1 Lab Manual Mechanics of Materials-II EXPERIMENT#9 Objective: To perform hardness test on rock well testing machine. Apparatus: Theory: Rock well hardness testing machine; mild steel plate. HARDNESS: A large number of different definitions exist for the term hardness. Wear resistance, deformation behavior, tensile strength, as well as modulus of elasticity are, among others, associated with the term hardness. Hardness testing is almost nondestructive and serves in many cases for the determination of characteristic quantities or parameters which can be used for distinguishing and describing materials. Hardness values give e.g. information about the mechanical properties (i.e. strength) of the material at low cost. In general, the technical hardness is to be understood as the resistance of a material to the penetration of an indenter made of a harder material. Hardness is consequently no fundamental quantity of a material but the material s responseto a certain load or test method. A hardness value is then calculated from this response of the material to the specific test. This means that, depending on the test method, other numerical values are determined which are defined or characterized by the shape and material of the indenter, as well as by the type and size of test load. Why hardness testing? Within the production and assembly, hardness of materials or components is mainly tested for two reasons: Firstly, in order to define characteristic features of new materials and, secondly,for reasons of quality assurance by conforming to the required specifications. The most common uses for hardness tests is to verify the heat treatment of a part and to determine if a material has the properties necessary for its intended use. Establishing a correlation between the hardness result and the desired material property allows this, making hardness tests very useful in industrial and R&D applications Five Determining Factors The following five factors can be used to determine the correct hardness test for application. Material - grain size, metal, rubber, etc. Approximate Hardness - hardened steel, rubber, etc. Shape - thickness, size, etc. Heat Treatment through or casehardened, annealed, etc.
2 Production Requirements - sample or 100% Hardness testing diamond indenter An indenter used in hardness testing apparatus to penetrate hard metals and other materials consists of a shank body having at its end a conical frustum with a cylindrical recess extending axially from that end, and a cone of polycrystalline diamond bonded to a hard metal rod which, in turn is bonded in the cylindrical recess concentrically with the axis of the body. The various Test Methods Classification may be subdivided into two classes: a) Static test methods In these methods, the load is applied statically or quasi-statically. The hardness value is defined by means of the permanent test indentation after removing the test load as the quotient of test load and the surface or projection surface of the permanent indentation It invovlves Rockwell Hardness Test Brinell Hardness Test Vickers Hardness Test Knoop Hardness Test Meyers Hardness Test Rockwell Hardness Test The Rockwell method measures the permanent depth of indentation produced by a force on an indenter. First, a preliminary test force (pre-load or minor load) is applied to a sample using a diamond indenter. This is the zero or reference position that breaks through the surface to reduce the effects of surface finish. Then, an additional test force (or major load) is applied to reach the total required test force. This force is held for a predetermined amount of time to allow for elastic recovery. The additional test force is then released and the final position is measured against the preliminary position and converted to a hardness number. Preliminary test forces range from 3 kg (used in "Superficial" Rockwell scale) to 10 kilograms (used in "Regular" Rockwell scale) to 200 kilograms (macro scale - not part of ASTM E-18; see ASTM E- 1842). Total test forces range from 15 through 150 kilograms (superficial & regular) to 500 through 3000 kilograms (macro). A variety of indenters may be used: a conical diamond with a round tip for harder metals, and ball indenters ranging from 1/16" to 1/2" for softer and softer materials A.. Depth reached by indenter after application of preliminary test force (minor load). B.. Position of indenter under total test force. C.. Final position reached by indenter after elastic recovery of the material.
