2 A l u m i n i u m Industry And Types Of Equipment The cycle of aluminium metal processing is complex and made by various types of furnaces which melt, treat, refine, remelt and reprocess aluminium products, semi-finished products and scrap in many steps. The primary aluminium production industry extracts metallic aluminium from minerals. Afterwards aluminium is reprocessed by different factories, which use several type of furnaces for the production of aluminium products or semi-finished products. It is in these remelting stages that modern refractory products are mainly used, while the primary aluminium production relies on refractory bricks. Seven Refractories can offer solutions for the entire aluminium industry. Products for primary aluminium are mainly shaped products such as fireclay bricks, insulating bricks and alumina bricks, which can be supplied by Seven Refractories in case of need, but are not mentioned in this brochure, which focuses on monolithic products. Segment Description Products Type of furnace Primary Aluminium Reduction of Al ² O ³ to metallic aluminium by consuming baked carbon anodes and electricity Liquid aluminium Cell pot; Anode baking furnace; Transfer ladles Casthouse Alloys Casthouse Recycling Foundry Casting of the molten primary aluminium in semi-finished products Alloying, refining, transformation in alloy semi finished products or finished products Remelting of aluminium scrap into semi-finished products Melting of aluminium semi finished products and casting into finished products Ingots, bars, slabs, shapes Cast, extruded or rolles ingots, bars, slabs, shapes Ingots, bars, slabs, shapes Castings Reverb. holding furnace; Electrical heating holding furnace; Road transfer ladle; Dross rotary furnace Melting/holding furnace; Electrical heating holding furnace; Shaft furnace; Road transfer ladle; Dross rotary furnace Melting/holding furnace; Shaft furnace; Coreless induction furnace; Dross rotary furnace Coreless induction furnace; Channel furnace; Low pressure casting furnace Types of production methods in the aluminium industry
3 R e f r a c t o r i e s for Aluminium Aluminium has a strong affinity for oxygen, which leads to different mechanisms of oxidation of molten aluminium alloys. The bath surface passivation stops the process at the interface with the furnace atmosphere, but the reaction can proceed at the surface of refractory or in its burden layers. This results in the development of corundum, which can be prevented by the targeted usage of modern refractories. There are two areas where corundum may form:. At the bath surface because of direct oxidation: Al (melt) + O Al O. In the refractory starting from the liquid contact surface (under the bath level), because of the higher affinity to oxygen of metallic aluminium diffused from the bath into refractory according to the reaction: Al (diff) + SiO Al O + Si The mechanisms can interact and catalyse each other. Atmosphere with O ² O ² Metal Aluminium/Aluminium Alloy Metal Aluminium/Aluminium Alloy Al ² O ³ /Al O ² Al Refractory lining Al O stable SiO attacked by Al Corundum formation occurs at the intersection of refractory lining.it consists of a composite rich in aluminium/aluminium oxide, which grows by oxido-reduction.
4 Several factors can affect the two mechanisms mentioned above, some belong to the operative conditions and the type of alloy, and some are related to the refractory:. Operative conditions that can affect the corundum formation: Alloying elements (especially magnesium, but also silicon, alkali etc. ) can lead to the de-passivation (sometimes catastrophic) of the liquid bath surface Fluxes, mainly salts, can influence the kinetic of oxidation and slow down the conversion of metallic aluminium to Al O (corundum), but they can also attack the refractory Temperature; especially above the bath, it can reach to much higher level than the melting point in case of quick melting operations Furnace type, as presented in the following chapters. Refractory elements that can affect the corundum formation: Type of aggregate Type of installation Matrix of refractory (very important). There are some ways in how refractories can be modified to withstand aluminium attack as explained above, mainly they are based on: Reduction of chemical components with affinity to oxygen lower than aluminium Reduction of porosity (see picture below) Reduction of the wettability of molten aluminium on the refractory surface Combination of the items above Penetration of aluminium and effect of the diameter of pores. (from Refractory Application and News Vol. n., pg. )
5 Seven Refractories product range contains the right blend of additives to ensure the mechanisms discussed above are working correctly. Seven Refractories can support aluminium plants and furnace makers with the choice of the right products, with precise instructions how to realize linings and to reduce the corundum formation or other problematic issues. Other typical issues for refractories applied in aluminium furnaces are: Mechanical issues: related to the furnace loading and the removal of slag Thermal shocks: especially in areas near burners and above the bath end in case of quick heating and cooling Design: proper design will ensure that linings are sound, not penetrated by metallic liquid and that the metallic shell is not overheated. Seven Refractories offers its clients the technical consulting and project management expertise to avoid design problems.
