International Nickel Study Group 6th-10th October 2008 Lisbon, Portugal. Special Steels. Speaker: Salvatore Pinizzotto Xida (Market Research) Ltd.

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1 International Nickel Study Group 6th10th October 2008 Lisbon, Portugal Special Steels Speaker: Salvatore Pinizzotto Xida (Market Research) Ltd.

2 Definition STATO DELL ARTE All steels are SPECIAL in some way, since even ORDINARY steel is a mixture of carbon and iron and the result of careful heattreatment and forging. However, the term SPECIAL (or in the US, SPECIALTY) steel usually defines those steels that contain elements other than carbon in sufficient amount to modify substantially some of their useful properties. Usually SPECIAL steels contain alloying elements, thus the terms SPECIAL and ALLOY STEELS are often used interchangeably.

3 Special Steels : main types

4 ENGINEERING STEEL

5 Engineering Steels P

6 Bearing Steels These steels often contain 1 percent carbon, 1.2 percent chromium, 0.25 percent nickel, and 0.25 percent molybdenum and are very hard after heat treatment. Most important, however, they are extremely clean, having been purged of practically all inclusions by vacuum treatment of the liquid steel. Inclusions are very harmful in bearings because they create stress concentrations that result in low fatigue strength.

7 Microalloyed Steels The microalloyed steels, also known as high strength lowalloy (HSLA) steels, are intermediate in composition between carbon steels, whose properties are controlled mainly by the amount of carbon they contain (usually less than 1 percent), and alloy steels. Developed in the l960s and resurrected in the late 1970s to satisfy the need for weight savings through greater strength, the HSLA steels tend to be low in carbon with minute additions of titanium or vanadium, for example.

8 Microalloyed Steels They are considered to be quite competitive with aluminum substitutes for two reasons: they are relatively inexpensive (steel sells for one half the price of aluminum on a per unit weight basis); and very little change in fabrication and processing procedures is needed in switching from carbon steel to HSLA steel, whereas major changes are usually required in switching to aluminum.

9 The European market for Engineering Steel Total Market 8000 kt

10 Engineering Steel: main European markets

11 Origin of different products by country SEMIS Wire Rods

12 Origin of different products by country (continues) BARS

13 TOOL STEEL

14 Tool Steel Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well suited to be made into tools. Their suitability comes from their distinctive hardness, resistance to abrasion, their ability to hold a cutting edge, and/or their resistance to deformation at elevated temperatures (red hardness). With a carbon content between 0.7% and 1.4%, tool steels are manufactured under carefully controlled conditions to produce the required quality.

15 Tool Steel The most important alloying elements are vanadium, chromium, nickel, tungsten, cobalt and molybdenum. Tool steels have an average alloy content of 5% to 15%, but this figure can range up to 50% for highalloy steel.

16 Tool Steel (continues) The main users of tool steel are tool builders. Tool builders construct a large range of industrial tools and forms for cutting, punching, milling or forming metals and plastics and supply these tools to a wide variety of manufacturers.

17 Tool Steel (continues) Total European production of tool steel is about 600, 000 tonnes. European producers are facing strong competition from non European producers. The strong European currency reduces the competitiviness of export and opens the door to new international players. Chinese tool steel producers show a constant growth of supplies into Europe as well as in North America.

18 END USE MARKETS

19 Engineering steel : enduse markets Automotion Hot forging Springs Ball Bearings Trucks & Capital Goods Mechanical Engineering Energy

20 Tool Steel (continues) Main End use sectors Automotive and automotive suppliers Tool and machinery manufacturers Aircraft manufacturers Consumers and electronics industries Wood and saw industries Textile and Paper Industries Power Generation Oilfield generation and plant construction

21 Ball Bearings

22 Energy Electricity generation is predicted to grow globally in excess of 85% by Electricity generation from fossil fuels will remain dominant. Meeting policy targets will require a portfolio approach.

23 Energy (continues)

24 Energy (continues) ordered

25 Nuclear plant key components Large pressure vessels Heavy duty cooling pipes Large Pump castings Capacity and Demand for Heavy Nuclear Forgings (Kt)

26 Automotive Connecting rods Constant velocity joint Brake Hubs Crankshaft Transmission gear

27 Component Category Engines Drive train Steering Components Crankshafts Connecting rods Common rail systems Transmission gears Differential gear units CVT Hubs Constant velocity joint Steering Free Cutting Steel X X Carbon steel for machine structural use STAINLESS STEEL X Electrical Alternators X X X X X X Alloy Steel X X X X X Bearing Steel Bearings Bearings X Other Bolts, nuts Hydraulic components X X X

28 Automotive (continues) Specialty steel are used for safety related parts in power train and chassis. STAINLESS STEEL Quality, therefore, is critically important. Cost competitiviness and product development are key to profitability.

29 STAINLESS STEEL

30 tainless Steel: Emerging Fields Transport (flat long welded tubes) Building and Infrastructures (flat long welded tubes) Potable Water (flat welded tubes) Waste Water Treatment (flat welded tubes) Desalination (flat welded tubes) Pulp and paper (welded tubes castings) STRUCTURA L USE Source: Centro Inox Italian Stainless Steel Development Assn.

31 he Nido project by Pinifarina Centro Inox supported the project providing the know how about the material and as gobetween with SS producers

32 Water Treatment Plant (Como)

33 Registered Office 43 Hillside Road, NORTHWOOD, Middx HA6 1PY United Kingdom Contact Details: Via dei Villanoviani, CIVITAVECCHIA (RM) Italy Tel /Fax: Website :

34

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