Anticorrosive Coatings

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1 Anticorrosive Coatings Joerg Sander 1 Introduction 1.1 Why corrosion-protective coatings 1.2 Literature 2 Corrosion protection coatings 2.1 Principles of function Electrochemistry of corrosion inhibition Metal oxide formation Cathodic protection Passivation and conversion coating 2.2 Design of organic coating systems Diffusion barrier features humidity uptake and electrolyte permeation Active pigments 2.3 Function of individual coating layers 2.4 Literature 3 Surface preparation 3.1 Industrial cleaning Importance of cleaning process Contaminants Surface energy and tension 3.2 Mechanical cleaning 3.3 Chemical cleaning Plasma and corona processes Solvent cleaning Chemistry of aqueous cleaners Mechanism: alkalinity, saponification and metal dissolution Ingredients of aqueous cleaners General considerations Surfactants Physics of aqueous cleaning, bath life and rinsing 3.4 Literature 4 Organic coating materials 4.1 Ingredients of organic coating materials 4.2 Resins Alkyd resins Alkyd resins manufacturing process Decay of alkyd resins Composition of alkyd resins Curing of alkyd resins Chlorinated rubber Polyvinyl chloride Epoxy resins Raw materials for epoxy resins Manufacturing process for epoxy resins Cross-linking of the epoxy resins Epoxy esters Acrylic resins

2 Manufacturing of acrylic resins Thermoplastic and thermosetting acrylic resins Polyurethanes Reactivity of isocyanate group Waterborne polyurethanes Isocyanate free polyurethanes Polyaspartics Polyurea systems Polyaspartic systems Nomenclature of the silicon chemistry Manufacturing of alkyl silicates Reactions of alkyl silicates Polysiloxanes Reactions of siloxanes Manufacturing of siloxanes 4.3 Pigments Introduction Corrosion protection pigments Lead and chromate pigments Lead pigments Chromate pigments Phosphate based pigments Zinc phosphate Modified orthophosphates Modified polyphosphates Inorganic/organic synergies Wide spectrum anticorrosives Phosphites and phosphides Zinc hydroxyphosphite Iron phosphide Borates Barium metaborate Zinc borate Calcium borosilicate Molybdates Ion-exchange pigments Zinc cyanamide Hybrid anticorrosive inhibitors Barrier pigments Micaceous iron oxide Aluminium flakes Zinc flakes Sacrificial pigments Zinc dust Magnesium Colouring agent White pigment, titanium dioxide Red pigments Yellow pigments Green pigments Blue pigments Black pigments 4.4 Extender pigments Carbonates Sulphates

3 4.4.3 Silicas Silicates Talc Kaolin Wollastonite Mica 4.5 Other additives 4.6 Solvents 4.7 Raw materials for powder coatings 4.8 Literature 5 Film formation 5.1 Physical drying 5.2 Chemical curing Thermal cross-linking: chemistry, mechanism, imparted properties Radiation curing Chemical principles and intrinsic properties Applications Equipment 5.3 Literature 6 Mechanism of protection and properties of organic coatings 6.1 Measurement of physical properties and influence 6.2 Dry film thickness 6.3 Adhesiveness Role of adhesion and factors of influence Measurement of adhesion and elasticity Industrial methods Laboratory methods 6.4 Permeation through organic coatings 6.5 Corrosion protective performance Titanium and zirconium fluoro complex based pretreatments Weldable corrosion protection primer for automotive sheet Thermally curing 2-in-1 primer-pretreatment Chromous based pretreatments chromiting Active pigments, ion exchangers and scavengers UV-curable primer-pretreatment 6.6 Degradation and ageing Weathering Electrochemical degradation Cathodic disbonding: oxygen reduction Anodic disbonding: filiform corrosion 6.7 Literature 7 Testing of organic coatings 7.1 Performance testing 7.2 Accelerated corrosion tests Overview Constant climate tests Salt spray Constant climate, humidity Filiform corrosion Condensation Boiling, water soak

4 7.2.3 Cyclic climate tests Cyclic humidity Prohesion VDA test UV test, weathering 7.3 Electrochemical testing General remarks Electrochemical potential Standard potential Cyclovoltammetry Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Electrochemical techniques with high spatial resolution Scanning vibrating electrode Height-regulated Scanning Kelvin Probe General technique Blister test 7.4 Outdoor exposure tests 7.5 Literature 8 Chemical conversion treatment 8.1 Substrates 8.2 Chemicals for pretreatment General remarks Alkaline passivation Phosphating Iron phosphating Zinc phosphating Chromating Anodising of aluminium Chromiting Chromium-free pretreatment Titanium and zirconium fluoro-complex technology Other chromium-free pretreatments Hybrid pretreatment coatings Silane/siloxane coatings Combined thermal processes for primer-pretreatment Surface preparation of other substrates copper alloys, white metal, magnesium, stainless steel Environmental considerations 8.3 Application of pretreatments Immersion and Spray Treatment Pretreatment application for coil: spray/squeeze, spray-cell, roll-coating 8.4 Literat 9 Organic coatings for maintenance 9.1 Surface tolerant coatings General considerations Surface tolerant coating materials 9.2 Organic coatings on residual rust and old coatings 9.3 Literature 10 New corrosion protection concepts 10.1 Thin films

5 Self-assembling monolayers Conducting polymers Biopolymers 10.2 Nanomaterials Nanocomposites Sol-gel derived ceramic and hybrid coatings 10.3 Self-healing coatings Self-repairing polymer films Inhibitor release 10.4 Conclusions 10.5 Literature 11 Standards and guidelines 11.1 General information 11.2 General norms Norms on mechanical testing of organically coated metallic work pieces Norms on corrosion testing of organically coated metallic work pieces 11.3 Selected European legislation on environmental protection 11.4 Literature Authors Index

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