6 . Round top charge melting and holding furnace Traditional large round top charge furnaces, typically built in big sizes, are widely used in large casthouses and applied for all types of alloy. Advanced refractories can support the production process by maintaining controlled temperatures within the furnace and by reducing the heat losses. This type of furnace was originally developed with a full brick lining; modern refractory technologies have shown the benefits of monolithic linings for this equipment. Hearth construction 0 Cross-section of a charge round top melting furnace 0 Color Zones Material type Attention to Burner low cement, no cement castable, plastic, gunning mix thermal shock, temperature Inlet regular, low cement castable strength, abrasion, resistance against Al Spout working lining regular, low cement castable strength, abrasion, resistance against Al Roof working lining low cement castable, gunning mix thermal shock Roof insulation LW insulating castable thermal conductivity, density Upper wall working lining low cement castable, plastic, gunning mix thermal shock Upper wall safety/insulation lining LW, MW insulating castable thermal conductivity, strength Lower wall working lining low cement castable, plastic resistance against Al, strength, abrasion Lower wall safety/insulation lining low cement castable, MW castable thermal conductivity, resistance against Al Bath working lining low cement castable resistance against Al, strength Bath safety/insulation lining low cement castable, MW castable thermal conductivity, strength Door working lining regular, low cement castable density, strength, resistance against Al Door safety/insulation lining LW insulating castable, insulating boards density, thermal coductivity Insulation second layer insulating boards thermal conductivity See used Seven products for this furnace in the combined table after chapter Tilting furnace.
7 . Tilting furnace Mostly built for holding purposes this type of furnace is a buffer between the melting furnace and the casting line, it is able to consistently deliver molten metal to the caster. The size can range from few to more than 00 t of molten metal, refractories must therefore be versatile and match the engineering requirements. Door into a tilting furnace 0 Cross-section of a tilting furnace 0 Color Zones Material type Attention to Roof working lining low cement castable, gunning mix thermal shock Roof insulation LW insulating castable thermal conductivity, density Bath working lining low cement castable resistance against Al, strength Bath safety/insulation lining low cement castable, MW castable thermal conductivity, strength Burner low cement, no cement castable, plastic, gunning mix thermal shock, temperature Chimney MW insulating castable thermal conductivity, density Spout regular, low cement castable strength, abrasion, resistance against Al Lower wall working lining low cement castable, plastic resistance against Al, strength, abrasion Lower wall safety/insulation lining low cement castable, MW castable thermal conductivity, resistance against Al Upper wall working lining low cement castable, plastic, gunning mix thermal shock Upper wall safety/insulation lining LW, MW insulating castable thermal conductivity, strength Door working ling regular, low cement castable density, strength, resistance against Al Door safety/insulation lining LW insulating castable, insulating boards density, thermal coductivity Insulation second layer insulating boards thermal conductivity See used Seven products >>>
8 Seven products Seven Cast A 0 RX Seven Cast A 0 RB Seven Cast A 0 NH Seven Cast A NX Seven Cast A RX Seven Cast A RM Seven Cast A 0 RH Seven Cast A 0 NH ZR Seven Cast A RM Seven Gun A RB Seven Gun A RM Seven Cast ND Seven Plast CX - Seven Plast 0 AKX Seven Cast RX Seven Cast 0 NM Seven Gun RM Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Insulating boards (ceramic fiber, calcium silicate) Application areas bath working lining, spout bath working lining, spout, inlet bath working lining bath working lining spout, inlet door working lining, lower wall safety lining, bath safety lining upper wall working lining upper wall working lining roof, door working lining, lower wall safety lining wall, door working lining door working lining burner, Roof, upper wall working lining burner, Roof, upper wall working lining burner, Roof lower wall safety lining roof roof roof insulation roof insulation, upper wall insulation roof insulation, upper wall insulation lower wall safety lining second layer insulation Tilting furnace
