1 Metal Alloys Most engineering metallic materials are alloys. Metals are alloyed to enhance their properties, such as strength, hardness or corrosion resistance, and to create new properties, such as shape memory effect. Engineering alloys can be broadly divided into Ferrous Alloys and Non ferrous Alloys. Metal Global demand tonnes, x1000 Price $/tonne Market $ billion Steel 730, Aluminium 20,000 1, Stainless steel 13,000 2, Titanium 56 35,000 2 Nickel 1,000 12,000 Copper 10,000
2 Ferrous Alloys Metal Alloys Ferrous Non ferrous Steels Cast irons Carbon Low Alloy High Alloy Grey iron Low C Medium C High C Tool e.g., HSLA (<5% total alloying elements) Stainless High Mn Tool (Mo,V,W,Cr,Ni) (>5% total alloying elements) Nodular iron White iron Malleable iron Alloy cast irons
3 Ferrous Alloys Alloys containing Fe as the main element. The most important ferrous alloy system (Fe C system) Alloys of this system can be further divided into steels and cast irons. Steels contain less C (generally <1.4wt%C) than do cast irons (generally 2.4~4.3wt%C). Then, all steels solidify into a single γ Fe structure first and then experience the complex eutectoid reaction. Therefore, heat treatment processes, which alter the eutectoid reaction, are vitally important for controlling microstructure and properties of steels. Cast irons experience complex eutectic reaction during solidification, due to the formation of graphite or cementite. Solidification control is the most important single factor for properties of cast irons.
4 Steel Cast Iron
5 Plain Carbon Steels Low carbon steels (mild steels): %C proeutectoid F + small amount of P high formability, high ductility: elongation: ~30% relatively low strength: yield strength: 250~400MPa excellent weldability cannot be strengthened by heat treatment usually strengthened by cold working typical applications: pipes, panels, sheets, wires, I beams etc. (0.15% carbon steel)
6 Medium carbon steels (structural steels) %C Good combination of strength and ductility Yield strength: 300~600MPa Tensile strength: 400~800MPa Elongation: ~25% Strengthenable by heat treatment Weldable; weldability deteriorates with increasing C% Used for load bearing applications, crankshaft, bolts, gears, heavy duty machinery, mining equipment, cranes (0.4% carbon steel)
7 High strength low alloy steels (HSLA) Medium carbon steels have desired mechanical properties for structural applications, but suffer from welding induced embrittlement due to the formation of martensite. To overcome this problem, C content in these steels is reduced (<0.3%) and the loss of strength is compensated by increasing Mn content (>1%) and by microalloying with Nb, V, Ti, Cr and Cu. This leads to the development of HSLA steels. These steels are widely used for manufacturing large welded structures, such as Sydney harbor bridge, ocean liners and cargo ships, oil drilling rigs and platforms, large mining and earth moving equipment, and pressure vessels and storage tanks.
8 High carbon steels Spring steels: 0.6~0.8%C predominately eutectoid pearlite at room temperature often strengthened and hardened by heat treatment high strength and moderate toughness Tool steels: 0.8~1.2%C proeutectoid cementite + pearlite very high hardness, low toughness, very difficult to machine used for chisels, hammers, knives, saw blades, drills, dies, punches, cutlery, chine tools and wear resistant applications High carbon steels have poor weldability and poor machinability spring Extrusion dies Cutting blades
9 Alloy Designation (carbon andf low alloy steels) AISI: American Iron and Steel Institute SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials UNS: Uniform Numbering System AISI/SAE UNS carbon steels 1040 G10400 plain carbon steel containing 0.4wt%C 1xYY G1xYY0 modified carbon steel (S, P, Mn) low alloy steels 2xxx G2xxx0 alloy steels Tool Steels High alloy tool steels are often alloyed with Mo, V, W, Cr and/or Ni. UNS: Txxxxx Normally specified by hardness and impact toughness.
10 Stainless Steels Three basic classes, specified by microstructure: Ferritics: Fe Cr alloys (12~25%Cr), can be cheap Martensitics: Fe Cr alloys, low Cr, hard, cutting tools Austenitics: Fe Cr Ni alloys (18Cr 8Ni), corrosion resistance Precipitation hardened, high strength and hardness Duplex (18Cr 5Ni) Alloys designation AISI UNS type 2xx S2xx00 3xx S3xx00 304, 316, 316L (austenitics) 4xx S4xx (martensitic), 446 (ferritic) Typical Mechanical Properties Yield strength: 200MPa ~ 1600MPa Tensile strength: 300 MPa ~ 1800 MPa Ductility: EL% 40 ~ 2 Young s modulus: ~ 170 GPa
14 Cast Irons Fe 3C 3Fe( α) + C( graphite) >2.14wt% Carbon On the Fe C system, these are to the right of steels, with carbon between 2 & 5.3 %, but more usual 2.5 to 4%. Really is tertiary alloy system,with the third element silicon. The microstructures present depend strongly on the chemical composition (%Si) and the cooling rate of the cast.
