect density / properties is sensitive to fabrication parameters, materials compositions, thermal annealing With careful optimization, dilute nitride does not limit the current in GaInP/GaAs/dilute nitride 3-junction solar cell Dilute nitride multijunction solar cells has potential to reach very high conversion efficiencies under concentrated sunlight as well as at AM0 conditions when accompanied with high quality top junctions 22

23 THANK YOU! Disclaimer: the view expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Space Agency. 23

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