3 D.. Position at which measurement is taken. In bench Rockwell hardness testing systems, All can handle large parts, however the Versitron can usually test large parts more quickly and accurately, when compared to other bench testers which require external support stands or fixtures. The Indentron, on the other hand, is much easier to use on small, awkward parts. Selecting a Rockwell scale, the operator should select the scale that specifies the largest load and smallest indenter possible to do the job without exceeding defined operating conditions and accounting for conditions that influence the test result. These influencing conditions include test specimens which are below the minimum thickness for the depth of indentation Indentron Rockwell Hardness Testing System The Indentron uses a cantilevered indenter and a unique, low friction, semi-automatic loading system. Provides the highest level of repeatability due to a technology that has virtually frictionless operation. Cantilevered indenter can test inside diameters and other difficult configurations without special setup. Many electronic capabilities for data storage, printing reports and SPC. Semi automatic or automatic operation. Six models from which to choose. COMMON PROBLEMS IN ROCKWELL HARDNESS TESTING Problems related to accuracy, repeatability, and/or correlation usually Can be traced to one or more of five causes: o Machine o Operator o Environment o Sample prep o Calibration. Bad indenter :The most common problem we hear is, machine is reading high. This always raises the bad indenter flag. In the case of testing hardened steels, diamond indenters are required to penetrate the material. Diamonds are used because of their hardness and ability to maintain their geometrical form. However, the very trait that enables diamonds to penetrate steel high hardness is also their Achilles heel. A diamond s hardness renders it brittle, and an impact or shock can cause it to break, changing it s dimensio nal form from a radiused tip to a flat or other non-spheroconical shape. Deflections: Machine deflection caused by dirt, grease, burrs, and other sources is also
4 a significant contributor to machine errors. Most Rockwell-scale testers are unable to compensate for deflection (or movement) under load. (The Newage Versitron is an exception.) Anvils: An often overlooked source of error is the anvil. Rough gouged anvil surfaces, anvil surfaces that have been inadvertently hardness tested, and anvil surfaces that are worn or ground to a taper can all spell disaster. In conventional Rockwell testers.these surfaces should be lapped together every few service visits to ensure that they are flat and burr-fre Surface preparation-related causes Though the Rockwell method begins its hardness measurement beneath the surface of the part, the inherent variability of a rough surface can and will cause inconsistent results. Surface coatings or hardened layers also can provide deceptive results. If want to test the hardness of a coating or surface layer, use a load/indenter combination that will ensure that the measurement is taken in the coating or layer TEST SPECIFICATIONS Major Load Minor Load Scale Name Indenter Applications Regular Rockwell Scales Cemented carbides, thin steel and shallow case A Diamond 60 kg 10 kg hardened steel 1/16" Copper alloys, soft steels, aluminum alloys, B ball 100 kg 10 kg mealleable iron Steel, hard cast irons, pearlitic malleable iron, titanium, deep case-hardnened steel and the C Diamond 150 kg 10 kg materials harder than HRB100 Thin steel and medium case-hardnened steel and D Diamond 60 kg 10 kg pearlitic malleable iron Cast iron, aluminum and magnesium alloys, E 1/8" ball 100 kg 10 kg bearing metals 1/16" F ball 60 kg 10 kg Annealed copper alooys, thin soft wheet metals. Phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, malleabel 1/16" irons. Upper limit is HRG 92 to avoid possible G ball 150 kg 10 kg flattening of the ball. H 1/8" ball 100 kg 10 kg Aluminum, Zinc, Lead Bearing metals and otehr very soft or thin materials. Use samllest ball and heaviest load that K 1/8" ball 150 kg 10 kg do not give an anvil effect L 1/4" ball 60 kg 10 kg [Same as K] M 1/4" ball 100 kg 10 kg [Same as K] P 1/4" ball 150 kg 10 kg [Same as K]
5 R 1/2" ball 60 kg 10 kg [Same as K] S 1/2" ball 100 kg 10 kg [Same as K] V 1/2" ball 150 kg 10 kg [Same as K] Brinell Hardness Test Widely used on castings and forgings, the Brinell method applies a predetermined test force (F) to a hard steel or carbide ball of fixed diameter (D) which is held for a predetermined time and then removed. The resulting indentation is measured across at at least two diameters - usually at right angles to each other and averaged (d). A chart is then used to convert the averaged diameter measurements to a Brinell hardness number. Test forces range from 500 to 3000 kilograms Also available in optical, digital as well as computerized models. In computerized Model, Brinell indentation can be automatically measured and hardness value is displayed on the screen.strictly confirms IS 2281 & BS 240 Brinell Measurement Calculation D = ball diameter d = impression diameter F = load HB = Brinell Result Vickers Hardness Test These machines are designed for very high accuracy, reliability and ease of operation. Wide Testing range From soft to hard material, very thin to big samples. Built in projection screen with Micrometer ( L.C mm ) to get accurate results. Max.Magnification 140 X Also available with Brinell loads. Test loads From 1 kgf to 250 kgf In computerized Model, Vickers indentation can be automatically measured and hardness value is displayed on the screen. Strictly confirms IS 1754 for Vickers and IS 2281 & BS 240 for Brinell loads. Mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work, Vickers and Knoop methods are based on an optical measurement system. The new Computer Assisted Measurement System (C.A.M.S.), now available from Newage Testing Instruments, Inc., has improved productivity, accuracy and repeatability of these labor intensive methods.