9 . Shaft type reverberator furnace Powered by gas reverbatory heating and typically used for quick melting of scrap, this furnace concept maximizes energy efficiency, lowest emission and compact design. Possible refractory issues can be solved by correct material selection and careful installation and dry out. Shaft 0 Cross-section of a shaft type reverberator furnace Color Zones Material type Attention to Roof working lining low cement castable thermal shock Shaft working lining regular and low cement castable thermal shock, strength Roof and shaft insulation LW insulation castable thermal conductivity, density Burner low cement castable, plastic thermal shock Bath working lining low cement castable resistance against Al, strength Bath insulation/safety lining regular, low cement castable, MW castable thermal conductivity, resistance to Al, strength Chute roof low cement castable thermal shock, strength Chute bottom low cement castable resistance against Al, strength, abrasion Main opening lintel regular, low cement castable strength, thermal shock 0 Door working lining regular, low cement castable, MW castable thermal conductivity, density Door insulation/safety lining LW insulating castable, insulating boards density, thermal coductivity Insulation second layer insulating boards thermal conductivity Seven products Seven Cast A 0 RX Seven Cast A 0 RB Seven Cast A 0 NH Seven Cast A NX Seven Cast A RM Seven Cast A 0 RH Seven Cast ND Seven Cast 0 NX Seven Plast 0 AKX Seven Cast 0 NM Seven Gun A RB Seven Gun A RM Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Insulating boards (ceramic fiber, calcium silicate) Application areas bath working lining, main opening lintel, chute bottom bath working lining, chute bottom main opening lintel bath working lining, chute bottom door working lining, bath safety lining chute and roof burner, roof, shaft working lining shaft working lining burner roof, shaft working lining wall, door working lining door working lining roof and shaft insulation roof and shaft insulation door, bath insulation/safety lining second layer insulation
10 . Electrical heating furnace This furnace ensures a highly controlled and continuous heating process. Countries where electrical power is available and cheap still prefer electrical heating supplied by large resistors for the big size melting and holding furnace. Based on the mix of energy sources in the production of electricity, this has the potential for a higher percentage of renewable and environmentally friendly sources of energy. Resistors in the roof of an electrical heating furnace 0 Cross-section of an electrical heating holding furnace Door charging in an electrical heating furnace Color Zones Material type Attention to Roof working lining low cement castable, gunning mix thermal shock Roof insulation LW insulating castable thermal conductivity, density Roof insulation second layer LW insulating castable thermal conductivity, density Bath working lining low cement castable resistance against Al, strength Bath safety lining low cement castable, MW castable thermal conductivity, strength Bath and side wall insulation LW insulating castable thermal conductivity Side wall working lining low cement castable, plastic, gunning mix thermal shock Side wall safety lining regular, low cement castable, MW castable thermal conductivity, strength Door working lining regular, low cement castable, MW insulating castable density, strength, resistance against Al 0 Door insulation/safety lining LW insulating castable, insulating boards density, thermal coductivity Insulation second layer insulating boards thermal conductivity Seven products Seven Cast A 0 RX Seven Cast A 0 RB Seven Cast A NX Seven Cast A RX Seven Cast A RM Seven Cast A 0 RH Seven Cast A RM Seven Cast 0 RM, Seven Cast 0 NM, Seven Gun Seven Cast 00 LW Seven Gun A 0 NM Seven Gun A RM Seven Gun RM Sevenlite 0 LI Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Insulating boards (ceramic fiber, calcium silicate) Application areas bath working lining, spout bottom bath working lining, spout bath working lining spout bath safety lining side wall working lining, spout roof roof, door working lining roof side wall safety lining side wall working lining, spout roof door working lining bath safety lining door working lining roof insulation (first and second layer) bath insulation, side wall insulation side wall safety lining second layer insulation, door insulation 0
11 . Channel induction furnace Powered by one or more inductors this furnace offers compact design and flexibility for melting and especially for holding purposes. From the refractory point of view it combines the typical issues of the metal contact with aluminium, the lining of inductors requires specific skill and proper refractories. 0 Cross-section of a channel induction furnace Color Zones Material type Attention to COIL CORE Inductor working lining dry mix, precast sintering behavior, resistance against Al Inductor safety/insulation regular castable, MW insulating castable density, thermal conductivity Pot working lining low cement castable resistance against Al, strength, thermal shock Pot safety lining regular castable, MW insulating castable resistance against Al, thermal conductivity Pot insulation LW insulating castable thermal conductivity Cover working lining low cement castable density, thermal shock resistance Cover insulation insulating boards thermal conductivity 0 Insulation second layer insulating boards thermal conductivity Seven products Seven Dry CR Seven Cast A 0 RH Seven Cast A NX Seven Cast A 0 RB Seven Cast A CB LCS (K) Seven Cast A RM Seven Cast RBB LW Seven Cast 0 NM Seven Cast ND Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Insulating boards (ceramic fiber, calcium silicate) Application areas inductor inductor pot working lining pot working lining pot working lining, inductor pot safety lining, cover working lining pot safety lining cover working lining cover working lining pot insulation pot insulation pot insulation second layer insulation, cover insulation
