Troubleshooting. for. Printed Board. Manufacture. and Assembly IPC PE-740. Revision A December Developed by THE INSTITUTE FOR INTERCONNECTING

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1 IPC PE-740 Revision A December 1997 Troubleshooting for Printed Board Manufacture and Assembly IPC 1997 Developed by THE INSTITUTE FOR INTERCONNECTING AND PACKAGING ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS

2 December 1997 IPC-PE-740 Process Effects Handbook Table of Contents 1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PURPOSE AND FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROCESS CONTROL Problem Identification and Statement Immediate Action Plans Measurement System Evaluation Parameter Diagnostics Parameter Analysis Corrective Action Plan APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS IPC Government HANDLING Scratches Bending or Flexing Panels Fingerprints Storage BAKING General Problems Associated With Baking Resin Curing Stress Relief Moisture Removal Organic Coating Cure RINSING Rinse Time Rinse Water Temperature Agitation to Improve Rinsing Spray Rinsing Counterflow Rinsing Drip Times Special Rinse Techniques References PACKAGING MAINTENANCE Process Maintenance Preventative Maintenance Corrective Maintenance Calibration Program Housekeeping Proces Documentation and Procedures DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION DESIGN LAYOUT PROBLEMS ELECTRICAL MATERIAL COMPONENTS ASSEMBLY Component Processing Moving Substrates Assembly Process PRINTED BOARD FABRICATION Holes Conductors Construction BOARD PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS DOCUMENTATION Printed Board Master Drawing Printed Board Assembly Documentation INSPECTION AND TEST RELIABILITY PHOTOTOOLING MATERIALS AND PROCESSES General Diazo Film Silver Halide Film Glass - Silver Halide Glass - Hard Surface Image on Glass ARTWORK General Manually Prepared Artwork Photoplotter-Generated Artwork Laser-Generated Artwork Repair and Modification of Artwork III

3 IPC-PE-740 December PRODUCTION MASTER Reduction Problems Artwork Modifier Problems Step-And-Repeat Problems Coupons Versus End-Product Quality Measurement, Inspection and Touch-Up Direct Imaging (Magnetic Tape) Problems WORKING PHOTOTOOL, PRODUCTION MASTER Handling-Related Problems Normalizing-Related Misregistration Quality of Contact Prints Protective Coatings Pinning/Registration/Sandwiches GENERAL Resins Reinforcements Metal Foils PREPREG OR B-STAGE LAMINATE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BASE MATERIALS Material Identification Dimensional Stability Mechanical Stability Foreign Material / Inclusions Metal Surface Defects Chemical and Thermal Resistance Electrical MECHANICAL OPERATIONS DRILLING Dimensional Hole Quality Processing PUNCHING (PIERCE AND BLANK) Dimensional Feature Quality ROUTING Dimensional Feature Quality Processing SHEARING Dimensional Processing BEVELING Feature Quality Processing SCORING Dimensional Web Thickness and Web Location Score Angle Surface Quality LASER DRILLING Dimensional Hole Quality WATER JET CUTTING/PROFILING Dimensional Feature Quality Equipment HOLE PREPARATION MECHANICAL Deburring and Sanding Vapor Hone and Abrasive Blast CHEMICAL HOLE PREPARATION Resin Removal General Alkaline Permanganate Desmearing/Etchback System Sulfuric Acid Desmearing/Etchback System Chromic Acid Desmearing/Etchback System Reinforcement Removal, General Ammonium Bifluoride/Hydrochloric Acid Reinforcement Removal Hole Roughening PLASMA HOLE PREPARATION Plasma Smear Removal Side Effects ELECTROCHEMICAL DEBURRING General ELECTROLESS PROCESSES... 1 IV