6 To perform a test, a predetermined test force is applied with a pyramidal shaped diamond indenter. After a dwelt time, the force is removed. Then, in the Vickers method, the indentation length of vertical and horizontal axis is measured and averaged. In the Knoop method, only the tong axis is measured. A chart is used to convert the measurements to corresponding Vickers or Knoop hardness numbers, Test forces range from 1 to 2000 grams, Vickers does offer higher force capabilities - up to 150 kgs. VickersTest Opposing indenter faces are set at a 136 degree angle to each other KnoopTest Long side faces are set at a 172 degree, 30 minute angle to each other. Short side faces are set at a 130 degree angle to each other NI-HV30 Micro/Macro Vickers Hardness Tester with Knoop Capability Range of capabilities Vickers testing to ASTM E92 & E384, ISO 6507 Knoop testing to ASTM E384 & ISO 4545 Brinell testing to ASTM E10 & ISO 6506 Test Scales: HV0.2, HV0.5,HV1, HV3, HV5, HV10, HV30 HK0.2, HK0.5, HK1 HBW1/1, HBW1/5, HBW1/10, HBW1/30 Certified Macro-Vickers indenter standard Micro-Vickers, Knoop, & Brinell indenters and test blocks are optional. Macro-Vickers block is optional. Special Characteristics Capable of performing tests using loads of: 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 30 kgf. Automatic turret allows one touch operation when changing between indenter and lens position. Fully automatic timing cycle, eliminates operator influence of the dwell times.. RS232C and USB data output. Operation & Calibration ASTM E92 & E384 Optional Brinell and Knoop calibration if appropriate. Indenters are ordered with the instrument Standard Capacity Vertical 250 mm Throat 150 mm Electrical 3 A single phase110 V, 60 Hz Dimensions Height 770 mm Width 220 mm Depth 580 mm Weight 50 kg b) Dynamic test methods
7 As opposed to the static methods, the load is applied by propelling a body (indenter) onto the surface hardness is determined by the indenter s energy loss. The Standardized Rebound Method When applying the rebound or Leeb's method, the hardness of the material is measured indirectly by means of the loss of energy of an impact body at the moment it strikes the test material. The impact body, with a spherical carbide metal tip, is accelerated by spring force toward the test surface at a defined speed. Due to the impact and to the plastic deformation of the material surface as a result of it, the kinetic energy of the impact body is reduced so that the latter is impelled back in the opposite direction at a lower speed. The impact and rebound speeds are measured inductively in a non-contact mode. This is done by a small permanent magnet within the impact body (Fig.) which generates an induction voltage during its passage through a coil, with this voltage being proportional to the speed. Applications for testing soft materials are nonetheless widespread. The automotive industry tests the hardness of paints and tires. The microelectronics and photonics industries test low-dielectric constant films, chemical and mechanical polishing pads, bond pads, solders, and electronic packaging materials. The biomaterials industry tests polymer joint-implant materials, nail polish and drug particles. The medical field even tests biological samples such as liver, cartilage, and arterial tissues. Determining meaningful hardness values for soft materials has always been challenging, and despite recent advances in methods and instruments, continues to be so. Scratch Test In this form of test a stylus is traversed across the surface of a flat specimen with either constant or increasing load. The experimental set-up for in-plan scratch testing is shown in Figure. Specimen preparation is minimal and the only limitation is that the specimen should be large enough to clamp without interfering with the movement of the stylus parallel to the plane of the traverse table. The test parameters that must be monitored are the normal (applied) load and horizontal displacement. It is also desirable to monitor cracking events using acoustic emission (AE) and/or the horizontal (frictional) load to aid in the correlation of forces with inspection of the scratch path. The significant result derived from the scratch test is the critical load for scale failure. This parameter is derived from visual inspection of the scratch track in conjunction with the vertical and horizontal load traces Failure of the oxide/coating during scratch testing may occur by one of a number of mechanisms. The most important of these in terms of their relevance to spallation are
