[ Cl ] - [[Mg 2+ ] ] Experiment 7: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. transfer e -

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "[ Cl ] - [[Mg 2+ ] ] Experiment 7: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. transfer e -"

Transcription

1 Experiment 7: OxidationReduction Reactions PURPOSE Become familiar with the concepts of oxidation and reduction and how these reactions occur. Carry out several such reactions and learn to recognize when oxidationreduction is occurring. Develop an understanding of the relative strengths of oxidizing and reducing agents and rank oxidationreduction couples in a series. Use an oxidationreduction series to determine if a reaction will occur spontaneously. Balance oxidation reduction reactions by the halfreaction method. BACKGROUND In a previous experiment, "Double Displacement Reactions", you became familiar with several reactions in which ions exchange partners in order to form new compounds. A very large number of chemical reactions are of this variety. An equally large number of reactions do not fall into this category but instead involve the exchange of electrons to form new compounds. Reactions involving exchange of electrons are called oxidationreduction reactions. An example of such a reaction is the reaction of magnesium metal and chlorine gas. Mg (S) + C1 2 (g) MgCl 2 (S) At first glance, the electron exchange may not be apparent. However, when you examine the above reaction in more detail you can see it. It actually consists of two parts that occur simultaneously. (1) Mg Mg e Each magnesium atom loses 2 electrons to form a magnesium 2 + cation. (2) 2e + Cl 2 2 Cl Each chlorine molecule gains 2 electrons to form 2 Cl anions. The reaction can be pictured as below: Mg transfer e transfer e Cl Cl [[Mg 2+ ] ] [ Cl ] [ Cl ] 71

2 Subsequently the two oppositely charged ionic species then interact to form magnesium chloride crystals. An oxidationreduction reaction may be thought of as a competition between two substances for electrons. Consider the two reactions below, which are the reverse of each other: Reaction (1) net ionic equation: reduction halfreaction: Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Zn(s) Cu(s) + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + Zn(s) Cu(s) + Zn 2+ (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 e Cu(s) oxidation halfreaction: Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e oxidizing agent = Cu 2+ reducing agent = Zn Reaction (2) net ionic equation: Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) reduction halfreaction: Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e Zn(s) oxidation halfreaction: Cu(s) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 e oxidizing agent = Zn 2+ reducing agent = Cu Reaction (1) will occur spontaneously and Reaction (2) will not if Cu 2+ is a stronger oxidizing agent (i.e. likes to be reduced or you could say likes to acquire electrons) more than Zn 2+. Conversely, reaction (2) will occur and (1) will not if Zn 2+ is a stronger oxidizing agent (i.e. like to be reduced or you could say likes to acquire electrons more than Cu 2+ ). In an oxidationreduction reaction, the species that gains electrons is reduced and the substance that loses electrons is oxidized. This may seem odd at first, but remember electrons have a negative charge so gaining an electron will lower the oxidation number of the atom receiving the electron. In the above reaction magnesium is oxidized and chlorine is reduced. The substance that gains electrons in the reaction (i.e. is reduced) can also be called the oxidizing agent. In the Mg + Cl 2 reaction, Cl 2(g) is the oxidizing agent because it is reduced and in the process it oxidizes (removes electrons from) the magnesium metal. Similarly, the substance that loses electrons in a reaction (i.e. is oxidized), can be called the reducing agent. In the above reaction magnesium metal is a reducing reagent. 72

3 In summary then: electron X Y X loses electron(s) X is oxidized X is the reducing agent X increases its oxidation number Y gains electron(s) Y is reduced Y is the oxidizing agent Y decreases its oxidation number To understand redox reactions, you must be able to determine the oxidation number of elements using the rules below. Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers Always start at the top of the list and work down. 1. The total sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms in a molecule must add up to the charge on the molecule. Example: the oxidation number must sum to zero in H 2 O, and CaSO 4, and 3 in PO An uncombined element has an oxidation number of zero. (for example, Li (solid), Mg (solid), H 2 ) 3.The oxidation number of a monoatomic ion = charge of the monatomic ion. Examples: Oxidation number of S 2 is 2, Oxidation number of Al 3+ is When combined with other elements, Group IA elements are always +1. (for example, Li in LiCl or Na in Na 2 S) 4. When combined with other elements, the oxidation number of all Group 2A metals = +2 ( for example, Mg in MgF 2, Ca in CaO) 5. F has an oxidation number of H has an oxidation number of O has an oxidation number of 2. 73

4 Rules higher in the list take precedence over those lower in the list. PROBLEM: Determine the oxidation number (O.N.) of each element in these compounds: (a) Water (b) sulfate ion (c) Hydrogen peroxide (a) H 2 O Rule (1) Charges sum to zero Rule (6) H is +1. Rule (7). O is 2 (b) SO 4 2 Rule (1) Charges sum to 2 Rule (7) O is 2 (there are four of them however) Therefore S must be +6 Check S +6 + O 2 (4) = 2 (c) H 2 O 2 Rule (1) Charges sum to zero. Rule (6) H is Rule (7). O is 2 HOWEVER this can not be since if H is +1 and O is 2 the sum will not be zero H +1 (2) + O 2 (2) =2! IF there is a conflict in the rules, ignore the rule lowest on the list therefore H 2 O 2 Rule (1) Charges sum to zero. Rule (6) H is +1 and O has to be 1. When oxygen is 1, it is called a peroxide. You will know when this happens by applying the above rules. A very powerful method for balancing oxidation reduction equations is the halfreaction method. The method consists of the following very systematic steps. If the steps are not followed exactly in this order, you will not be able to balance the reaction correctly. The steps are 1. Identify which atom is oxidized and which atom is being reduced. Split the reaction into two halves one for the reduction and one for the oxidation process 2. Balance the two half reactions separately by: a. Balance elements other than O and H. b. Balance O by adding H 2 O c. Balance H by adding H + ions d. Balance the charge by adding electrons (e) 3. Looking at the two balanced half reactions... multiply them by some numbers so that both will have the same number of electrons. 4. Add the two half reactions together. Collect like terms and cancel terms that appear on both sides of the equation. 5. If in acidic conditions, you are done. If in basic conditions, add OH 1 to both sides to combine with the H + to form H 2 O. 6. Check to make sure the atoms and charges are balanced. 74

5 Example: Balance the equation: MnO 4 + Cl 1 Cl 2 + Mn 2+ Looks like Cl 1 is oxidized 1 to 0 and Mn is reduced from 7+ to 2+ reduced half rxn oxidized half rxn Step 1 MnO 4 Mn 2+ Cl Cl 2 Step 2a MnO 4 Mn 2+ no change Mn balanced 2Cl Cl 2 Cl now balanced Step 2b MnO 4 Mn H 2 O balance the 4 O s on the left 2Cl Cl 2 no change O balanced add 4H 2 O (aren t any) Step 2c 8H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O balance the 8H s on the right 2Cl Cl 2 no change H balanced add 8H + (aren t any) Step 2d 8H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O 2Cl Cl 2 the sum of the charges on left side is ( 8(+1) 1 = +7 the sum of the charges on left side is 2(1)=2 on the right side its +2 add 5 ( 5e ) to balance on the right side its 0 add 2 ( 2e) to balance 5e + 8H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O 2Cl Cl 2 + 2e Step 3 Multiplying the left equation by 2 and the night equation by 5, so both have 10 e 2 x(5 e + 8H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O) 5x (2Cl Cl e ) 10 e + 16 H + + 2MnO 4 2Mn H 2 O 10Cl 5 Cl 2 +10e Step 4 (adding the two equations together and combining like terms, and cancel same terms on opposite sides) 10e + 16H + + 2MnO 4 2Mn H 2 O 10Cl 5 Cl 2 +10e Answer in acidic condition 16H MnO Cl 2Mn Cl 2 + 8H 2 O Step 5 In basic conditions only. add OH 1 to both sides to get rid of H + (bases mostly contain OH 1 and H 2 O so they can appear in your answer but H +1 can not) 16 H MnO Cl 2 Mn Cl H 2 O + 16 OH OH 1 ( H +1 and OH 1 make H 2 O) 16 H 2 O MnO Cl 2 Mn Cl H 2 O +16 OH 1 cancel H 2 O on opposite sides 8H 2 O MnO Cl 2 Mn Cl OH 1 75

