# Stress-Strain Behavior

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1 15-1 CHAPTER 15 CHARACTERISTICS, APPLICATIONS, AND PROCESSING OF POLYMERS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Stress-Strain Behavior which is 15.1 From Figure 15.3, the elastic modulus is the slope in the elastic linear region of the 20 C curve, E = (stress) (strain) = 30 MPa 0 MPa 9 x = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi) The value range cited in Table 15.1 is 2.24 to 3.24 GPa (325,000 to 470,000 psi). Thus, the plotted value is a little on the high side. The tensile strength corresponds to the stress at which the curve ends, which is 52 MPa (7500 psi). This value lies within the range cited in Table to 72.4 MPa (7000 to 10,500 psi).

2 15-2 Viscoelastic Deformation 15.2 The explanation of viscoelasticity is given in Section 15.4.

3 15-8 Fracture of Polymers Miscellaneous Mechanical Considerations 15.8 For thermoplastic polymers, five factors that favor brittle fracture are as follows: (1) a reduction in temperature, (2) an increase in strain rate, (3) the presence of a sharp notch, (4) increased specimen thickness, and (5) modifications of the polymer structure.

4 15-10 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers (a) and (b) The mechanisms by which semicrystalline polymers elastically and plastically deform are described in Section (c) The explanation of the mechanism by which elastomers elastically deform is provided in Section 15.9.

5 The strength of a polychlorotrifluoroethylene having the repeat unit structure will be greater than for a polytetrafluoroethylene having the same molecular weight and degree of crystallinity. The replacement of one fluorine atom within the PTFE repeat unit with a chlorine atom leads to a higher interchain attraction, and, thus, a stronger polymer. Furthermore, poly(vinyl chloride) is stronger than polyethylene (Table 15.1) for the same reason.

6 Two molecular characteristics essential for elastomers are: (1) they must be amorphous, having chains that are extensively coiled and kinked in the unstressed state; and (2) there must be some crosslinking.

7 15-30 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures This question asks us to name which, of several polymers, would be suitable for the fabrication of cups to contain hot coffee. At its glass transition temperature, an amorphous polymer begins to soften. The maximum temperature of hot coffee is probably slightly below 100 C (212 F). Of the polymers listed, only polystyrene and polycarbonate have glass transition temperatures of 100 C or above (Table 15.2), and would be suitable for this application.

8 In order for a polymer to be suited for use as an ice cube tray it must have a glass-transition temperature below 0 C. Of those polymers listed in Table 15.2 only low-density and high-density polyethylene, PTFE, and polypropylene satisfy this criterion.

9 15-39 Polymerization For addition polymerization, the reactant species have the same chemical composition as the monomer species in the molecular chain. This is not the case for condensation polymerization, wherein there is a chemical reaction between two or more monomer species, producing the repeating unit. There is often a low molecular weight by-product for condensation polymerization; such is not found for addition polymerization.

10 This question requests that we compare polymer molding techniques. For compression molding, both heat and pressure are applied after the polymer and necessary additives are situated between the mold members. For transfer molding, the solid materials (normally thermosetting in nature) are first melted in the transfer chamber prior to being forced into the die. And, for injection molding (normally used for thermoplastic materials), the raw materials are impelled by a ram through a heating chamber, and finally into the die cavity.

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