8 buckling and wedge failures and quantitative interpretation of scratch testing is limited to the latter. The analysis, which applies to failure by initial wedge cracking in the surface layer, requires that the critical load for failure is measured as a function of oxide/coating thickness and residual stress. A straight line fit is used and the fracture stress is defined as the intercept ie failure when the imposed stress is zero; the gradient of the line, a, defines the relationship between the critical load in the scratch test and the imposed stress. This can be represented analytically by the expression:- L c is the critical load measured in the scratch test al c is equivalent to s S. HARDTEST - Hardness Test and Evaluation Software HARDTEST program can be used for all electronic hardness testers with RS 232C serial interfaces that we offer. This software includes all necessary functions for a proper test run such as: - Reading of all the actual measured values and hardness of a series of measurements. Single values can be deleted and the measured values which aren't within the tolerance limits are marked (<,>).The series of measurements can be shown as a graph. You are able to zoom in and out of any ranges of the diagram for a better view. You can also draw the most important values on the diagram (e.g. tolerance limits, average and medium value, regression line, etc.)
9 The test data per series of measurements can be stored in a data file of articles. You can insert a drawing or scanned image in each article. Additional features: Series of measurements can be saved on hard drive or a diskette Series of measurements can be postponed and continued at a later time Data transfer of series of measurements to other programs (tables, databases, etc.) is possible. SPC-software for United Rockwell Hardness Tester for advanced statisticalcontrol capability DigiTest Automatic Modular Hardness Measurement System There are already a number of different hardness testers for plastics and elastomers in the market and their application is often not very easy and user-friendly. Their operation is often very painstaking and time-consuming. This was the purpose and reason behind the development of the new generation of digital hardness testers, and that includes our new Digi-Test modular automatic measuring system. One of these specialties is its Modular Construction, which means that all of measuring devices can be used with different electronic units, and they can be exchanged without any difficulties. This modular construction, provides you with a solution that fully meets your requirements, at an attractive pricing package, which can be expanded and upgraded in the future. A plug-in system recognizes the plugged test head automatically and the electronic unit read the corresponding measuring range as soon as the test head is connected with the pick-up bracket. Therefore you don't have to select the measuring range as you had to do with other models. Another demand for our new development was the automation of A/B/O as well as D/C/DO durometer scales on moulded parts and plates, which was not possible before. All the measurement within IRHD and Durometer scales, can be performed fully automatically.
10 For observation of the flow and recovery characteristics of test objects, you can also use Hysteresis function. Data logging and evaluation of the measured values can be done through the integrated RS 232 interface in connection with HARDTEST software, which runs under MS- Windows 95, 98, 2000 and NT software. Advantages The highest precision and accuracy is guaranteed by the digital measuring system Automatic test, for hardness measurements on moulded parts, with complicated and uneven shapes, and plate materials in all durometer and IRHD ranges Operating mode Hysteresis (data logging in connection with PC), for observation of the flow and recovery characteristics of a test object under load and after removing the load. Plug-in system: The measuring devices will only be plugged into the pick-up bracket, the measuring devices are identified automatically, and therefore there is no need to adjust the measuring distance. Through a short recess time and easy operation and handling of this intelligent system, results can be obtained quickly and reliably. There is no need to do any preselections. Temperature does not have any influences on the measuring devices, and therefore there is no need to adjust the measuring distance. Measuring devices can be integrated into production lines, or automatic manufacturing processes
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