6 OxidationReduction Reactions Procedure SAFETY CAUTION: Parts A and B should be done in the hood CYCLOHEXANE: EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOR. VAPOR MAY CAUSE FLASH FIRE. HARMFUL OR FATAL IF SWALLOWED. HARMFUL IF INHALED. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES, AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. CHLORINE WATER: CORROSIVE. CAUSES EYE AND SKIN BURNS. CAUSES DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY TRACT BURNS. BROMINE WATER: CORROSIVE. CAUSES EYE AND SKINBURNS. CAUSES DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY TRACT BURNS. IODINE WATER: POISON! CAUSES SEVERE IRRITATION OR BURNS TO EVERY AREA OF CONTRACT. MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. VAPORS CAUSE SEVERE IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES, AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. OXIDIZER. MAY CAUSE ALLERGIC SKIN OR RESPIRATORY REACTION. POTASSIUM BROMIDE: HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. MAY CAUSE IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES, AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. POTASSIUM IODIDE: MAY CAUSE IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES, AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. A. Determine the colors of free halogens in water and in cyclohexane In the second part of the lab we will using the color of solutions of cyclohexane in order to determine whether a reaction is occurring or not. In order to do this, we must first determine the color that the elements we are working with (Cl 2, Br 2, and I 2 ) are in cyclohexane. 1. Obtain 3 small test tubes. Put 20 drops of Cl 2 water into the first tube. Put 20 drops of Br 2 water into the second tube Put 20 drops of I 2 water into the third tube. Observe and record the color of each of the above aqueous solutions. 2. Add 10 drops of cyclohexane to each of the above solutions. Notice where the layer of cylohexane forms. It should be the thinner layer since you use less of it. Notice that the nonpolar cyclohexane does not dissolve in the polar water. 3. Stopper each tube and, holding the stopper in place, shake each tube vigorously for 30 seconds. 4. Observe and record the color of the cyclohexane layer in each tube. You will be using cyclohexane to identify which halogen is present after a reaction takes place in the mixtures below. 5. Discard the above solutions in the cyclohexane residue waste container B. Relative strength of halogens as oxidizing agents. 1. The reaction of Br 1 (from KBr) with Cl 2 and I 2 a. Obtain 2 small test tubes. b. Put 15 drops 0.1 M KBr into both tubes. c. Add 10 drops of chlorine water (Cl 2 ) the first tube and 10 drops of iodine water (I 2 ) to the second. 76

7 d. Add 10 drops of cyclohexane to each tube, stopper, and holding the stopper in place, shake vigorously for about 30 seconds. Bases on the color you see, what halogen is present in each tube? Write a balanced net ionic equation any the reaction that must have occurred to form the halogen present. If no reaction occurred write No Reaction in the blank on the data sheet. e. Discard the above solutions in the cyclohexane residues waste container 2. The reaction of I 1 (from KI) with Cl 2 and Br 2 a. Obtain 2 small test tubes. b. Put 15 drops 0.1 M KI into both tubes. c. Add 10 drops of chlorine (Cl 2 ) water the first tube and 10 drops of bromine water (Br 2 ) to the second. d. Add 10 drops of cyclohexane to each tube, stopper, and holding the stopper in place, shake vigorously for about 30 seconds. Based on the color of the cyclohexane layer, what halogen is present in each tube? Write a balanced net ionic equation any the reaction that must have occurred to form the halogen present. If no reaction occurred write No Reaction in the blank on the data sheet. e. Discard the above solutions in the cyclohexane residue waste container 3. The reaction of Cl 1 (from KCl) with I 2 and Br 2 a. Obtain 2 small test tubes. b. Put 15 drops 0.1 M KCl into both tubes. c. Add 10 drops of iodine (I 2 ) water the first tube and 10 drops of bromine water (Br 2 ) to the second. d. Add 10 drops of cyclohexane to each tube, stopper, and, holding the stopper in place, shake vigorously for about 30 seconds. Based on the color of the cyclohexane layer, what halogen is present in each tube? Write a balanced net ionic equation any the reaction that must have occurred to form the halogen present. If no reaction occurred write No Reaction in the blank on the data sheet. e. Discard the above solutions in the cyclohexane residue waste container. 4. On your report page, arrange the reduction couples 2Cl Cl 2 + 2e, 2I I 2 + 2e, and 2Br Br 2 + 2e into a series with the strongest reducing agent on the top left and the strongest oxidizing agent on the bottom right. This can be accomplished by looking at which combinations reacted and which did not react, and keeping in mind that elements that are easily reduced are strong oxidizing agents. Where would you predict fluorine would fit in this series? Hint: Look at the periodic table. Add it to your series in its proper position. C. Relative strengths of copper, lead, and zinc as reducing agents. In this part of the experiment, we will investigate the behavior of small pieces of copper, lead, and zinc by dropping a small piece of shiny metal (you may need to scuff its surface with sandpaper) into a solution of the other two metal ions. Safety Caution: COPPER (II) NITRATE Solution: STRONG OXIDIZER. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. ZINC NITRATE Solution: CAUSES IRRITATION. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED.STRONG OXIDIZER. SILVER NITRATE: WARNING! CAUSES SEVERE EYE IRRITATION. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN AND RESPIRATORY TRACT.AFFECTS EYES, SKIN AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. FURTHERMORE, SILVER NITRATE WILL STAIN YOUR SKIN AND CLOTHING 1. Place a piece of zinc into about 20 drops of 0.10 M copper (II) nitrate solution and another piece of zinc into 20 drops of lead (II) nitrate solution. Examine each reaction mixture and record your observations on the Report Sheet. Look for a reaction on the surface of the metal. Some reactions may be slow so let the mixtures sit before taking your observations. If you conclude from your observations that a reaction has occurred, write its net ionic equation. If no reaction occurs, do not write an equation, 77