12 . Road transfer ladle Aluminium plants commonly rely on road transfer ladles to transport molten aluminium between their production sites. The refractory lining plays a key role in avoiding heat losses and maintaining an optimal heat curve. Cross-section of a road transfer ladle Color Zones Material type Attention to Working lining low cement or self flowing castable anti wetting to Al and strength Insulation layer insulating castable thermal conductivity and strength Insulation layer insulating board thermal conductivity Cover lining low or MW insulating castable thermal conductivity and strength Cover insulation insulating boards thermal conductivity Seven products Seven Cast A 0 RH Seven Cast A 0 RX Seven Flow UX Seven Flow A NX Application areas working lining working lining working lining working lining Sevenlite 00 cover lining, insulating layer Sevenlite 00 cover lining, insulating layer Sevenlite 00 cover lining
13 . Rotary drum furnace Fine aluminium scrap and dross form reverbatory furnaces contain a relevant percentage of metal which can be partially recovered when they are re melted by means of a proper equipment and the right fluxes to prevent the massive oxidation which would result from the big specific surface of these raw lumps. Rotary drums are an interesting refractory application as the chemistry of dross and the additives can attack linings if they are not properly designed. Cross-section of a dross rotary furnace Color Zones Material type Attention to Working lining cylinder low cement castable; dense bricks low porosity, resistance to Al Working lining cones low cement castable; dense bricks low porosity, resistance to Al Rim low cement castable low porosity, resistance to Al Nozzles low cement castable low porosity, resistance to Al Safety lining regular/low cement castable conductivity, strength, resitance to Al Insulation layer insulating castable/board insulation properties Seven products Seven Brick A 0 KM Seven Brick A 0 KX Seven Cast A 0 RX Seven Cast 0 NX Seven Cast A RM Sevenlite 00 Sevenlite 00 Ceramic fibre board; calcium silicate board Application areas working lining working lining working lining, rim working lining, rim safety lining, insulation layer safety lining insulation layer insulation layer
14 R e s e a r c h and susta i n a b l e development Seven Refractories has incorporated environmental concerns about climate change in its innovative approach to the market; not only in making our factory more electrically independent by using renewable energy sources, but in the entire manufacturing process cycle and quality control. Respect of the environment is a core value of Seven Refractories. Selection of the raw materials, dedicated and oriented research, composition architecture and on the field technical experts are the key-points for outstanding efficiency and reliability of the refractory linings, excellent control of the thermal load distribution and low product variability in time. GREEN e n e r g y t e s t i n g p r o d u c t i o n
15 S e r v i c e s provided Preliminary study and investigation for the entire project Design and architecture including bill of materials and thermal calculation Full range of products for lining and maintenance Regular, low, ultra-low and no-cement castable Regular and dense low-cement gunning mix Ramming Shotcreting Self flowing Supply of mixer, gunning machines, pump, etc. Training on mixing, gunning and maintenance techniques Training on equipment usage Supervision and monitoring by experienced technicians Global research & development Technical advice by experts Monitoring and targeting of results Slovenia Seven Refractories d.o.o. Poslovna cona Risnik 0, Divača Tel. + 0 Ukraine Seven Refractories Ukraine LLC -B, st. Rosa Luxemburg 00 Donetsk, Donetsk Region Tel Russia Seven Refractories LLC Liteyny prospekt,, liter A, premise, office 0 Saint-Petersburg Tel. + () Germany Seven Refractories Deutschland GmbH Becherstraße 0 0 Düsseldorf Tel. + 0 Kazakhstan Seven Refractories Asia b Mukanov str., office Karaganda Tel Austria Seven Refractories GesmbH Landstraßer Hauptstraße / 00 Wien Tel Italy Seven Refractories Srl Via Carlo Mussa 0 Castellazzo Bormida Tel ISO 00 ISO
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