TWEED RIVER HIGH SCHOOL 2006 PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY. Unit 2 Metals

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1 TWEED RIVER HIGH SCHOOL 2006 PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY Unit 2 Metals Part 2 Metals differ in their reactivity with other chemicals and this influences their uses. Describe observable changes when metals react with dilute acid, water and oxygen. Note: You must know the common mineral acids: Acid Formula Sulfuric H 2 SO 4 Hydrochloric HCl Nitric HNO 3 1. Reactions of metals with dilute acids Some metals react rapidly with dilute acids, others react slowly and some have no reaction. Metals react with dilute acids according to the general reaction equation: metal + acid metal salt + hydrogen 1

2 For example: Magnesium reacts with sulfuric acid: Word equation Magnesium + sulfuric acid magnesium sulfate + hydrogen Chemical equation Mg (s) + H 2 SO 4(aq) MgSO 4(aq) + H 2(g) Observable changes: Change in temperature Gas evolved Metal disappears Homework: Copy Table 8.3,page 126, Chemistry Contexts 1 Table 7.3 p 131 new edition 2

3 Reactions of Metals with Water Most metals do not react with cold water. However, Group 1 metals do. These metals react according to the following general equation: Metal + Water Salt (hydroxide) + hydrogen For example: Word equation Sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen Chemical equation: 2Na (s) + 2H 2 O (l) 2NaOH (aq) + H 2(g) Observable Changes: Gas evolved Increase in temperature Homework: Copy Table 8.2,page 124, Chemistry Contexts 1 Table 7.2 p130 new edition 3

4 Reaction of Metals with Oxygen Metals react with oxygen at varying rates. Lithium, potassium and sodium react very quickly, rubidium and caesium react so vigorously that they catch fire in air. Other metals such as aluminium and iron react slowly in oxygen. Also metals such as silver and gold do not react with oxygen. Metals react with oxygen according to the general reaction equation: Metal + oxygen metal oxide For example: The most common example would be the corrosion of iron (rust). iron + oxygen iron(iii) oxide 4Fe (s) + 3O 2(g) 2Fe 2 O 3(s) magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide 2Mg (s) + O 2(g) 2MgO (s) Observable changes: Release of heat Fire Colour change 4

5 Homework: Copy Table 8.1,page 122, Chemistry Contexts 1 Table 7.1 p127 new edition Describe and justify the criteria used to place metals into an order of activity based on their ease of reaction with oxygen, water and dilute acids. Identify the reaction of metals with acids as requiring the transfer of electrons. Note: The above points are covered in the notes below. 5

6 Oxidation Reduction reactions Oxidation: involves the loss of electrons. Reduction: involves the gain of electrons. Hence oxidation-reduction reactions involve one reactant losing electrons and the other reactant gaining electrons. For example in the reaction: Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl 2(aq) + H 2(g) In this reaction the magnesium atom loses 2 electrons to become a magnesium ion, while 2 hydrogen ions gain an electron each to become hydrogen gas. This electron transfer can be represented as 2 half equations: Mg (s) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2e - Oxidation And 2H + (aq) + 2e- H 2(g) Reduction Adding the half equations together gives the overall equation. Metal ions can also displace electrons from other metals. For example: Zn (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu (s) This is known as a metal displacement reaction. 6

7 Metal displacement reactions along with the reactions with water, oxygen and dilute acids allow metals to be place into an activity series: K Ba Ca Na Mg Al Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Hg Pt Au Strongest Reducing agent Strongest Oxidising agent Note: An oxidising agent (or oxidant) causes another substance to be oxidised. Therefore, the oxidant is itself reduced. Conversely: A reducing agent (or reductant) causes another substance to be reduced. Therefore, the reductant is itself oxidised. Homework: Questions 2, 3, page132, Chemistry Contexts 1 Questions 9 & 10 p140 new edition Perform a first-hand investigation incorporating information from secondary sources to determine the metal activity series. Obtain the practical sheets Determining a Metal Activity Series and using these sheets write up your experiments including the following points: Aim Risk Assessment Method Results Discussion 7

8 Have your write up approved before you do the practical. You will then perform the experiment in the lab. Identify the importance of first ionisation energy in determining the reactivity of metals. Outline the relationship between the relative activities of metals and their position on the Periodic Table. Ionisation Energy Remember that protons are positively charged and found in the nucleus of an atom with the negative electrons in shell around the nucleus. Therefore, there is an electrostatic attraction between the protons and electrons. To remove an electron this electrostatic attraction must be overcome. The ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom of the element. The first ionisation energy, is the energy required to remove the first electron. The second ionisation energy, is the energy required to remove the second electron and so on. Ionisation energies decrease down a group and increase across a period. How does this affect the reactivity of metals? A comparison of the activity series for metals reveals that the most reactive metals are generally found on the left side of the periodic table with the least reactive metals tending to be in the middle of the periodic table. 8

9 Outline examples of the selection of metals for different purposes based on their reactivity, with a particular emphasis on current developments in the use of metals. Gold Gold is the least reactive of all metals. It readily keeps its lustre which makes it excellent for jewellery. Because it is not reactive, and has excellent electrical conductivity, gold is used in electrical connections in computers and electronic circuits. Gold has also been used in the space area as it has excellent reflective properties. 9

10 Magnesium Magnesium is a highly reactive metal which makes it suitable for some very specific applications. Magnesium is attached to the steel hulls of ships. Since magnesium is more reactive than the iron in the steel, hence it will corrode before the steel, protecting the ship from corrosion. In this instance the magnesium is called a sacrificial anode. Zinc Zinc is used in the production of galvanised iron, where steel is dipped into molten zinc. The zinc serves two purposes: - It reacts with air to form an impervious layer - It also reacts as a sacrificial anode Zinc is also used in dry cell batteries. Here, zinc is oxidised and electrons are released. Tin Tin is used to coat base metal objects. Such as the tin cans food is packaged in. Chromium Chromium is used to coat metal objects for protection and appearance. For example, chrome plating on motor vehicles and other objects. 10

11 Aluminium Aluminium is suitable for use in areas like the construction industry. Not only because of its strength and lightness of weight, but also aluminium forms and impervious oxide layer which it prevents further corrosion. Copper Copper is unreactive and hence corrosion resistant. It is used extensively in the plumbing and electrical industries. Homework: Construct balanced chemical equations and half-equations showing electron transfer for the following reactions: 1. sodium + hydrochloric acid 2. potassium + sulfuric acid 3. calcium + hydrochloric acid 4. magnesium + sulfuric acid 5. aluminium + sulfuric acid 11

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