8 write N.R. Keep in mind that the solutions are all nitrates, but the nitrate ions are not involved in the reactions (i.e. are spectator ions), and that if there is a reaction, it will involve the oxidation of the solid metal and the reduction of the metal ion from the solution. Discard solutions in the metal ion residues waste container. 2. Repeat the above experiments with the following combinations a. a piece of solid Cu + 20 drops 0.1 M lead (II) nitrate solution b. a piece of solid Cu + 20 drops 0.1 M zinc nitrate solution c. a piece of solid Pb + 20 drops 0.1 M copper (II) nitrate solution d. a piece of solid Pb + 20 drops 0.1 M zinc nitrate solution. Again record your observations and write the net ionic equations for any reactions that happened. If no reaction occurs, do not write an equation, write N.R. Discard solutions in the metal ion residues waste container. Discard metal pieces in the waste basket. Summarize your results in a table like you did in the halogen experiment. On your report page, arrange the reduction couples: Cu Cu e, Zn Zn e, and Pb Pb e into a series with the strongest reducing agent on the top left and the strongest oxidizing agent on the bottom right. This can be accomplished by looking at which combination reacted and which did not react, and keeping in might that elements that are easily reduced are strong oxidizing agents. D. The Ag Ag + + e couple. Place a small piece of copper into about 15 drops of 0.10 M silver nitrate solution. Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs. Add silver to its proper place in the table containing Cu, Zn, and Pb. Discard solution into the silver residues waste container. Discard metal into the waste basket. E. Other oxidationreduction reactions. In this part of this part of the lab we will perform more complex redox reactions which must be balanced using the half reaction method. You will again notice color changes which will help you determine the reaction that occurred. 1. The MnO 4 / HSO 3 reaction (version A) Place 3 ml of KMnO 4 solution into a large test tube. Add 2 ml of 1.0 M H 2 SO 4. Place a white piece of paper behind the test tube and slowly add a few milliliters of 0.01 M NaHSO 3 while stirring the solution with a glass rod. Note all the color changes you see. The unbalanced reaction you just did is MnO 4 + HSO 3 Mn 2+ + SO 4 2 Record your observations and then balance the equation using the halfreaction method. 2. The MnO 4 /HSO 3 reaction (version B) In another large test tube, place 3 ml of KMnO 4 solution and add 2 ml of 1.0 M NaOH. Place a white piece of paper behind the test tube and slowly add a few milliliters of 0.01 MNaHSO 3 while stirring the solution with a glass rod. Note all the color changes you see. The unbalanced reaction you just did is MnO 4 + HSO 3 MnO SO 4 2 Record your observations and then balance the equation using the halfreaction method. 3. The H 2 O 2 /I reaction Place 3 ml of potassium iodide solution (0.1 M) in a large test tube. Add 1 drop of concentrated sulfuric acid. Add hydrogen peroxide (3 % solution) slowly while stirring until you notice a color change is produced. The unbalanced reaction you just did is H 2 O 2 + I H 2 O + I 2 78

9 Record your observations and then balance the equation using the halfreaction method. 4. The thiosulfate (S 2 O 3 2 ) bromine reaction. Add 10 drops of Br 2 water to a six inch test tube and then add 0.10 M sodium thiosulfate drop by drop until the solution goes coloress. Add 3 drops of 0.10 M AgNO 3 solution. A yellow precipitate of AgBr confirms that Br was formed. The thiosulfate ion is oxidized to tetrathionate ion (S 4 O 6 2 ). Record your observations and write a balanced reaction for the equation using the half reaction method. Discard the residue in the silver residues container. 5. Hydrogen peroxideiron (II) reaction. Transfer a few crystals (812) of solid FeSO 4 into a 6inch test tube. Dissolve the crystals in about 20 drops of water. Add 3 drops of 3% H 2 O 2. Record any observations. Add 5 drops of dilute ammonium hydroxide. Record your observations. The gelatinous product is a hydrate of Fe 2 O 3. The product from the reduction of the hydrogen peroxide in this reaction is water. Record your observations and write a balanced equation for the reaction using the half reaction method. The residue (rusty water and ammonia) may be washed down the sink. 6. Oxalatepermanganate reaction. Place 20 drops of 0.10 M potassium oxalate, K 2 C 2 O 4, in a six inch test tube. Add 3 drops of dilute (3 M) sulfuric acid to the tube. Add one drop of 0.10 M potassium permangante to the solution. If it remains colored, warm gently in a hot water bath until the solution goes colorless. After the solution goes colorless continue adding KMnO 4 one drop at a time, stirring and counting the drops until the solution turns pink or brown and remains colored. Record the total drops of KMnO 4 solution (including the first drop you used) needed to react completely with the 20 drops of K 2 C 2 O 4. The oxalate ion is oxidized to CO 2 and the permanganate is reduced to almost colorless Mn 2+ ion. Write an equation for the reaction. How does your ratio of drops potassium permanganate solution used / drops potassium oxalate solution used, compare to the coefficients of your balanced equation? Dispose of the solution in the metal ion residues waste container. 79

10 OxidationReduction Reactions Report Name A. Colors of the free halogens in water and cyclohexane Color of Chlorine in water in cyclohexane Color of Bromine in water in cyclohexane Color of Iodine in water in cyclohexane B. The relative strengths of halogens as oxidizing agents. REMEMBER: K is a spectator ion!!!! Observations: Cl 2 + KBr Net ionic equation for any reaction Observations: I 2 + KBr Net ionic equation for any reaction. Observations: Cl 2 + KI Net ionic equation for any reaction Observations Br 2 + KI Net ionic equation for any reaction. Observations: Br 2 + KCl Net ionic equation for any reaction. Observations I 2 + KCl Net ionic equation for any reaction Conclusions: Rank the half reaction couples by writing the half reactions in a table such that the strongest reducing agent will be on the top left and the strongest oxidizing agent will be on the bottom right. Use the periodic table to predict where fluorine should fit. Relative strengths of Br 2, Cl 2, I 2, and F 2 and their ions as oxidizingreducing agents. Strongest reducing agent > + 2e > + 2e > + 2e + 2e Weakest reducing agent Weakest oxidizing agent Strongest oxidizing agent 710

11 C. Observations: Zn + Cu 2+ Net ionic equation for any reaction Observations: Zn + Pb 2+ Net ionic equation for any reaction..observations: Cu + Pb 2+ Net ionic equation for any reaction. Observations Cu + Zn 2+ Net ionic equation for any reaction Observations Pb + Cu 2+ Net ionic equation for any reaction Observations: Pb + Zn 2+ Net ionic equation for any reaction D. Observations: Cu + Ag + Net ionic equation for any reaction Strongest reducing agent Weakest reducing agent > + 2e > + 2e > + 2e + 2e Weakest oxidizing agent Strongest oxidizing agent A table like the one above can be used to predict whether a reaction will occur. For a reaction to occur the reducing agent must be higher in the table than the oxidizing agent. Use your table to predict whether each of the following reactions will occur. Write the expected products or no reaction in each blank. a. Zn + Ag + b. Ag + Pb 2+ c. Pb + Ag + 711

12 E. Other oxidationreduction reactions: 1. The MnO 4 / HSO 3 reaction version A Observations: Note all the color changes you see. Balance the reaction: MnO 4 + HSO 3 Mn 2+ + SO The MnO 4 / HSO 3 reaction version B What is the difference between this reaction and the previous reaction? Observations: Balance the reaction: MnO 4 + HSO 3 MnO SO

13 3. The H 2 O 2 /I reaction Observations: Balance the reaction H 2 O 2 + I H 2 O + I 2 4. Reaction of S 2 O 3 2 ion with Br 2 Observations: Balanced net ionic equation for the reaction: 713

14 5. Reaction of Fe 2+ ion with H 2 O 2 Observations: Balanced net ionic equation for the reaction 6. Reaction of MnO 4 ion with C 2 O 4 2 ion Observations: Number of drops MnO 4 solution to react completely with 20 drops C 2 O 4 2 solution. Balanced net ionic equation for the reaction 714