4 December HOLE METALLIZATION (CONDITIONING) (Includes Cleaner/Conditioner, Micro-Etch Solutions and Their Rinses) Bath Control Hole Conditions Surface Conditions HOLE CATALYZATION (SENSITIZING) (Includes Predip, Catalyst, and Accelerator Baths and Their Rinses) Bath Control Hole Conditions HOLE METALLIZATION (Copper Deposition) (Includes Electroless Copper Bath and Rinses) Bath Control Hole Conditions Surface Problems HOLE METALLIZATION (REWORK) SEMI-CONDUCTIVE COATINGS Palladium-Based Carbon Black Dispersion Process FULL BUILD ELECTROLESS COPPER Additive Processing Semi-Additive Processing DIRECT METALLIZATION DURING DRILL OPERATION CLEANING PROCEDURES MECHANICAL CLEANING PROCEDURES General After Electroless Plating/Resist Application Before Fusing CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCEDURES General Solder Conditioning Before Fusing Cleaning After Fusing or Hot Air/Oil Level ELECTROCLEANING General IMAGING GENERAL DRY FILM PHOTORESIST Common Problems of Dry Film Photoresist Total Aqueous Resist IPC-PE Semi-Aqueous Resist Solvent Resist LIQUID PHOTORESIST Common Problems of Liquid Photoresist SCREEN PRINTED RESIST Common Problems of Screen Printed Resist ELECTROPHORETICALLY DEPOSITED PHOTORESIST LASER IMAGING OF PHOTORESIST ELECTROPLATING GENERAL COPPER ELECTROPLATING General Copper Sulfate Pyrophosphate Fluoborate TIN-LEAD General Fluoborate-Based Baths Organic Sulfonic Acid (OSA) Based Baths High-Speed Tin-Lead Plating High Throw Tin-Lead Plating TIN General Bright Acid Sulfate Tin NICKEL General Sulfamate Nickel Baths Sulfate (Watts) Nickel GOLD PLATING General Gold Strike Hard Gold Soft (bondable) Gold V

5 IPC-PE-740 December CONTACT PLATING (TAB OR FINGER PLATING) Preparation/Masking (Taping or Photoresist Application - Also see 9.2 and 16.4) Tin-Lead Stripping Cleaning Plating MISCELLANEOUS PLATING SOLUTIONS Rhodium Palladium Tin-Nickel Alloy Plating Palladium-Nickel ETCHING GENERAL Equipment-Related Effects and Effects from Other Processes CUPRIC CHLORIDE Bath Control Improper Etching ALKALINE (AMMONIACAL) ETCHANTS Bath Control Improper Etching PEROXIDE-SULFURIC ETCHANTS Bath Control Improper Etching FERRIC CHLORIDE Bath Control Improper Etching MISCELLANEOUS ETCHING SOLUTIONS Ammonium or Sodium Persulfate INNERLAYER FABRICATION GENERAL Handling Innerlayer Problems General PRINT AND ETCH INNERLAYERS Cleaning Resist Residue on Innerlayers Imaging INNERLAYERS WITH BLIND AND/OR BURIED VIAS Drilling Plating Etching COPPER TREATMENT TO IMPROVE LAMINATE ADHESION Double Treated Copper/Laminator s Oxide Black or Red/Brown Oxide Coatings Oxide Bath Control Oxide Post Treatment Conveyorized Oxide Systems Delamination Relating to the Application of the Oxide Coating LAMINATION GENERAL Misregistration Blisters/Delamation and Interlaminate Adhesion Bowing/Twisting Laminate Voids Resin Starvation Panel/Board Thickness Surface Imperfections HANDLING Misregistration Blisters/Delamination Laminate Voids Surface Imperfections EQUIPMENT Misregistration Blisters/Delamination Laminate Voids MATERIAL Misregistration Blisters/Delamination Bow and Twist (Warped) Laminate Voids Resin Starvation Panel Thickness Surface Imperfections TOOLING Misregistration Bow and Twist (Warped) Surface Imperfections VI

