EAF Technology and process

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1 EAF Technology and process In the last 100 years,the EAF technology has evolved to meet the demands of higher productivity, improved quality of product and flexibility of metallic inputs. The product mix of modern EAF encompasses all steel grades with an optimised charge mix.

2 TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION STEEL MAKING

3 Steel making Technology - EAF EAF is widely used in USA. The capital cost is lower as compared to BOF (also known as LD). EAF process uses predominantly scrap. DRI is an alternate iron ore bearing material, which is used when the scrap is not available. A new process, which is known as CONARC has been developed by SMS- DEMAG. It employs Hot metal, Scrap and DRI to different proportions as per their availability

4 Latent needs from customers Clean steel Slag free tapping. Low tramp elements in steel Cu +Sn+Cr <.10%. Phosphorus < 100 ppm (.01%) Sulphur < 100 ppm (.010% max) Nitrogen < 50 ppm Dissolved oxygen < 5ppm. Low hydrogen < 2 ppm for some special grades. Close control on chemical composition for steel applications involving heat treatment and wire drawing Inclusion morphology Non deformable inclusions to be kept low for deep drawing of steel

5 Plan and section of EAF

6 Steel making Technology - BOF Does not require external heat, as the process utilizes the heat generated by the exothermic reactions during melting operation. Hot metal and Scrap are used for melting. Oxygen is blown through a multi hole lance to carry out the refining operation. Modern converters, have tuyeres at the bottom through which Argon or Nitrogen gas is purged. Bottom purging leads to uniformity of bath wrt composition and temperature & establishes equilibrium between the slag and the metal. Phosphorous removal is enhanced.

7 EAF steel making - Advantages Due to slag free tapping from EAF, clean and high quality steels are produced. Low phosphorus steels ( P % <.012%) can be consistently produced. Plant returns can be consumed. Flexibility wrt. Raw materials Low capital cost as compared to a BOF based facility.

8 Eccentric bottom tapping Key to produce SBQ steels. EBT device facilitates slag free tapping. 10% of the heat weight is always retained in the EAF after tapping the required heat size. Compact tapping stream minimises Nitrogen pick up. The tap hole wears out after 80 to 90 heats and the is repaired by inserting a pipe /refractory mix. The tap tube is changed after every 160 to 180 heats and this takes around 2 hours.

9 Evolution of EAF technology AC furnaces require stable electrical grids ( network of with higher fault MVA. DC furnaces were developed in the 80 s to operate in weak electrical grids. The AC power is converted to DC utilising rectifiers. The power input in DC furnaces is limited by the electrode diameter ( 800 mm 140 KA). The higher size of electrodes are expensive. Twin cathode DC furnaces have been developed to increase power input in DC Electric arc furnaces.

10 Twin cathode DC furnaces TWIN CATHODE DC EAF TOKYO STEEL JAPAN HEAT SIZE -400 T 2 CATHODES 4 ANODES BUILT BY DANIELI Tap to tap time 50 minutes

11 EAF control through automation

12 Twin cathode DC furnaces Type of Furnace DC at HYLSA,MEXICO Two cathodes Type of bottom electrode (Anodes) 4 cooled billets Transformer capacity, MVA 208 (53x4) Shell diameter mm Oxygen & Carbon Injectors 3x 4680 Nm3/hr each Multi Mode lances Heat Size (Tapped), MT 145 Hot Heel, MT 60~40 Electrode diameter inch 610 (24 inches) Tap to tap time - 50 minutes

13 EAF process with 70 to 100% DRI charge. 1) This process route is used when scrap availability is limited and the finished product has a low tramps specification ( Copper <.08%). 2) DRI is stored in a service silo above the furnace and is fed continuously at feed rates of 30 to 33 Kg/MW/min through the fifth hole in the furnace. 3) DRI is fed at a bath temperature>1580 deg C and fed close to the electrodes for better melting. 4) Hot DRI feeding is a new process innovation and is practiced in Essar steel,hylsa and Hade 5) Heat resistant conveyors with nitrogen shielding are used for feeding hot DRI in the EAF.

14 Foamy slag practice for EAF process Preconditions for foamy slag practice during scrap melting and refining.cao / SiO2 - to be maintained between 1.8 to This results in good foamy height of the slag. MgO% of 8 to 10% in the slag by charging dolomite preferably through auto feeding system. - If MgO% is < 8%, the slag leaches MgO from the refractory. - If MgO > 11%, the slag becomes very viscous. FeO% in the slag > 15% and < 25%. If FeO > 25%,results in loss of metallic yield. Temperature of the bath is maintained between 1570 to 1590 deg C. With good foamy slag practice nitrogen levels between 40 to 50 ppm are achieved at the end of EAF process..