15 Post Lab 1. Balance the following oxidationreduction equations by the half reaction method in acidic solution a. Cr 2 O Cl 1 Cl 2 + Cr 3+ (acidic ) b. Zn + H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ + H 2 S (acidic) c. I + IO 3 I 2 (acidic) d. MnO 4 + C 2 O 4 2 Mn 2+ + CO 2 (basic) e. Cr(OH) 3 + ClO 3 1 CrO Cl 1 (basic) f. Iron filings are added to FeCl 3 solution. Fe + Fe 3+ Fe 2+ g. Bismuth metal is dissolved in hot concentrated HNO 3 and a brown gas is given off. Bi + NO 3 Bi 3+ + NO 2 (g) h. A mixture of Na 2 S. NaClO. and NaOH solutions is warmed, giving a suspended precipitate. S 2 + ClO S 0 + Cl i. SO 2 gas is bubbled into K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution (acidic). SO 2 + Cr 2 O 7 2 Cr 3+ + SO 4 2 j. CN (aq) + MnO 4 (aq) CO 2 (g) + NO (g) + MnO 2 (s) (acidic) k. CH 4 (g) + CrO 4 2 (aq) CO 2 (g) + Cr(OH) 3 (s) (acidic) Convert the above balanced equation to an equation balanced in base. l. S 2 O 8 2 (aq) + Cl (aq) ClO (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) (acidic) Convert the above balanced equation to an equation balanced in base. 2. Imagine that the hypothetical elements, A, B, C, and D, form the ions A 2+, B 2+, C 2+, and D 2+, respectively. The following equations indicate reactions which can, or cannot, occur. Use this information to write a potential series for the cations. B 2+ + A A 2+ + B B 2+ + D N.R. A 2+ + C C 2+ + A 715

16 Name Prelab report 1. Determine the oxidation number of all of the element in the substances below. MnO 2 Fe 2 O 3 Na 2 O 2 H 2 K 2 Cr 2 O 7 Mn Fe Na H K O O O Cr O 2. Balance the half reaction: NO 3 1 NO 2 Is nitrogen in NO 3 oxidized, or is it reduced? 3. Balance the equation below as it occurs in acidic solution. MnO 4 + Fe 2+ Fe 3+ + MnO 2 In the above equation circle the oxidizing agent. What element is being oxidized in the above reaction? What element is being reduced? 716

Partner: Cathy 22 March Separation and Qualitative Determination of Cations and Anions

Partner: Cathy 22 March Separation and Qualitative Determination of Cations and Anions Partner: Cathy 22 March 2012 Separation and Qualitative Determination of Cations and Anions Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to identify the cations and anions components in the unknown solution. This

More information

Oxidation and Reduction

Oxidation and Reduction Oxidation and Reduction An oxidation reaction is one in which oxygen is added to a substance. Example: Methane is oxidised when it burns in air. Oxygen is added to the carbon in methane, forming carbon

More information

ADVANCED AP PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY. Activity Series. Introduction. Objective. Chemicals and Equipment

ADVANCED AP PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY. Activity Series. Introduction. Objective. Chemicals and Equipment ADVANCED AP PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY Introduction Activity Series An activity series of metals is a table of metals arranged in the order of their decreasing chemical activity or the ease at which the metal

More information

Compounds & Reactions Week 1. Writing Formulas & Balancing Equations. Write the chemical formula for each molecular (covalent) compound.

Compounds & Reactions Week 1. Writing Formulas & Balancing Equations. Write the chemical formula for each molecular (covalent) compound. Compounds & Reactions Week 1 Name Writing Formulas & Balancing Equations Write the chemical formula for each ionic compound. 1. Lithium fluoride 2. Copper (II) chloride 3. Manganese (II) oxide 4. Potassium

More information

SOLUBILITY STUDY GUIDE- Multiple Choice Section

SOLUBILITY STUDY GUIDE- Multiple Choice Section SOLUBILITY STUDY GUIDE- Multiple Choice Section Multiple Choice Section: This study guide is a compilation of questions from provincial exams since 2000. I urge you to become intimately familiar with question

More information

Which of these is the formula for disulfur heptoxide? A. S 2 O 7 B. S 7 O 2 C. SO 2 D. N 2 O

Which of these is the formula for disulfur heptoxide? A. S 2 O 7 B. S 7 O 2 C. SO 2 D. N 2 O Which of these is the formula for disulfur heptoxide? A. S 2 O 7 B. S 7 O 2 C. SO 2 D. N 2 O Which of these is the correct chemical formula for a molecule of oxygen? A. O B. O -2 C. O +2 D. O 2 Which of

More information

Equation Writing and Predicting Products Chemistry I Acc

Equation Writing and Predicting Products Chemistry I Acc Introduction: Equation Writing and Predicting Products Chemistry I Acc If you examine your bicycle after it has been left out in the rain a number of times you will find that it has begun to rust. Rust

More information

Today! Demonstrations of Redox Chemistry! Electrochemistry! electrons moving about! equilibrium with a control knob! The disappearing Aluminum Rod!

Today! Demonstrations of Redox Chemistry! Electrochemistry! electrons moving about! equilibrium with a control knob! The disappearing Aluminum Rod! Today! Electrochemistry! electrons moving about! equilibrium with a control knob! Redox chemistry! oxidation and reduction! Demonstrations of Redox Chemistry! The disappearing Aluminum Rod! Alkali Metals

More information

CONSERVATION OF MATTER AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

CONSERVATION OF MATTER AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 1 CONSERVATION OF MATTER AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES I. OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The object of this experiment is to demonstrate the conservation of matter- or more particularly, the conservation of "atoms"

More information

Boiling point in C. Colour in aqueous solution. Fluorine 188 colourless. Chlorine 35 pale green. Bromine X orange.

Boiling point in C. Colour in aqueous solution. Fluorine 188 colourless. Chlorine 35 pale green. Bromine X orange. Q1.This question is about halogens and their compounds. The table below shows the boiling points and properties of some of the elements in Group 7 of the periodic table. Element Boiling point in C Colour

More information

Formula & Equation Writing

Formula & Equation Writing Formula & Equation Writing Book 2 H H Al Al H Al(H) 3 H Ionic Equations Ionic Formulae Balanced Equations Formula Equations Word Equations Transition Metals Using Brackets Awkward Customers More than 2

More information

TWEED RIVER HIGH SCHOOL 2006 PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY. Unit 2 Metals

TWEED RIVER HIGH SCHOOL 2006 PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY. Unit 2 Metals TWEED RIVER HIGH SCHOOL 2006 PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY Unit 2 Metals Part 2 Metals differ in their reactivity with other chemicals and this influences their uses. Describe observable changes when metals react

More information

Unit F FR (part B) Solubility Equilibrium, Ksp (pg 1 of 16)

Unit F FR (part B) Solubility Equilibrium, Ksp (pg 1 of 16) Unit F FR (part B) Solubility Equilibrium, Ksp (pg 1 of 16) 1. Answer the following questions about the solubility of some fluoride salts of alkaline earth metals. (a) A student prepares 100. ml of a saturated

More information

The oxides of nitrogen and the details of the oxygen states of nitrogen and the N:O ratio can be presented in a tabular form as:

The oxides of nitrogen and the details of the oxygen states of nitrogen and the N:O ratio can be presented in a tabular form as: Oxides of Nitrogen Introduction to oxides of nitrogen Nirogen has a position in second period of group V in the modern periodic table. It has molecular formula N2. It has atomic number 7 and atomic weight

More information

Periodic Trends. Introduction

Periodic Trends. Introduction Periodic Trends Introduction In the modern periodic table (shown below in Figure 1), elements are arranged according to increasing atomic number in horizontal rows called periods. In Figure 1, atomic numbers,

More information

Electricity and Chemistry

Electricity and Chemistry Electricity and Chemistry Electrochemistry: It is a branch of chemistry that deals with the reactions involving the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and vice-versa. Electrochemical

More information

EXPERIMENT 15C. Qualitative Analysis Scheme of Main Group and Transition Metal Cations without Hazardous Waste

EXPERIMENT 15C. Qualitative Analysis Scheme of Main Group and Transition Metal Cations without Hazardous Waste EXPERIMENT 15C Qualitative Analysis Scheme of Main Group and Transition Metal Cations without Hazardous Waste The following experiment is intended to continue the introduction of qualitative analysis through

More information

EXTRA CREDIT - EXPERIMENT G ELECTROCHEMISTRY ACTIVITY OF METALS

EXTRA CREDIT - EXPERIMENT G ELECTROCHEMISTRY ACTIVITY OF METALS EXTRA CREDIT - EXPERIMENT G ELECTROCHEMISTRY ACTIVITY OF METALS INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment is to develop an abbreviated activity series of metals using: 1. Displacement reactions 2.

