Small-Scale Resistance Welding for Medical and Industrial Applications

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1 Small-Scale Resistance Welding for Medical and Industrial Applications Girish P. Kelkar, Ph.D. (author of The Weld Nugget ) Excellence In Material Joining

2 Difference Between Small and Large Scale Small-Scale size, power, equipment Materials Types of Bonds Weld Configurations Process Control

3 Small-Scale Physical Size: < diameter, <0.005 thick Current: <5 ka Force: <30 lbs Time: <100 msec Often need microscope for welding Smallest Weld (20 micron) thermocouple cross-wire weld 20 amps, 0.5 lbs, and 1.5 msec

4 Small-Scale Power supply is often a single unit that includes controller and transformer and built-in weld monitors HF: High Frequency (1-25 khz) DC: Direct Current CD: Capacitor Discharge AC: Alternating Current

5 Materials Conductive alloys: Cu, Au, Pt, Ag Structural alloys: Steel, SS, Ni, Ti Refractory alloys: Mo, W, Ta Welding of dissimilar material combinations Molybdenum to Aluminum Tungsten to Iron Copper to Stainless Steel

6 Types of Bonds Fusion weld is not common in small-scale resistance welding: Fusion welds (10%) Solid-State Welds (60%) Solder (10%) Braze (20%) Include in-situ braze: one of the parts itself acts like a braze alloy

7 Braze (foil) Braze Wire Tube BAg-1 braze foil Copper plated SS wire to SS shell

8 Braze (in-situ) Steel foils sandwiching a Mo wire

9 Solid-State Bond Commutator welds common in motor industry

10 Solid-State Bond Electrodes Shoes Fusing stranded wire before welding

11 Weld Configuration Parallel gap weld and step welds are common since access for opposed welding is not often available

12 Weld Configuration Single Weld designs are common Each weld has to be good since supporting welds are often not possible Need good process control and monitoring

13 Process Control Voltage, Current, and Power Pulsed Welding Resistance Conditioning Combo Mode

14 Voltage Control Inconsistent Overlap Weld will draw current based on amount of overlap Reduced overlap or less number of coils will result in reduced current

15 Power Control Consolidated Wire Bundle High R Low I and High V Low R High I and Low V Power control generates fixed amount of heat Works well for parts with multiple orientations

16 Pulsation Contact Resistance Resistance Contact Resistance Weld Energy Bulk Resistance Resistance Bulk Resistance Weld Impulses Time Time Pulsation allows the user to increase the proportion of heat generated at the interfaces

17 Pulsation Single Pulse Multiple (4) Pulse Welding of Nickel Wire in single and multiple (4) pulses Single impulse exhibits excessive material squeezed out Multiple impulse weld produced considerably less material squeeze out

18 Resistance Conditioning Voltage or Power Mode Current Cut-Off First Pulse Second Pulse Variable first pulse (time) to control resistance Second pulse to provide weld energy Good for parts with inconsistent cross section or variable oxide thickness

19 Combo Mode Voltage or Power Mode Current Mode Initial part in voltage mode (to avoid blowouts) Second part in current or power mode for welding

20 Summary Small-Scale welding applications are unique in terms of size, application, type of bond, and process control needs Key is to understand bond formation and design process accordingly Process control is important for robust welding and consistent quality

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