15 Foamy slag practice Foamy slag practice is essential to use long arc practice and higher input into the EAF Coke breeze is injected at the slag/metal interface along with oxygen. Iron oxide of slag reacts with carbon, generates CO, causes foaming. An arc length of 500 mm can be shielded with good foamy slag practice. Foamy slag is good for P removal

16 Wall mounted oxygen injectors In modern furnaces, injection of oxygen and carbon is done through wall mounted injecting devices. These function both as a burner and oxygen injectors. The oxygen jets do not lose coherency till a depth of 2.2 m. Oxygen jet is shielded by LPG which is used as shroud gas. ADVANTAGES. - Due to the usage of side wall injectors the slag door can be kept closed during furnace operation preventing ingress of external - The life of the refractory at slag door is increased as oxygen is distributed homogenously from the side panels of the EAF. - Usage of Higher % of hot metal and higher productivity. Violent carbon oxygen reactions are eliminated.

17 New technological developments Usage of Ultra high power transformers 1MW/ tonne of heat size. Long arc practice High voltage and lower currents to reduce electrode consumption. Hot DRI feeding to EAF Bottom stirring elements For utilising higher % of liquid iron. To enhance chromium recovery during melting of stainless steel Slag handling Slag pot carriers for handling slag

18 New technological developments Feeding of Hot DRI at 700 deg C from custom built metallic conveyors with inert atmosphere. Carbon and injection from the side walls for injecting higher quantities of oxygen and improve foamy slag practice. Split shell design for quick change of lower shell which improves the availability of EAF for production to as high as 95%. Continuous feeding of scrap.

19 New technological developments Danieli has commissioned a technology for recovering the heat from fume gases of EAF at ABS Italy.The technology is based on Organic rankine cycle and a energy recovery of 5760MW is expected /year. This technology will result in significant energy savings.

20 Continuous charging of scrap Scrap is charged continuously at a feedrate matching the electrical power to reduce electrical disturbances and flicker. The EAF at Weirton Pittsburg has implemented this technology and is feeding scrap continuously with rest of charge being Hot metal. In a variant of this technology scrap is preheated to 350 to 400 deg C while being transported on the conveyor using the hot exhaust gas. Shougang, China has implemented a similar technology for melting scrap and hot metal.

21 Conarc furnace The Twin shell EAF consists of two identical shells, with each shell having a holding and tapping weight of T respectively. The two shells share a common transformer and electrode system and a top oxygen lancing equipment. Each shell will work alternatively like a convertor and then subsequently as the electric arc furnace

22

23 Lay out of Conarc furnace

24 Conarc furnace Liquid Pig Iron (50 to 60% of charge weight) is charged in the shell of EAF and oxygen is blown from the top to oxidize the impurities, C, Mn, Si, P. oxygen is blown at a rate of m 3 /min and the convertor part of operation varies from minutes. After the oxygen blow is complete, the top lance is slewed to next shell and Electrode arcing system is slewed on the shell. The rest of the charge i.e. DRI is melted using electrical energy.

25 Advantages with hybrid furnaces The hybrid furnaces can operate with a variety of metallic inputs.this provides flexibility of operations. 100 % Scrap 70% DRI, rest Scrap 100% DRI 90% DRI, rest scrap 50% hot metal, 50% DRI.

26 Specific consumptions / Charge mix Sl.no Equipment data ISPAT NAT steel JSPL,Raigarh Al Tuwarqui 1 EAF Type AC,Twinshell DC Shaft AC AC 2 Heat size ( Tonnes) No. Of heats / day Charge mix Hot metal +DRI +Scrap ( 50/43/7) 100% Scrap Hot metal + DRI ( 55/45) 65% DRI,35% DRI Type (gas based DRI) Coal based DRI (gas based DRI) 5 Tap to tap time (min) minutes 6 Annual rated capacity 1.8 MT 0.8 MT 1 million tonne 1 miilion tonne 7 Transformer capacity 137 MVA 80 MVA 100 MVA 100 MVA 8 9 Specific power consumption (KWH/T) Specific oxygen consumption Lime consumption 40 Kg Dolomite consumption 30 Kg

27 Specific consumptions / Charge mix Sl.no Equipment data ISPAT NAT steel JSPL,Raigarh Al Tuwarqui Sidewall -800 with heats with 2 13 EAF refractory life repair times side repair 600 heats 1000 heats Bott0m heats 14 Electrode consumption Provision for shell change Yes No Yes Yes Metallic yield ( liq steel to 16 charge) 88% 91% 83% 90%

28 Principle Fig.1 Ladle furnace

29 Specification/Design Heat size in ladle Rating of transformer Length of electrode,mm 2100 Dia. of electrode,mm 450 Flow rate of the argon gas Nm3/hr Maximum heating rate Active power Materials to be fed from the MH system 130 /150 T 22MVA, 33KV, 30 4 degree C / minute 12 MW ( 30 KA current) FeMn ( LC and HC), SiMn,Fesi, Al, FeCr &C

30 Principle

31 Challenges for EAF steel making Enhancing energy recovery from the waste gases. Limited availability of scrap. As a result power consumption increases with higher % of DRI as charge mix. High conversion cost due to usage of graphite electrodes and expensive/ limited availability of electrical power.

32 Thank You

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