More information

EXPERIMENT 3: Identification of a Substance by Physical Properties

EXPERIMENT 3: Identification of a Substance by Physical Properties EXPERIMENT 3: Identification of a Substance by Physical Properties Materials: Hot plate Digital balance Capillary tubes (3) Thermometer Beakers (250 ml) Watch glass Graduated Cylinder (10 ml) Mel-Temp

More information

(a) To find out which is the more reactive metal, zinc or tin, the following experiment could be carried out. piece of zinc shiny surface

(a) To find out which is the more reactive metal, zinc or tin, the following experiment could be carried out. piece of zinc shiny surface 1 The reactivity series lists metals in order of reactivity. (a) To find out which is the more reactive metal, zinc or tin, the following experiment could be carried out. piece of zinc shiny surface tin(ii)

More information

SIDE DISPLAY: Liesegang Reactions (revised)

SIDE DISPLAY: Liesegang Reactions (revised) Discussion The operating guide for Liesegang Rings is organized slightly differently than other operating guides. This is because there are recipes here for 5 different reactions. It is recommended that

More information

NOMENCLATURE (ie naming compounds)

NOMENCLATURE (ie naming compounds) NOMENCLATURE (ie naming compounds) An ionic compounds (salt) may be any one of thousands of chemical compounds How do chemists describe which salt they are discussing? There is a system that we will follow

More information

85 Q.51 Which of the following carbonates would give the metal when heated with carbon? (1) MgCO 3 (2) PbCO 3 (3) K 2 CO 3 (4) CuCO 3

85 Q.51 Which of the following carbonates would give the metal when heated with carbon? (1) MgCO 3 (2) PbCO 3 (3) K 2 CO 3 (4) CuCO 3 Metal and metal reactivity / Section 2 / Sect2pp.doc / S. W. Tse / P.1 85 Q.51 Which of the following carbonates would give the metal when heated with carbon? (1) MgCO 3 (2) PbCO 3 (3) K 2 CO 3 (4) CuCO

More information

GRAVIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SULFATE IN AN UNKNOWN SOLUTION

GRAVIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SULFATE IN AN UNKNOWN SOLUTION GRAVIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SULFATE IN AN UNKNOWN SOLUTION AIM The main objective of this experiment is to determine the concentration of sulfate ion in an unknown solution by using gravimetry. INTRODUCTION

More information

NCEA Level 1 Chemistry (90933) 2012 page 1 of 5. Q Evidence Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence NØ N1 N2 A3 A4 M5 M6 E7 E8

NCEA Level 1 Chemistry (90933) 2012 page 1 of 5. Q Evidence Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence NØ N1 N2 A3 A4 M5 M6 E7 E8 Assessment Schedule 2012 NCEA Level 1 Chemistry (90933) 2012 page 1 of 5 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of aspects of selected elements (90933) Evidence Statement Q Evidence with Merit with Excellence

More information

6 METALS & NON METALS

6 METALS & NON METALS Grade-8 Chemistry Chapter- 6 METALS & NON METALS 1. What happens in each of the following cases? a) Magnesium is burnt in oxygen. Ans: When magnesium burns in oxygen it produces magnesium oxide with dazzling

More information

DETERMINATION of the EMPIRICAL FORMULA

DETERMINATION of the EMPIRICAL FORMULA DETERMINATION of the EMPIRICAL FORMULA One of the fundamental statements of the atomic theory is that elements combine in simple whole number ratios. This observation gives support to the theory of atoms,

More information

To identify and classify various types of chemical reactions.

To identify and classify various types of chemical reactions. Cycle of Copper Reactions Minneapolis Community and Technical College v.11.17 Objectives: To observe and document copper s chemical changes in five different reactions and verify that copper is conserved

More information

Method 108C - Determination of Arsenic Content in Ore Samples From Nonferrous Smelters (Molybdenum Blue Photometric Procedure)

Method 108C - Determination of Arsenic Content in Ore Samples From Nonferrous Smelters (Molybdenum Blue Photometric Procedure) While we have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this Internet version of the document, it is not the official version. Please refer to the official version in the FR publication, which appears on the

More information

Analysis of Calcium Carbonate Tablets

Analysis of Calcium Carbonate Tablets Experiment 9 Analysis of Calcium Carbonate Tablets Prepared by Ross S. Nord, Eastern Michigan University PURPOSE To perform a gravimetric exercise to determine weight percent of active ingredient in a

More information

METHOD #: Approved for NPDES (Issued 1971) Oxygen, Dissolved (Modified Winkler, Full-Bottle Technique) ANALYTE: CAS # O Oxygen

METHOD #: Approved for NPDES (Issued 1971) Oxygen, Dissolved (Modified Winkler, Full-Bottle Technique) ANALYTE: CAS # O Oxygen METHOD #: 360.2 Approved for NPDES (Issued 1971) TITLE: Oxygen, Dissolved (Modified Winkler, Full-Bottle Technique) ANALYTE: CAS # O Oxygen 7782-44-7 INSTRUMENTATION: Titration, Probe STORET No. 00300

More information

*20GSD5201* Double Award Science: Chemistry. Unit C2 Higher Tier TUESDAY 9 JUNE 2015, AFTERNOON [GSD52] *GSD52* *G5802* TIME 1 hour 15 minutes.

*20GSD5201* Double Award Science: Chemistry. Unit C2 Higher Tier TUESDAY 9 JUNE 2015, AFTERNOON [GSD52] *GSD52* *G5802* TIME 1 hour 15 minutes. Centre Number Candidate Number General Certificate of Secondary Education 2015 Double Award Science: Chemistry Unit C2 Higher Tier [GSD52] *GSD52* *G5802* *GSD52* TUESDAY 9 JUNE 2015, AFTERNOON TIME 1

More information

Chapter: The d and f Block Elements

Chapter: The d and f Block Elements Chapter: The d and f Block Elements Introduction to d block elements Question 1 In Tc ( Z = 43) and Tb( Z = 65) which one is inner transition metal and which one is transition metal and why? The outer

More information

INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT SENIOR SECTION DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY CLASS X- PRACTICAL WORKSHEET

INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT SENIOR SECTION DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY CLASS X- PRACTICAL WORKSHEET INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT SENIOR SECTION DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY CLASS X- PRACTICAL WORKSHEET Different types of chemical reactions Experiment No: 1(a) Combination reaction Objectives: To study the Combination

More information

METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS

METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS Metals are elements whose atoms ionize by electron loss, while non-metals are elements whose atoms ionize by electron gain. Metals are in groups 1, 2 and 3 of the periodic table.

