# ScienceDirect. Deep drawing of cylindrical cup using incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure

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3 Xiaohui Cui et al. / Procedia Engineering 81 ( 2014 ) Sequential simulation of incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure 3.1. Numerical scheme for incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure In this work, the finite element software ANSYS is used. Fig. 2 shows the flowchart of numerical scheme for incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure. The magnetic forces on the workpiece are calculated using ANSYS/EMAG finite element code. Then the forces are imported into ANSYS/LSDYNA finite element code to predict workpiece deformation. According to the deformation result, the sheet geometry is updated in ANSYS/EMAG code to calculate the magnetic force again. This analysis process can be regarded as one step for electromagnetic-mechanical coupling process. If the sheet deforms termination by magnetic force, restarted technology in ANSYS/LSDYNA code is used to predict the traditional stamping process. Whereafter, the deformed sheet is imported into ANSYS/EMAG for the next step coupling analysis. In following simulation, the one-time step for electromagnetic mechanical coupling analysis is 0.001s and one-time step for the quasi-static stamping is 0.05s Modeling Fig. 2. Flowchart of numerical scheme for the incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure. Fig. 3 (a) shows the schematic diagram of the cylindrical cup deep drawing by incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure. The radius of the punch and its corner are 48.7mm and 8mm, respectively. The radius of the die and its corner are 50mm and 10mm, respectively. A three-turn flat spiral coil with section area of 1mm 4mm (Coil_1) is imbedded in the die to make sheet inverse bulging. Two one-turn flat spiral coils with section area of 3mm 10mm (Coil_2 and Coil_3) are imbedded in blank holder and die, respectively. The distance between the Coil_2 or Coil_3 and the sheet is 2mm. The main parameters includes: capacitance kv. The material used in this experiment is the aluminum alloy AA3003 sheet with 1.0mm in thickness. The circular plates of 200mm diameter specimens were utilized. The Poisson's ratio is 0.3. The Elastic modulus is 68.4GPa and the density of the sheet is Kg/m3. The initial yield stress is 50MPa. In order to benefit follow-up analysis, A, B and C points on sheet bottom surface are chosen. The position of three special points can be seen in Fig. 3 (a). Fig. 3 (b) shows the deformed result if the punch moves down 15mm using ANSYS/LSDYNA software. Fig. 3. Geometric and finite element model (unit: mm): (a) 3D model; (b) deformation results in the first stamping. To prove the new forming method presented in this paper can be used to manufacture deep cylindrical cup, three kinds of forming processes are comparative analysis in the following: Case 1: Three coils didn t discharge. This means the sheet deforms in quasi-static stamping process.

6 818 Xiaohui Cui et al. / Procedia Engineering 81 ( 2014 ) The maximum tensile stress is 100 MPa. The value of the material flow at sheet end is 9.4 mm.maximum thickness reduction is 0.37 mm, which occurs at the sheet corner in bottom surface. Fig. 9(b) indicates the deformation height with 35 mm if the punch move down 15 mm, 10 mm and 10 mm in three times. The discharge voltage is 5000V between punch moves down. The maximum tensile stress is 90 MPa. The value of the material flow at sheet end is 14.3mm. Maximum thickness reduction is 0.08 mm, which occurs at the sheet corner in bottom surface. In comparison with traditional stamping, incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure can significantly increase the value of material flow inward from sheet end, decrease the tensile stress and thickness reduction at the easily broken position, and obtain uniform stress distribution. Fig. 9. Distribution of sheet thickness and stress: (a) traditional stamping; (b) incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure. 4. Conclusion (1) A new deep drawing method, named incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure, is proposed. Radial magnetic force, which locates in sheet end, pointed to die centre can be generated by setting the coil at the end of the sheet. (2) If the three coils discharge simultaneously, the high tensile and pressure stress in hoop direction both exist at the sheet deformation region. The radial displacement at sheet region corresponding to punch corner is almost no change from the time of sheet deforms by magnetic force to the initial time of the sheet straightened by punch. There exists optimum values for punch move down, which corresponds to the sheet initial straightened, to decrease the values of thickness reduction and tensile stress on sheet, (3) In comparison with traditional stamping, incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure can significantly increase the value of material flow inward from sheet end, decrease the tensile stress and thickness reduction at the easily broken position, and obtain uniform stress distribution. Therefore, incremental electromagnetic assisted stamping with radial magnetic pressure can manufacture deeper cylindrical cup. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No ) and the Major Sate Basic Research Development Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2011CB012802) References Siegert, K., Häussermann, M., Lösch, B., Rieger, R., Recent developments in hydroforming technology. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 98, Nakamura, K., Nakagawa, T., Sheet Metal Forming with Hydraulic Counter Pressure in Japan. CIRP Annals- Manufacturing Technology, 36(1), Psyk, V., Risch, D., Kinsey, B.L., Tekkaya, A.E., Kleiner, M., Electromagnetic forming - A review. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 211, Shang, J.H., Daehn. G.S., Electromagnetically assisted sheet metal stamping. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 211, Cui, X.H., Mo, J.H., Li, J.J., Zhao, J., Zhu, Y., Huang, L., Li, Z.W., Zhong, K., Electromagnetic incremental forming (EMIF): a novel aluminum alloy sheet and tube forming technolo gy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 214,

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