15 BASIS Cast irons have carbon beyond the limit of solubility of C in γ, The different types of cast iron are merely the different forms the carbon takes. The carbon can be in the form of cementite, or white cast iron. If some silicon is added (1 to 2%, maybe 3 %) the carbon will tend to graphitize, and there are various forms the graphite can have. Then, the carbon can also be in the form of graphite ( gray, malleable and nodular cast iron).
16 Also the austenite is still there. Austenite changes to ferrite and graphite if cooled very slow (if enough silicon is added). It changes to pearlite if cooled slowly, and forms martensite if quenched, and bainite if cooled in between. In other words, we can do anything to the austenite we did with a steel, its just that with cast irons we ll also have excess carbon in some form.
17 White Cast Iron It contains relatively less C and Si. If we cooled rapidly and we do not add enough Si, the cast iron solidifies as White in the Fe Fe 3 C System. We can have hypoeutectic and hypereutectic white cast irons. Cementite makes the alloy hard and brittle and it is practically useless as structural material. The high hardness renders them high resistant to abrasive wear. White irons are produced mainly for two purposes: (a) Intermediate product for producing malleable irons and (b) As abrasive wear resistant components, such as ball mill lining tiles, slurry pipe elbows, slurry pump bodies.
19 Gray Cast Iron If we put in 2 to 3 % Silicon, and cool the iron reasonably slowly (don t quench it) the Si will cause the carbon to form as graphite flakes Gray Cast Iron. If we put in more Silicon and cool slowly we can get virtually all the carbon out of the austenite and into the flakes, so the matrix is ferrite, or we have a ferritic gray CI. If we don t cool as slowly, or we add less silicon, we d have some carbon left in γ. When the austenite hits the eutectoid temperature it would form pearlite, just like it did when we talked about steels pearlitic gray CI.
21 Grey Irons Application Grey irons are by far the most produced among all cast irons. Grey irons are used primarily for their low cost and excellent castability. Typical applications include: engine cylinders, pistons, gear box casing, transmission casing, machine tool bases, balance weight of large cranes, large diameter underground pipework. They are used always under compressive loading conditions. They are unsuitable for taking tensile loads or bending loads. Stress Grey iron Strain Mild steel Tensile stress strain behavior of grey cast iron
23 Gray Irons SAE UNS Tensile Strength yield ductility G1800 F (ksi)(140mpa) G2500 F10005 G3000 F10006 G6000 F (ksi) (400MPa) Cheap to produce, excellent castability, high damping capacity, good metal metal wear resistance when lubricated, strength much higher in compression than in tension, brittle in tension.
24 Malleable Cast Iron If we heat white CI above its critical line, normally between 900 to 1000 o C for 20 hours we ll make the carbide convert to graphite, and it will produce a rough clump of graphite, kind of between a flake and a nodule (agglomerate), malleable CI These cast irons are stronger, tougher and much more ductile than grey irons, compatible to nodular irons. They have certain capacity to take shock loading, bending and tension. They are suitable for castings of thin thickness. They are expensive to produce, largely due to the heat treatment. Typical applications include gear box casing, transmission casing, differential casing. ASTM UNS Yield strength Ductility F (ksi) F
25 Nodular or Ductile Cast Irons we add some magnesium or rare elements to the molten liquid just before casting (inoculation) and do things as we did with the gray CI we can produce nodular or ductile CI. We will produce nodules of graphite instead of flakes, but as before we can end up with a matrix of either ferrite or pearlite. These irons are much stronger and tougher than grey irons. They are produced and used for high specification applications. They are more expensive than grey irons. Typical applications include: gears, crankshafts, pump bodies, pressure valves, rollers.
26 we had austenite, just like we had in steels, so if we quench it we get martensite, as long as we have enough hardenability. We can do the same thing with any of the CI types. In fact, austempered ductile iron (ADI) is very popular for many applications. That would have a bainitic microstructure. Nodular Irons (ductile irons) ASTM UNS Tensile Yield Ductility F (ksi) F
29 Graphite flakes in an α ferrite matrix Better strength and ductility under compression Gray cast iron Si (1~3%) Nodular (ductile) Graphite in an α ferrite matrix Damping vibration energy Pearlite White cementite White iron Malleable Graphite in an α ferrite matrix
31 Fabrication of Commercial Cast irons Heat treatment to to control the carbon morphology
Ferrous Alloys Ferrous alloys those of which iron is the prime constituent are produced in larger quantities than any other metal type. They are especially important as engineering construction materials.
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