More information

Periodic Trends and the Properties of Elements

Periodic Trends and the Properties of Elements Page 1 - The Alkaline Earth Metals Introduction The periodic table is the most recognized symbol of chemistry across the world. It is a valuable tool that allows scientists not only to classify the elements

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, & BATTERIES. Introduction. Electrochemistry Revised 4/28/14

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, & BATTERIES. Introduction. Electrochemistry Revised 4/28/14 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, & BATTERIES Introduction Electrochemical Cells In this part of the experiment, four half cells are created by immersing metal strips of zinc, copper,

More information

An Oxidation-Reduction Titration: The Reaction of Fe 2+ and Ce 4+

An Oxidation-Reduction Titration: The Reaction of Fe 2+ and Ce 4+ An Oxidation-Reduction Titration: The Reaction of Fe 2+ and Ce 4+ LAB ADV COMP 8 From Advanced Chemistry with Vernier, Vernier Software & Technology, 2004 INTRODUCTION A titration, as you recall, is a

More information

The Copper Group. The Separation of the Copper Group:

The Copper Group. The Separation of the Copper Group: 5/6/09 :06 PM The Copper Group The Separation of the Copper Group: Facts: The SULFIDES of Lead, Mercury (II), Bismuth, Copper, Cadmium, Arsenic, Antimony, and Tin are insoluble in dilute HCI The sulfides

More information

Experiment 3 * Thermochromism in the Ionic Conductor, Cu 2 HgI 4

Experiment 3 * Thermochromism in the Ionic Conductor, Cu 2 HgI 4 Experiment 3 * Thermochromism in the Ionic Conductor, Cu 2 HgI 4 *This lab taken from Teaching General Chemistry; A Materials Science Companion, Eds. Ellis, A.B.; Geselbracht, M.J.; Johnson, B.J.; Lisensky,

More information

Approved for NPDES (Editorial Revision 1978) Silica, Dissolved (Colorimetric)

Approved for NPDES (Editorial Revision 1978) Silica, Dissolved (Colorimetric) METHOD #: 370.1 TITLE: Approved for NPDES (Editorial Revision 1978) Silica, Dissolved (Colorimetric) ANALYTE: Silica, SiO 2 INSTRUMENTATION: Spectrophotometer STORET No. Dissolved 00955 1.0 Scope and Application

More information

Metals And Their Properties- Physical and Chemical

Metals And Their Properties- Physical and Chemical Metals And Their Properties- Physical and Chemical All the things around us are made of 100 or so elements. These elements were classified by Lavoisier in to metals and non-metals by studying their properties.

More information

CHEM 1215 LAB NOTES EXPT #2: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES 1

CHEM 1215 LAB NOTES EXPT #2: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES 1 CHEM 1215 LAB NOTES EXPT #2: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES 1 TECHNIQUES: chemical and physical changes, reactions, observations READING: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES e.g. Tro chapter 1 SAFETY: Safety

More information

Preparation of copper(ii) sulfate from copper(ii) nitrate

Preparation of copper(ii) sulfate from copper(ii) nitrate Student s Name: Date: Background Preparation of copper(ii) sulfate from copper(ii) nitrate The purpose of this laboratory activity is to prepare copper(ii) sulfate from copper(ii) nitrate. This is done

More information

5-4 Chemical changes Trilogy

5-4 Chemical changes Trilogy 5-4 Chemical changes Trilogy.0 A student investigated the reaction of sodium carbonate with dilute hydrochloric acid. The student used the apparatus shown in Figure. Figure Sodium carbonate This is the

More information

Nomenclature. A systematic method of writing chemical formulas and naming compounds

Nomenclature. A systematic method of writing chemical formulas and naming compounds Nomenclature A systematic method of writing chemical formulas and naming compounds Chemical symbols Symbols are used to represent elements Either one capital letter, or a capital letter with a lower case

More information

Iron filings (Fe) 56g IRON + SULPHUR IRON SULPHIDE

Iron filings (Fe) 56g IRON + SULPHUR IRON SULPHIDE W.S.51. Chemical reactions. All of the different materials around us have been formed by chemical reactions from about one hundred simple elements. The diagram below shows a chemical reaction between the

More information

Safety Precautions. Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and gold salts are corrosive.

Safety Precautions. Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and gold salts are corrosive. Stefan s Dental Gold Experiment By Stefan aka Garage Chemist Loosely translated from German to English by Steven Sackett 12/08/2007 The original German version is located here: Versuchschemie.de Safety

More information

2015 O LEVEL CHEMISTRY 5073/02

2015 O LEVEL CHEMISTRY 5073/02 OF SCIENCE 2015 O LEVEL CHEMISTRY 5073/02 SECTION A 1. The table shows some common oxidation states for some elements in their compounds. element common oxidation states metal / non-metal A 2 non-metal

More information

Slide 1 / 76. Slide 2 / 76. Slide 3 / In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in.

Slide 1 / 76. Slide 2 / 76. Slide 3 / In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in. 1 In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in. Slide 1 / 76 alphabetical order order of increasing atomic number order of increasing metallic properties order of increasing neutron content reverse

More information

Slide 1 / 76. Slide 2 / 76. Slide 4 / 76. Slide 3 / 76. Slide 6 / 76. Slide 5 / In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in.

Slide 1 / 76. Slide 2 / 76. Slide 4 / 76. Slide 3 / 76. Slide 6 / 76. Slide 5 / In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in. Slide 1 / 76 1 In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in Slide 2 / 76 2 lements exhibit similar physical and chemical properties. alphabetical order order of increasing atomic number order of

More information

JACOBS NEW PROCESS FOR REMOVING IRON FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID FINAL REPORT

JACOBS NEW PROCESS FOR REMOVING IRON FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID FINAL REPORT JACOBS NEW PROCESS FOR REMOVING IRON FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID FINAL REPORT Stephen W. Hilakos Process Engineer 3149 Winter Lake Road, Lakeland, FL 33803 P.O. Box 2008, Lakeland, FL 33806-2008 Prepared for

More information

Preparation of Cyclohexene From Cyclohexanol

Preparation of Cyclohexene From Cyclohexanol EXPERIMENT 9 Alkene Synthesis From Alcohol Preparation of Cyclohexene From Cyclohexanol Purpose: a) Preparation of an alkene by dehydration (elimination of water) of an alcohol in the presence of an acid

More information

EMP I RICAL FORMULA OF MAGNESI U M OXIDE

EMP I RICAL FORMULA OF MAGNESI U M OXIDE Experiment 6 Name: 53 EMP I RICAL FORMULA OF MAGNESI U M OXIDE In this experiment, you will synthesize oxide via the reaction pathways summarized in Figure 1. Note that [1] is the main reaction and [2]

More information

Recrystallization with a Single Solvent

Recrystallization with a Single Solvent Experiment: Recrystallization Part II: Purification of Solids In Part I of the recrystallization experiment, you learned about the factors which make a good recrystallization solvent, and you learned how

More information

Surface Water Samples: Containers, Preservation and Hold Times Table

Surface Water Samples: Containers, Preservation and Hold Times Table Surface Water Samples: Containers, Preservation and Hold Times Table North Carolina Division of Water Resources, Water Sciences Section Chemistry Laboratory Reference: 40 CFR Part 136.3 Table II Listed

More information

Worksheet 5 - Naming Ionic Compounds Part 1 (Binary compounds with Group 1, 2 or 13 metals) Naming

Worksheet 5 - Naming Ionic Compounds Part 1 (Binary compounds with Group 1, 2 or 13 metals) Naming Worksheet 5 - Naming Ionic Compounds Part 1 (Binary compounds with Group 1, 2 or 13 metals) Binary compounds: have only two kinds of elements, if there are three or more it is not a binary compound. Naming

More information

Oxygen. Oxygen is one of the fundamental resources required by life forms on Earth. Aquatic ecosystems have a wide assortment of life forms.

