Lab #2 Wafer Cleaning (RCA cleaning)

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1 Lab #2 Wafer Cleaning (RCA cleaning) RCA Cleaning System Used: Wet Bench 1, Bay1, Nanofabrication Center Chemicals Used: H 2 O : NH 4 OH : H 2 O 2 (5 : 1 : 1) H 2 O : HF (10 : 1) H 2 O : HCl : H 2 O 2 (6 : 1: 1) 60 minutes Procedure: Step 1: Removal of residual organic contaminants H 2 O : NH 4 OH : H 2 O 2 (5 : 1 : 1) (3200 ml : 640 ml : 640 ml for 100 mm wafer boats) * 1. A fresh mixture of H 2 O : NH 4 OH : H 2 O 2 (5 : 1 : 1) heated to 80 C 2. Submerge wafers secured in their holders into the heated solution for 15 minutes 3. Rinse the wafers and their holders in D.I. water for 3 cycles 4. Proceed to step 2 or 3 without drying the wafers Step 2: Removal of hydrous oxide formed during step 1 H 2 O : HF (10 : 1) (5500 ml : 550 ml for 100 mm wafer boats) * 1. Submerge the wafers secured in their holders into a solution of H 2 O : HF (10 : 1) for 15 seconds directly from the rinse tank of step 1 2. Rinse the wafers for 3 cycles 3. Transfer the wafers in their holder without drying into solution in step 3 Step 3: Desorption of remaining atomic and ionic contaminants H 2 O : HCl : H 2 O 2 (6 : 1: 1) (3360 ml : 560 ml : 560 ml for 100 mm wafer boats) * 1. A fresh mixture of H 2 O : HCl : H 2 O 2 (6 : 1: 1) heated to 80 C 2. The still wet wafers from step 2 (or step 1 if step 2 was not necessary) should be submerged into the solution for 15 minutes 3. Rinse the wafers and their holders in D.I. water for 3 cycles 4. Spin-dry the wafers for 180 seconds

2 Lab #3 Photolithography Lithography Equipments Used: Karl Suss Mask Aligner (MA6), spinner, hot plate, timer, tweezers, clean room wipes, Wet Bench 4, silicon wafers, Bay2,NFC Chemicals Used: Photoresist: Microposit 1805, 1813, 1045, 1075, Developers: Shipley 351, Shipley 351 Concentrate Strippers: Acetone, PRS1000 Adhesion Promoters: HMDS 90 minutes Procedures: 1. Pre Bake: Prior to coating substrates with photoresist, they should be clean and particle free. The pre-bake may be done in the 150 C bake oven for minutes by placing the parts on aluminum foil or in the designated quartz boats. Another option is to place the substrate on the 115 C hot plate for 30 seconds to 1 minute. This process drives off water vapor and this will promote adhesion of the photoresist to the substrate. 2. Adhesion Promotion: Optional: Place the substrates in the HMDS fume tank for 3-5 minutes to promote adhesion of photoresist to the substrate. HMDS may also be spun on. rpm for 30 secs) 3. Determining Which Photoresist To Apply: Selecting photoresists depend on the thickness needed. A spin curve is posted on Wet Bench 4 to assist you if using the 1800 or 1000 series of Shipley Photoresist. 4. Choose The Appropriate Spinner: Brewer CEE Spinner CEE Spinner: positive photoresist, whole wafers only

3 5. Soft Bake: The soft bake may be done in the bake oven at 105 C for minutes by placing the parts on an aluminum foil or in a designated quartz boat. Another option is to place the substrate on the 105 C hotplate for 30 seconds to 1 minute. This process eliminates the solvents from the photoresist, improves adhesion and cures the photoresist to prevent the substrates from sticking to the mask plate during the contact exposure. Under baking the photoresist will prevent UV light from completely reaching the substrate, therefore underexposing. Over baking will degrade the photosensitivity of the photoresist which could cause overexposing the pattern. The photoresist will be exposed in white light. Keep the wafers coated with photoresists in bay 2, or in an UV-protected box. 6. UV Exposure: The MA6 is a contact aligner using 5-inch masks for exposing 4-inch wafers or wafer pieces. a. Mask loading b. Selecting and editing a program c. Loading a wafer d. Align wafer e. UV exposure f. Unloading the wafer after exposure g. Unloading mask 7. Developing: In Wet Bench 4 there is tub with developer 351 : H 2 O (1:5). You may use or mix your own developer in a labeled beaker. Pour individual beakers in a waste container after you implement your experiments. Development time will vary depending on the photoresist thickness and the exposure time. Rinse in D.I. water for 5 10 minutes. 8. Hard Bake: The hard bake may be done in the bake oven at 120 C for minutes by placing the wafers on an aluminum foil or in designated quartz boats. Another option is to place the substrate on the 120 C hotplate for 60 seconds. This process helps to evaporate any additional moisture and solvents, and will harden the photoresist prior to wet or dry etching.

