From Vacuum to Atmosphere and back an in-house Process Chain for Different Products

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1 From Vacuum to Atmosphere and back an in-house Process Chain for Different Products Dr. Steffen Günther

2 Vacuum coating low pressure Pa ( mbar) unhindered particle movement no unintended chemical reaction winding system with substrate vacuum pumps and chambers necessary chilling drum winding chamber process chamber vacuum pump coating system 2

3 Vacuum coating - Evaporation boat evaporation electron beam evaporation low-melting metals (Al, Ag, Cu) refractory materials (Ti, W, TiO 2, SiO 2 ) evaporation point sources 3 10 % layer homogeneity nm m/min dynamic coating rate 3

4 Vacuum coating Sputtering Sputtering metals and ceramics (non-rf sputtering needs conductivity) sputtering line sources 1 5 % layer homogeneity nm m/min dynamic coating rate 4

5 Vacuum coating PECVD arcpecvd magpecvd HMDSO, SiH4, TEOS, TiCl 4, TTIP plasma point sources plasma line source ~ 10 % layer homogeneity ~ 3 % layer homogeneity nm m/min nm m/min 5

6 Wet coating working at atmospheric pressure no vacuum pumps, no vacuum chamber Is it cheaper? two-stage process 1. Coating 2. Curing 6

7 Unmetered coatings Coated substrate Impression roll Gravure cylinder Doctor blade Uncoated substrate Ink reservoir Example: Reverse gravure coating coating thickness depends on process and rheological parameters very homogeneous layers possible 7

8 Metered coatings Ink reservoir Flowmeter Pump Filter Slot die coating thickness depends only on process parameters (web speed, flow rate) very homogeneous layers possible, independent from rheological changes 8

9 Thermal curing hot air, IR solvents evaporate wet layer with solvents substrate cured layer substrate solvents determine viscosity and processibility evaporation of solvents time and energy consuming wet coating thickness >> dry coating thickness very thin coating possible 9

10 Radiational curing UV, electron radiation wet layer with reactive diluents cured layer substrate substrate function of solvents is adopted by reactive diluents reactive diluents are incorporated into layers wet coating thickness dry coating thickness very thin coatings challenging 10

11 Electron beam curing wet lacquer Technical benefits: high curing level no photo initiators needed pigments do not affect curing behavior low temperature process Cost benefits: long-lasting equipment low cost of ownership high productivity cured lacquer on polymer substrate linear electron beam unit 11

12 High permeation barrier layer stacks encapsulation of electronics, PV-modules, displays etc. against water vapor common approach: multi-layer stacks interlayers neutralize defects interrupt permeation paths Defect neutralized PVD Wet chemical coating 500 nm PVD Layer defect WCC wet chemical coating ZTO zinc-tin-oxide 12

13 High permeation barrier layer stacks Product: x new LG bendable OLED 77 display (1,70 x 0,96 m 2 ) m 2 (incl. coating offcuts) Process parameters: 80 nm m/min by reactive 5 coating units 50 m/min by slot-die coating and electron beam curing m running length per roll, 1100 mm wide Labor costs: 3-shift 5 days/week 1,3 workers 35 /h Capital costs: Vacuum coater (6 coating units) 5 Mio. Coating machine (slot-die, e-beam) 2,25 Mio. depreciation over 5 years plus 5 % interest/year 13

14 High permeation barrier layer stacks Overall costs: 3,89 /m 2 without substrate Cost distribution Cost distribution 13% 10% 19% 9% 45% 7% 48% 49% material labor capital running yield 1st ZTO WCC 2nd ZTO 14

15 Anti-counterfeit layer systems viewing angle 0 90 WCC wet chemical coating 15

16 Anti-counterfeit layer systems Product: 2 billions of Euro banknotes renewed per year 1 with OVD size 20 x 20 mm m 2 Process parameters: 120 nm m/min by 5 coating units 100 m/min by slot-die coating and electron beam curing m running length per roll, 1250 mm wide Labor costs: 3-shift 5 days/week 1,3 workers 35 /h Capital costs: Vacuum coater (6 coating units) 5 Mio. Coating machine (slot-die, e-beam) 2,25 Mio. depreciation over 5 years plus 5 % interest/year 1 16

17 Anti-counterfeit layer systems Overall costs: 0,68 /m 2 without substrate Cost distribution Cost distribution 12% 12% 21% 9% 65% 12% 46% 23% material labor capital running yield 1st Al WCC 2nd Al 17

18 in-house process chain 18

19 Pilot vacuum roll coater novoflex mm deposition width web speed m/min double side coating 5 coating units boat- and eb-evaporation, sputtering, PECVD

20 Pilot roll coater atmoflex 1250 unwinder and liner removal pre-treatment, cleaning, coating and lamination linear e-beam rewinder and lamination

21 Pilot roll coater atmoflex mm deposition width web speed up to 150 m/min Corona treatment, contact cleaning slot die coating, electron beam curing wet/dry lamination unwinder and liner removal pre-treatment, cleaning, coating and lamination linear e-beam rewinder and lamination

22 From Vacuum to Atmosphere and back an in-house Process Chain for Different Products More to discuss? Meet us at exhibition hall A5 booth #1157 Dr. Steffen Günther Fraunhofer FEP Winterbergstr Dresden Germany 22

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