6 December MULTILAYER DESIGN Misregistration Blisters/Delamination Bow and Twist (Warped) Laminate Voids Resin Starvation Panel Thickness INNERLAYER PREPARATION Misregistration Blisters/Delamination Laminate Voids PREPREG (B-STAGE) PREPARATION Blisters/Delamination Laminate Voids Panel Thickness COPPER FOIL PREPARATION Blisters/Delamination Surface Imperfections LAY UP Blisters/Delamination Bow and Twist (Warped) Panel Thickness Surface Imperfections PRESSING Misregistration Blisters/Delamination Bow and Twist (Warped) Laminate Voids Resin Starvation Panel Thickness POST LAMINATION BAKE Blisters/Delamination Bow and Twist (Warped) Surface Imperfections SUBSEQUENT PROCESSING Misregistration Blisters/Delamination Bow and Twist (Warped) Voids in Plated Through Holes METALLIC PROTECTIVE COATINGS TIN-LEAD FUSING General Infra-red Fusing... 3 IPC-PE Hot Oil Reflow Vapor Phase Fusing SOLDER LEVELING Hot Air Leveling Machine/Material Problems IMMERSION COATINGS Immersion Tin Immersion Gold Immersion Tin-Lead ELECTROLESS COATINGS Electroless Nickel Electroless Tin NON-METALLIC PROTECTIVE COATINGS PERMANENT SOLDER RESIST Screen Printable Solder Resists (Thermal and UV Cure) Dry Film Solder Resist Liquid Photoimageable (LPI) Solder Resist TEMPORARY PROTECTIVE COATINGS Inhibitor Coatings Rosin-/Resin-Based Coatings (Prefluxes) Chromate Inhibitor Coatings Copper Oxidation (Also see Section 12.4) TEMPORARY SOLDER RESISTS Tape NOMENCLATURE (LEGEND) - NON-METALLIC MATERIALS Screen-Printed Photoimageable GENERAL Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Concerns Component Leads Storage COMPONENT PREPARATION Pre-Tinning Pre-Forming BOARD PREPARATION Pre-Assembly Bake COMPONENT INSERTION (THROUGH-HOLE) Manual/Semi-Automatic Automatic Insertion (Through-Hole)... 4 VII

7 IPC-PE-740 December COMPONENT PLACEMENT SURFACE MOUNT Adhesive Application Solder Paste Application Component Placement (Surface Mount) CHIP-ON-BOARD (Unpackaged Chip Components) Wire Bonding TAB Bonding GENERAL General Observed Conditions SOLDERING MATERIALS Adhesives (See Section , Adhesive Application) Solder Paste (Also see Section , Solder Paste Application) Flux (See Section 17.4, Wave Soldering) Solder (See Section 17.4, Wave Soldering) MANUAL (HAND) SOLDERING WAVE SOLDERING Equipment Related Problems Material/Prior Process Related Problems Design Related Problems VAPOR PHASE SOLDERING Equipment/Process Related Problems Material/Prior-Process Related Problems INFRARED/CONVECTION REFLOW SOLDERING Equipment/Process Related Problems Material/Prior-Process Related Problems CLEANING Solder Flux Removal Legend Ink Removal Pre-encapsulation Cleaning POST SOLDERING PROCESSES CONFORMAL COATING General Problems Polyurethane Conformal Coatings Silicone Conformal Coatings Paraxylylene Conformal Coating VARNISHING POTTING AND CASTING INSPECTION AND TEST METHODS OF INSPECTION AND TEST Equipment Personnel CLEANLINESS Ionic contamination Organic Contamination ELECTRICAL TESTING Moisture and Insulation Resistance Insulation Resistance As Received Dielectric Withstand Surface Insulation Resistance Electrical Continuity Isolation (Shorts) VISUAL AND AUTOMATIC OPTICAL INSPECTION Visual Inspection Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) THERMAL STRESS (Solder Float) Coupon Conditioning and Thermal Stress MICROSECTIONING Microsection Preparation Microsection Etching Microsection Evaluation OTHER TEST METHODS Thermal Shock Tensile Strength and Elongation Bond Strength of Surface Mount Lands Rework Simulation Gold Porosity Testing Copper Hole Wall Thickness Using Caviderm Type Resistance Measurements Plating Thickness (Beta Backscatter) Plating Thickness (X-Ray Fluorescence) MODIFICATION, REWORK AND REPAIR TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Rework Repair COMPONENT REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT General Problems Conductive Heating Methods Convective Heating Methods... 2 VIII

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