Formula & Equation Writing

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1 Formula & Equation Writing Book 2 H H Al Al H Al(H) 3 H Ionic Equations Ionic Formulae Balanced Equations Formula Equations Word Equations Transition Metals Using Brackets Awkward Customers More than 2 Elements 2 Elements nly Using the Name nly Si 2 H 2 KMn 4 These sheets belong to KHS Sept 2013 page 1

2 Group Valencies Atoms often join together to form Groups - fixed numbers of atoms with a certain number of spare bonds still available - an overall group valency. NH 4 H N 3 C 3 S P 4 4 To begin with, you may have found your Groups on the other side of the special "Periodic Table" that you may have been given originally. Name Symbol carbonate C 3 valency 1 name formula valency 2 name formula This will show you the Symbol and the Valency Number for most of the Groups you will need. Valency Picture C 3 C 3 ammonium NH 4 carbonate C 3 cyanide CN hydroxide H chromate Cr 4 sulphate S 4 nitrate N 3 sulphite S 3 During exams you will be expected to use the Table above, which will be in the Data Book supplied. Name dichromate Symbol Cr Valency picture Cr 2 7 Valency same as the amount 2 number of charge KHS Sept 2013 page 2

3 Test Yourself 6 Draw the valency picture for each of these Groups. 1. hydroxide 2. sulfate 3. ammonium 4. permanganate 5. silicate 6. phosphate 7. sulfite 8. hydrogencarbonate 9. carbonate 10. chromate 11. nitrate 12. thiosulfate More than 2 Elements hydrogen sulph ate the first word is the name of the first element this is the start of the second element ate always means oxygen -ite -ate endings are used to warn that there are more than two elements in the compound. hydrogen sulphur oxygen exceptions: none Compounds may have more than 2 elements, but they will still only involve two parts :- one of which is a Group. For example, to work out the formula for hydrogen sulfate. H H S 4 H S 4 H 2 S 4 1. Draw the Valency Pictures for an atom of hydrogen and the sulfate group. 2. Draw them as shown. This valency picture is not complete. 3. Draw another hydrogen atom to complete the picture. 4. Now write the correct formula for hydrogen sulfate. Test Yourself 7 Work out the formula for each of these compounds. 1. ammonium nitrate 2. potassium hydroxide 3. calcium sulfate 4. sodium carbonate 5. ammonium chloride 6. lithium phosphate 7. copper chromate 8. sodium sulfate 9. caesium nitrate KHS Sept 2013 page 3

4 Awkward Customers Some Groups are particularly awkward and you need to watch out for them. H CN S 3 NH 4 The Hydroxide Groups is particularly awkward because it contains two elements but ends in -ide. The Cyanide Groups is particularly awkward because it contains two elements but ends in -ide. The Sulfite Groups is particularly awkward because it is very similar to the Sulfate Group, S 4. The Ammonium Groups is particularly awkward because it comes at the beginning of the compounds name. Using Brackets Whenever two or more of a group appears in a formula, brackets must be used to avoid confusion. Mg N 3 N 3 MgN 32 MgN 2 6 Mg(N 3 ) 2 Mg (N 3 ) 2 Wrong because it Better, but we lose the Ideal. We can see the means 1Mg, 1N and fact that we have N 3 nitrate group present, 32 atoms. groups. and tell how many Test Yourself 8 Work out the formula for each of these compounds. 1. lithium nitrate 2. sodium carbonate 3. magnesium sulfate 4. calcium hydroxide 5. aluminium phosphate 6. barium carbonate 7. gallium hydroxide 8. potassium phosphate 9. strontium nitrate 10. rubidium sulfate 11. magnesium sulfite 12. sodium nitrite 13. potassium permanganate 14. sodium dichromate 15. lithium chromate KHS Sept 2013 page 4

5 Transition Metals The Transition Metals are awkward because they can change the number of bonds they use from compound to compound. This problem is solved by including the valency number in the name of the compound. Roman numerals are used ( I = one, II = two, III = three and IV = four). name copper (I) chloride copper (II) chloride picture Cu Cu formula Cu Cu 2 Remember that the Roman numeral tells you the number of bonds, it does not tell you how many atoms should be in the formula. Test Yourself 9 Work out the formula for each of these compounds. 1. silver (I) hydroxide 2. copper (II) chromate 3. zinc (II) carbonate 4. iron (II) hydroxide 5. copper (I) oxide 6. copper (II) oxide 7. lead (IV) oxide 8. silver (I) nitrate 9. mercury (II) chloride 10. iron (III) phosphate 11. nickel (II) chloride 12. lead (II) nitrate 13. iron (III) oxide 14. copper (II) sulfate 15. gold (III) iodide 16. nickel (II) sulfate 17. chromium (III) nitrate 18. chromium (III) oxide KHS Sept 2013 page 5