Oxygen. Oxygen is one of the fundamental resources required by life forms on Earth. Aquatic ecosystems have a wide assortment of life forms. Oxygen Oxygen is one of the fundamental resources required by life forms on Earth. Aquatic ecosystems have a wide assortment of life forms. Oxygen is also required for some natural chemical decays. What

More information

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Hardness. Concentration is. What s the concentration of red triangles? What s in your pipes? 500 ml

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Hardness. Concentration is. What s the concentration of red triangles? What s in your pipes? 500 ml Slide 1 Hardness What s in your pipes? Slide 2 What s the concentration of red triangles? 500 ml 1 g 1 g 1 g A. 10 B. 10 C. D. 1 g 1 g It s all of the above! Slide 3 Concentration is any statement of the

More information

Exercises. Solubility Equilibria. a. AgC 2 H 3 O 2 b. Al(OH) 3 c. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) Write balanced equations for the dissolution reactions and the

Exercises. Solubility Equilibria. a. AgC 2 H 3 O 2 b. Al(OH) 3 c. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) Write balanced equations for the dissolution reactions and the 766 Active Learning Questions These questions are designed to be used by groups of students in class. 1. Which of the following will affect the total amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount

More information

APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMISTRY

APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMISTRY SPONTANEOUS REDOX REACTIONS APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS BATTERIES A galvanic cell, or series of combined galvanic cells, that can be used as a source of direct

More information

Unit 3 - Solubility Practice Test # 2

Unit 3 - Solubility Practice Test # 2 1. onsider the following experiment: Unit 3 Solubility Practice Test # 2 1.0 ml 0.20 M g + + an unknown solution precipitate 1.0 ml 020 M Sr 2+ + an unknown solution no precipitate The unknown solution

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 DEHYDRATION OF 2-METHYLCYCLOHEXANOL CH 3 H CH 3 OH H 3 PO 4 +

EXPERIMENT 9 DEHYDRATION OF 2-METHYLCYCLOHEXANOL CH 3 H CH 3 OH H 3 PO 4 + EXPERIMENT 9 DEHYDRATION OF 2-METHYLCYCLOHEXANOL CH 3 CH 3 H CH 3 OH H 3 PO 4 + + H 2 O In this experiment, a microscale distillation apparatus will be used to perform an acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction

More information

Labs Covered. Le Chatelier. Calculating Ka. Kitchen Chemistry Project. Calculating Kc. Redox lab

Labs Covered. Le Chatelier. Calculating Ka. Kitchen Chemistry Project. Calculating Kc. Redox lab Labs Covered Le Chatelier Calculating Kc Calculating Ka Redox lab Kitchen Chemistry Project LeChatelier Sample Questions Fe +3 (aq) + SCN -1 (aq) FeSCN +2 (aq) Light orange colourless red a) To create

More information

New GCSE 4462/02 SCIENCE A HIGHER TIER CHEMISTRY 1

New GCSE 4462/02 SCIENCE A HIGHER TIER CHEMISTRY 1 Surname Other Names Centre Number 0 Candidate Number New GCSE 4462/02 SCIENCE A HIGHER TIER CHEMISTRY 1 ADDITIONAL MATERIALS A.M. WEDNESDAY, 18 January 2012 1 hour In addition to this paper you may require

More information

H N 2. Decolorizing carbon O. O Acetanilide

H N 2. Decolorizing carbon O. O Acetanilide Experiment 1: Recrystallization of Acetanilide Reading Assignment Mohrig 2 4 (Glassware, Reagents, & Heating) & 14 15 (Melting Point & Recrystallization) The purification of organic compounds is a tedious,

More information

Chapter 18 Homework Answers

Chapter 18 Homework Answers Chapter 18 Homework Answers 18.19 (a) AgI(s) Ag + + I K sp = [Ag + ][I ] (b) Ag PO (s) Ag + + PO K sp = [Ag + ] [PO ] (c) PbCrO (s) Pb + + CrO K sp = [Pb + ][CrO ] (d) Al(OH) (s) Al + + OH K sp = [Al +

More information

Edexcel GCSE Chemistry. Topic 4: Extracting metals and equilibria. Obtaining and using metals. Notes.

Edexcel GCSE Chemistry. Topic 4: Extracting metals and equilibria. Obtaining and using metals. Notes. Edexcel GCSE Chemistry Topic 4: Extracting metals and equilibria Obtaining and using metals Notes 4.1 Deduce the relative reactivity of some metals, by their reactions with water, acids and salt solutions

More information

Unit 5 Review Electrolytic, Electrochemical Cells, Corrosion, & Cathodic Protection

Unit 5 Review Electrolytic, Electrochemical Cells, Corrosion, & Cathodic Protection Unit 5 Review Electrolytic, Electrochemical Cells, Corrosion, & Cathodic Protection Determine the half reactions for each cell and the cell voltage or minimum theoretical voltage. 1. Zn / Mg electrochemical

More information

Pre-Lab 5: Magnesium and Magnesium Oxide

Pre-Lab 5: Magnesium and Magnesium Oxide Name: Pre-Lab 5: Magnesium and Magnesium Oxide Section: Answer the following questions after reading the background information at the beginning of the lab. This should be completed before coming to lab.

More information

Chemistry. Ionic Compounds. Inside:

Chemistry. Ionic Compounds. Inside: hemistry Judy van der Velden. reative ommons licence. onic Bonding Practice Grade 10 cience onic ompounds onic compounds are chemical compounds in which ions are held together in a lattice structure by

More information

Determination of the Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide

Determination of the Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide Determination of the Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide The quantitative stoichiometric relationships governing mass and amount will be studied using the combustion reaction of magnesium metal. Magnesium

More information

Nitrogen, Simplified TKN (s-tkn ) DOC

Nitrogen, Simplified TKN (s-tkn ) DOC Nitrogen, Simplified Total Kjeldahl, TNTplus 880, 10242 DOC316.53.01258 s-tkn Method Method 10242 0 to 16 mg/l TKN TNTplus 880 Scope and Application: For water and wastewater. Digestion is required. Test

More information

The Crystal Forest Favorite Holiday Demonstrations

The Crystal Forest Favorite Holiday Demonstrations The Crystal Forest Favorite Holiday Demonstrations SCIENTIFIC Introduction Put a new twist on crystal growing. In this class participation demonstration, students cut out and assemble miniature trees and

More information

Chapter 5. Oxidation Reduction Chemistry

Chapter 5. Oxidation Reduction Chemistry Chapter 5. Oxidation and Reduction Redox Terminology Oxidation Number Rules Determination of Oxidation Numbers from Electronegativities The Difference Between Oxidation Number and Formal Charge Periodic

More information

TITANIUM DIOXIDE. SYNONYMS Titania; CI Pigment white 6; CI (1975) No ; INS No. 171 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL USES CHARACTERISTICS

TITANIUM DIOXIDE. SYNONYMS Titania; CI Pigment white 6; CI (1975) No ; INS No. 171 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL USES CHARACTERISTICS TITANIUM DIOXIDE Prepared at the 71 st JECFA (2009) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 7 (2009), superseding specifications prepared at the 67 th JECFA (2006) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 3

More information

Lab #3: Law of Definite Proportions

Lab #3: Law of Definite Proportions Name Lab #3: Law of Definite Proportions Sept. 21, 2016 Purpose To find the percent composition and therefore definite ratio of the elements in magnesium oxide. Background When magnesium and oxygen are

More information

3. Add 0.4 ml of. 7. Use a TenSette

3. Add 0.4 ml of. 7. Use a TenSette Method 10129 ORGANIC CARBON, TOTAL, Low Range (0.0 20.0 mg/l C) Direct Method * For water, drinking water, and wastewater HRS MIN SEC 1. Turn on the DRB 200 reactor. Heat to 103-105 C. Note: See DRB 200

More information

(3) The compound boron nitride (BN) has a high melting point (2967 ºC), high density, and is very hard. What is the best classification of this solid?