4 HF Etching (SiO 2 ) Lab #4 HF Etching (SiO 2 ) Equipments Used: Chemicals Used: Wet Bench 2, Bay 1, Nanofabrication Center 10:1 BOE (Buffered Oxide Etch) 60 minutes Precautions: 1. The following MUST BE WORN when handling chemicals Wear safety glasses with a face shield, NO CONTACT LENSES Wear long pants Wear leather shoes, NO SANDALS Wear chemical apron Wear chemical (orange) gloves 2. There are showers and eyewashes located in each bay 3. There are red metal SOLVENT ONLY waste containers in each bay 4. Prior to discarding ACID waste wipes, wet them in a sink 5. ACID AID for HF burn is located in the ACID Cabinet in BAY 1 6. Keep the bench doors closed for proper ventilation 7. Store chemicals being used in compatible containers 8. DO NOT tighten the waste chemical bottle covers HF Etching Procedure: HF is used to etch silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) on silicon (Si) wafers. The HF will etch the SiO 2 without attacking the Si surface. SiO 2 films include oxides which are thermally grown in diffusion tubes; oxides which are chemically deposited (CVD, Chemical Vapor Deposition); and native oxides which grow naturally on the bare Si surface after a short period of time. HF is typically diluted with DI water in order to slow down the etch rate of SiO 2, thereby ensuring better etch uniformity. Typical dilution ratios range from 1:1 H 2 O : HF to 100:1 H 2 O : HF. For better control of the etch procedure, the HF may be diluted with ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F) to promote more uniform liquid coverage on the Si surface, and it is called Buffered Oxide Etch (BOE). The etch rate of 6:1 BOE solution on SiO 2 is about 1000 Å/min. NFC provides 10:1 BOE solution, the etch rate is approximately 513 Å/min. To remove a 2µm thick SiO 2 layer, the etch time is about 39 minutes. Use plastic containers, beakers, and tweezers to handle BOE solution and silicon wafers. DO NOT use glass containers and beakers.

5 Flushing Procedure: 10: 1 BOE solution can be flushed down the drain in wet bench 2, Bay Safety: Put on chemical apron, chemical gloves, and a face shield. 2. Safety: Verify the temperature of the acid is less than 30 C. 3. Remove all beakers, watch glasses, cassettes, and wafer holders from the sink. 4. Turn the water faucet on in the wet bench. 5. SLOWLY pour the acid into the sink. 6. Keep water flowing for an additional 3-5 minutes. 7. Rinse container 3 times. Fill the container to the top with water and dump 3 times. 8. Return container to the storage shelf.

6 Lab #5 KOH Etching (Si) Equipments Used: Chemicals Used: KOH Etching (Si) KOH Etching Wet Bench, Bay 4, Nanofabrication Center 30% KOH (potassium hydroxide) 80 minutes Material Properties: Heated KOH has been widely used for bulk micromachining of silicon. The etch rate depends on the doping and crystal orientation of the silicon and the KOH solution used, but is typically on the order of one micron per minute for (100) silicon wafers. Potassium (K+) is an extremely fast-diffusing alkali metal ion, and can affect the device performance (especially MOS devices). Lab users using KOH must take proper procedures to avoid contaminating any metal-ion sensitive processes and equipment elsewhere in the lab. KOH solutions are caustic. The primary hazard classifications for KOH solutions are: corrosive, air/water reactive. KOH Etching Wet Bench: The KOH etching wet bench is in Bay 4, NFC. Two gallons of KOH solution will be needed for a 100 mm wafer boat. One thermometer is submerged in the KOH solution. The KOH solution can be heated using the heater. To obtain a uniform temperature distribution, the solution will be stirred by high pressure air from the bottom of the KOH solution tank. KOH Etching Procedure: 1. Press PWR button on the wet bench control panel, turn on the system; 2. Press HTR ON/OFF button to start heating the KOH solution; 3. Press SETUP button for several times. When P5 shows on the LED, adjust the temperature to 80 C using arrow buttons; 4. Press RETURN button, the new setup will not be saved; or press SAVE button, the new setup will be saved; 5. Wait until the temperature heated to 80 C (etch rate on silicon (100) waferse at 80 C: 80 µm/hour); 6. Put the silicon wafers on the wafer boat (with both brown dot and yellow dot); merge the boat in the KOH solution. The boats with brown dots are for KOH etching, the boats with yellow dots can be used in Bay 4; 7. Etch the silicon wafers for 50 minutes; 8. Clean the silicon wafers.

7 Lab #6 Inspection (Microscope and Surface Profiler) Equipments Used: Inspection (Microscope and Surface Profiler) Optical Microscope, Bay 3, NFC Surface Profiler P16, Bay 1, NFC 60 minutes Equipments: Optical microscope is a measurement instrument that can create an enlarged view of an object so that we can observe details not possible with our human eyes. Surface Profiler is a measuring instrument that probes the surface topology of the sample by sweeping stylus. The vertical movement of the stylus is recorded when it runs over the sample surface. This gives the height of the surface as a function of location. There are two surface profilers in Bay 1 and 3, NFC: P-16 Surface Profiler and Dektak IIA, repectively. We will use P-16, which is computer controlled, so that we can manipulate the data easily. Technical Specifications (P-16 Surface Profiler): Stylus: 12.5 µm radius (Diamond) Scan Range: x: 50 µm 50 mm z: 100 Å 131 µm Vertical Resolution: 1 Å / 65 kå 10 Å / 655 kå 20 Å / 1310 kå Force: 1 40 mg Zoom: Scan Speed Ranges: Low, Med, High Maximum Sample Thickness: 45 mm Sample Stage Diameter: 165 mm

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