6 Formula Equation You should already know how to write a word equation and then replace all the names of chemicals with their formulae, ie write a Formula Equation. e.g. word equation magnesium + hydrogen chloride magnesium chloride + hydrogen element H Mg diatomic element formula equation Mg + H Mg 2 Test Yourself Pentane (C 5 H 12 ) burns in oxygen to form water and carbon dioxide. 2. Ammonia (NH 3 ) burns in oxygen to form water and nitrogen. 3. Zinc (II) oxide and nitric acid (HN 3 ) react to form zinc (II) nitrate and water. 4. Iron (III) oxide and carbon monoxide react to give iron and carbon dioxide. 5. Potassium reacts with water to produce potassium hydroxide and hydrogen. 6. Ammonium dichromate (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 7 decomposes on heating to form chromium (III) oxide, water and nitrogen. 7. Phosphorus (V) oxide is formed by heating the elements together. 8. Water and carbon dioxide are produced as well as copper (II) nitrate when copper (II) carbonate reacts with nitric acid (HN 3 ). 9. Ethanol (C 2 H 5 H) burns in oxygen to form water and carbon dioxide. 10. Nitric acid (HN 3 ) and calcium hydroxide react to give water and calcium nitrate. KHS Sept 2013 page 6

7 Balancing Equations A balanced equation has the same number of each type of atom in the Reactants & Products. In other words, all the atoms that are there at the beginning of a reaction (Reactants) must still be there at the end (Products). If we look at an example from Book 1, magnesium + hydrogen chloride magnesium chloride + hydrogen element H Mg diatomic element Mg + H Mg 2 This is an unbalanced reaction, there is 1 H on the left but 2 on the right there is 1 on the left but 2 on the right Equations are balanced by increasing the amount of some of the chemicals. H Mg Mg H H H Mg + 2 H Mg 2 KHS Sept 2013 page 7

8 Test Yourself 11 Balance each of the equations shown below. 1. Fe C Fe + C 2 2. H 3 P 4 + NaH Na 3 P 4 3. C 12 H C 2 4. NH N 5. Fe C Fe 3 C + C 6. NH N 2 7. S S 3 8. P + C1 2 PC B C B 4 C + C 10.* C 3 H 5 (N 3 ) 3 C 2 + N * If you can do this one you can certainly balance equations!! KHS Sept 2013 page 8

9 Ionic Formulae There are many occasions when we want to show the charges present in ionic compounds - write ionic formulae. metals such as magnesium will lose electrons to form positive ions Mg Mg non-metals such as oxygen will gain electrons to form negative ions Exactly like its Valency, the charge on an ion depends on which Group in the Periodic Table an atom belongs to. Group Valency No Valency Pictures Na Mg Al Si C NP S Br Charge on the ion unlikely to form a simple ion Group ions already have their charges shown in the Data Book. KHS Sept 2013 page 9

10 Mg very little difference between the normal formula and the ionic formula Mg Mg K K brackets, however, will be needed much more often to K 2 make clear the charge and number of ions (K + ) 2 2- Test Yourself 12 Write ionic formulae for the following ionic compounds 1. sodium chloride 2. lithium iodide 3. potassium fluoride 4. rubidium bromide 5. beryllium oxide 6. calcium sulfide 7. barium bromide 8. magnesium iodide 9. lithium sulfide 10. potassium oxide 11. aluminium iodide 12. aluminium oxide 13. magnesium nitride 14. strontium chloride 15. gallium sulfide Test Yourself 13 Write ionic formulae for the following ionic compounds 1. lithium nitrate 2. sodium carbonate 3. magnesium sulfate 4. calcium hydroxide 5. aluminium phosphate 6. barium carbonate 7. potassium phosphate 8. strontium nitrate 9. rubidium sulfate 10. magnesium sulfite 11. sodium nitrite 12. potassium permanganate 13. sodium dichromate 14. lithium chromate 15. zinc (II) carbonate 16. iron (II) hydroxide 17. copper (I) oxide 18. copper (II) oxide 19. silver (I) nitrate 20. mercury (II) chloride 21. iron (III) oxide KHS Sept 2013 page 10

11 Ionic Equations The main thing to remember when asked to write an ionic equation is that not all compounds are ionic! Test Yourself 14 Write balanced ionic equations for the following 1. lead nitrate lead (II) oxide + nitrogen dioxide 2. copper (II) carbonate copper(ii) oxide + carbon dioxide 3. sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen 4. iron (II) chloride + chlorine iron (III) chloride 5. silver + copper (II) silver + copper (II) nitrate chloride chloride nitrate Going Further You may be shown a series of videos demonstrating various reactions. For each one, write a Word Equation and then try to write the correct Ionic Formula Equation. 'Further' Set 1 - charcoal with potassium nitrate Word Equation: Formula: 'Further' Set 2 - dichromate volcano Word Equation: Formula: 'Enthusiast' Set 2 - silver displacement Word Equation: Formula: KHS Sept 2013 page 11

12 ELEMENT ELEMENT CMPUND CMPUND CMPUND CMPUND Roman Numbers Diatomic 7 Normal 2 elements Groups Rule Breaker (I), (II) etc ends -ITE -ATE ends -IDE mono-, dietc ELEMENT R CMPUND? Use Number Given Use Sheet Use Sheet No Picture No Picture No Picture Draw Picture Draw Picture Draw Picture KHS Sept 2013 page 12 H K Cu S 4 H K Write Formula Cu Write Formula Write Formula K 2 H S 2 4 Write Formula C FRMULA WRITING IN EQUATINS Write Symbol Mg Write Formula 2

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