(3) The compound boron nitride (BN) has a high melting point (2967 ºC), high density, and is very hard. What is the best classification of this solid? Solids and Liquids Name: Period: (1) Identify the type of solid formed by each compound. (a) Ag (b) CO 2 (c) SiO 2 (d) wax (e) MgCl 2 (f) Fe (g) graphite (h) SO 2 (i) CaCO 3 (j) I 2 (k) rubber (l) SiC

More information

Application Notes for COD Analysis DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) IN WATER AND WASTE WATER.

Application Notes for COD Analysis DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) IN WATER AND WASTE WATER. DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) IN WATER AND WASTE WATER. INTRODUCTION The chemical oxygen demand can be considered as an approximate measurement of the theoretical oxygen consumption, i.e.,

More information

Oxygen Demand, Chemical

Oxygen Demand, Chemical , TNTplus 820, 10211 DOC316.53.01103 USEPA Reactor Digestion Method Method 10211 ULR (1 60 mg/l COD) TNTplus 820 Scope and Application: For wastewater, process water, surface water, and cooling water;

More information

ELECTRONIC GRADE SULFAMATE NICKEL Document ID: EFM1409

ELECTRONIC GRADE SULFAMATE NICKEL Document ID: EFM1409 ELECTRONIC GRADE SULFAMATE NICKEL Document ID: EFM1409 E-Form is an electronic grade nickel sulfamate electroforming concentrate designed and manufactured specifically for use with microlithography. DisChem

More information

Metals. Teacher Notes. Registered Charity Number

Metals. Teacher Notes.  Registered Charity Number Metals Teacher Notes Metals is funded as part of the Reach and Teach educational programme supported by the Wolfson Foundation THE WOLFSON FOUNDATION www.rsc.org Registered Charity Number 207890 Metals

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 18 - The Representative Elements: Groups 1A through 4A

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 18 - The Representative Elements: Groups 1A through 4A AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 18 - The Representative Elements: Groups 1A through 4A 18.1 A Survey of the Representative Elements A. Basic Trends 1. Metals tend to lose electrons and form cations 2. Nonmetals

More information

Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. AM or PM B

Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. AM or PM B Name: (cf. Honesty Declaration Statement on page 20) Laboratory Day (circle) Lab Room Locker Lab. Session (circle) Lab. Section Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. AM or PM B Date experiment is performed MARK:

More information

» Talc is a native, hydrous magnesium silicate, sometimes containing a small proportion of aluminum silicate.

» Talc is a native, hydrous magnesium silicate, sometimes containing a small proportion of aluminum silicate. Change to read: Talc» Talc is a native, hydrous magnesium silicate, sometimes containing a small proportion of aluminum silicate. Packaging and storage Preserve in well closed containers. Identification

More information

Measuring Manganese Concentration Using Spectrophotometry

Measuring Manganese Concentration Using Spectrophotometry Measuring Manganese Concentration Using Spectrophotometry Objectives To use spectroscopy to determine the amount of Manganese is an unknown sample. Scenario Your have just joined a "Green Team" at the

More information

Stoichiometric Calculations 1. The weight of calcium carbonate required to produce carbon-dioxide that is sufficient for conversion of one 0.1 mole sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate is 1) 1gm 2) 10gm

More information

to the presentation Teaching Thermodynamics: Chemical Potential from the Beginning Regina Rüffler, Georg Job

to the presentation Teaching Thermodynamics: Chemical Potential from the Beginning  Regina Rüffler, Georg Job to the presentation Teaching Thermodynamics: Chemical Potential from the Beginning Regina Rüffler, Georg Job Thermo International 2006 Boulder, August 3, 2006 FOUNDATION Further informations on the homepage:

More information

EDICT ± OF GOVERNMENT

EDICT ± OF GOVERNMENT EDICT ± OF GOVERNMENT Inordertopromotepubliceducationandpublicsafety,equal justiceforal,abeterinformedcitizenry,theruleoflaw,world tradeandworldpeace,thislegaldocumentisherebymade availableonanoncommercialbasis,asitistherightofal

More information

Properties A Metal B Non- metal Electronic configuration?? Nature of oxides?? Oxidizing or reducing action?? Conduction of heat and electricity??

Properties A Metal B Non- metal Electronic configuration?? Nature of oxides?? Oxidizing or reducing action?? Conduction of heat and electricity?? CLASS: X NCERT (CBSE) SCIENCE: Chemistry Page: 1 Question 1: Compare the properties of a typical metal and a non-metal on the basis of the following. Fill in Column A, B. Properties A Metal B Non- metal

More information

ELECTROCHEMISTRY: ELECTROPLATING

ELECTROCHEMISTRY: ELECTROPLATING ELECTROCHEMISTRY: ELECTROPLATING Hello, I m Hafizah, a chemistry teacher from Muar Science School in Malaysia. We are going to discuss about an interesting chemistry topic related to electroplating but

More information

Salinity in Seawater

Salinity in Seawater Salinity in Seawater Objective To familiarize students with the different methods used for measuring salinity of water. Introduction: Salinity exerts profound impacts on the marine environment. It controls

More information

Method 6.1 Boiling house products: Brix, pol and purity

Method 6.1 Boiling house products: Brix, pol and purity Section 6: Boiling house products p 1/6 Method 6.1 Boiling house products: Brix, pol and purity 1. Rationale This method is applicable to A-, B- and C- (or final) molasses, A-, B- and C-nutsch, A-, B-

More information

Luster-On Products. Technical Data Sheet LUSTER-FOS 2900 CALCIUM MODIFIED, FINE GRAINED ZINC PHOSPHATE

Luster-On Products. Technical Data Sheet LUSTER-FOS 2900 CALCIUM MODIFIED, FINE GRAINED ZINC PHOSPHATE Luster-On Products I. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Technical Data Sheet LUSTER-FOS 2900 CALCIUM MODIFIED, FINE GRAINED ZINC PHOSPHATE Luster-Fos 2900 is a calcium modified, liquid zinc phosphate material primarily

More information

Material Safety Data Sheet Product name : Cu-based silver plated leadframe Date prepared : Feb 7 th, 2006 Rev04 1. Product and Company Identification

Material Safety Data Sheet Product name : Cu-based silver plated leadframe Date prepared : Feb 7 th, 2006 Rev04 1. Product and Company Identification 1. Product and Company Identification Product name Chemical family Manufacturer Emergency assistance Cu-based selective silver plated leadframe Metal leadframe Dong Guan Chang An QPL Electronics Factory

More information

Pre- Lab Questions: Synthesis and Crystallization of Alum

Pre- Lab Questions: Synthesis and Crystallization of Alum Name Date Grade Pre- Lab Questions: Synthesis and Crystallization of Alum MUST be completed before an experiment is started. Show all work and be sure to include units. Q1. Based on the general chemical

More information

Nickel Electroplating

Nickel Electroplating Nickel Electroplating In a galvanic or voltaic electrochemical cell, the spontaneous reaction occurs and electrons flow from the anode (oxidation) to the cathode (reduction). In an electrolytic cell, a

More information

2. Crystallization. A. Background

2. Crystallization. A. Background 2. Crystallization A. Background Crystallization is one of several available techniques available to purify organic compounds. Unlike other techniques, however, crystallization is specific to the purification

More information

Unit 1 The Solid State

Unit 1 The Solid State Points to Remember Amorphous and Crystalline Solids Unit 1 The Solid State Amorphous- short range order, Irregular shape eg-glass Crystalline Solids- long range order, regular shape eg : NaCl Molecular

More information