# Temperature Scales. Questions. Temperature Conversions 7/21/2010. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser. Thermally Activated Processes

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1 7/1/010 EE80 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser Flow of Wafer in Fabrication Lecture 0 Microfabrication A combination of Applied Chemistry, Physics and ptics Thermal Processes Diffusion & xidation Photolithograpy Depostion Etching Wafer In Film Deposition Photo Lithography Doping Mask Set Etching Wafer out 1 Questions What is heat? Heat is the internal energy of a solid which is stored as atom vibration. What is heat flow? Heat flow represents the transfer from hot to cold of energy by the random motion and collisions of atoms and molecules Heat is removed by: Conduction through solids Convection through fluids and gases Radiation through no medium (IR) What is temperature? Temperature is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of the molecules. Temperature Temperature Scales Body Temperature 98.6 F 1 F 77 F Where do these 3 F 100 C 37 C temperature scales intersect? C 0 C Room Temperature Water freezes Heat Energy Water Boils 3 4 Temperature Conversions F = 3 C = 0 F = 1 C = F = C + 3 = C + 3 = C if F = C F = F o o F = 3 F = 3 = 40 F = 40 C 4 Thermally Activated Processes Thermal energy required to initiate process. Diffusion Interstitial impurity atoms move in lattice A A* B U = PE(x) U A* A* o K = 73 + o C E A U A = U B A B X Displacement 6 1

2 7/1/010 Thermally Activated Process Energy below the activation energy Energy above the activation energy Diffusion Movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration Mass transport within solids by stepwise atomic motion Thermal energy drives reaction 7 8 Vacancy Diffusion Interstitial Diffusion Vacancy Requires vacancies (defects) Rate a function of the number of defects present More rapid than vacancy diffusion More empty interstitial positions than vacancies 9 10 Diffusion Process where particles tend to spread out or redistribute due to random thermal motion from high concentration to low concentration Ex: spill a beer and eventually the whole room smells like a brewery r perfume 1-D system particles have an equally chance of jumping left or right due to thermal energy, if hit a wall bounce back to original bin Diffusion (doping ) Activation energy energy required to get over potential barrier (change location) E = A D D0 exp kt Arrhenius Rate Equation How far does the impurity move root mean ' displacement L = L = [ D( T ) t] i total Diti θ = 180 θ = 90 θ = 0 y x a X L Y After N jumps θ =

3 7/1/010 B Diffusion Reactions P B P + xide ( 4 ) 4 tetrahedron Dopant Sources Substrate Doping Elements Dioxide and four closest oxygen atoms Quartz vs fused silica Thermal xidation of Ambient Dry Wet H + + H + H Diffusion Reaction at interface Crystalline Quartz Amorphous fused silica Which method gives the better quality insulator Wet or Dry oxidation? Why? Which method is faster? Why? 1 16 xidation of Dry oxidation slower (larger molecules) but better quality of oxide. Wet oxidation faster but quality suffers due to the diffusion of the hydrogen gas out of the film. This creates paths that electrons can follow. Consumed in xidation 4% 46% Dioxide Dangling bonds xide grows at the silicon oxide interface. xygen or water vapor must diffuse through the oxide to reach the interface. This limits the practical thickness that can be grown. The resulting oxide expands out of the surface, which creates high compressive stress

4 7/1/010 Thermal xidation of oxidizes on exposure to oxygen Dry : + Wet : + H + H Room temperature in air creates Native xide Very Thin ~1nm poor insulator, but can impede surface processing of Dry xide: C in Thin µm : Excellent insulator: gate oxides Wet xide: C in H Thick <.µm : Good Insulator: field oxides, Masking 19 Color Chart 0 Photolithography Lithography is the basic technique to define and transfer patterns in most microfabrication procedures Photolithography uses UV light through a mask onto a photosensitive organic (photoresist, PR) Positive resist exposed resist is removed in developer What shows goes (image of mask) Shipley 1813 Negative resist UV light cross links polymer and developer rinses away non cross linked chains exposed remains (negative of mask) PR protects region for the next process step UV light Positive Resist vs Negative Resist Mask Substrate Photoresist Thin Film Positive Resist Negative Resist Image of Mask Remove Exposed Film Negative of Mask 1 Exposure/Developing Thin Film Etching Correct exposure and development Positive or Negative? Under exposed (strip PR and start again) Anisotropic etching Under developed (continue developing) ver developed (strip PR and start again) Patterned Photoresist on a thin film Isotropic etching 3 4 4

5 7/1/010 1) Deposit Film ) Apply Photoresist 3) Expose Photoresist t 4) Develop Photoresist ) Transfer Pattern Pattern Thin Film Thin Film Substrate Photoresist UV Light Mask Positive or Negative? Apply Photoresist pen top cover to access vacuum chuck. Make sure 4 chuck is in place Place wafer on vacuum chuck. Use the centering tool to make sure the wafer is in the center. It is important to make sure the flats aren t used in the centering process. Close cover. Press RUN then 9 then Start to start program 9. Record rate and time Watch to make sure the wafer doesn t wobble when it does the test spin. If the wafer doesn t wobble then press Start again. Watch the timer on the spinner when it dispenses the PR you may have to hold down the plunger. nce it is dispensed close the door to the fume hood. Photo spin coater 6 Press ption, Start, Run, 9 Place wafer on hot plate and push to the pins on the hot plate. Wait for the vacuum on the hot plate to initiate the process Watch counter Take the wafer off as soon as the counter reaches zero. Prebake Photo hot plate ABM Contact Aligner 7 8 Alignment position Groups of alignment marks should be placed near the perimeter of the mask sets Microscope objectives Makes rotational alignment easier Alignment is iterative process x y then theta, x y then theta Exposure Turn on vacuum pump. Put mask on the mask holder and turn on the vacuum. (Insert mask with chrome side down) Raise the wafer stage (switch on the right) Load wafer onto vacuum chuck. Turn on vacuum chuck. Beware of flat position Lower stage. Raise wafer until it comes is contact with the mask. You will feel the micrometer knob slip. photo 9 30

6 7/1/010 Lower wafer 100 µm Calculate the exposure time Auto expose. Don t look at the light. Remove mask and wafer. Leave the machine on. Aligner Mask Holder Development PR comes with corresponding developer. Typically a KH dissolved in water that reacts with PR to form amines and metallic salts Very temperature sensitive ii chemical reaction, therefore need to monitor or set temperature. After development a hard bake is used to further set the PR and drive off absorbed water and solvent MF 319 Pour developer into crystallization dish Time the development Record time and developer concentration Rinse and inspect If PR is not entirely removed in exposed areas, return to developer Record additional time Develop Postbake If patterns are well defined post bake This drives off the remaining solvent Record time and temperature Wet Etching Dioxide HF supplied by vendor is 49% Etch rate too fast + 6 HF H F6 + H Reaction consumes HF rate will be function of time Buffering agent added to maintain HF concentration Ammonium Fluoride: NH 4 F 6:1 Buffered xide Etch 6:1 NH 4 F:HF (40%:49%) 3 Etch Rate The rate at which the material is removed T T change in thickness etch rate = = t change in time 36 6

7 7/1/010 Etch xide (HF solution) BE 6:1 Etch rate 900nm/min Calculate required time for your oxide thickness Approx. 6 minutes Rinse and dry It is better to over etch at this step than under etch. Record time and concentration used Solvent Clean Acetone Red Isopropyl Alcohol Blue Methanol Green DI water Dry with nitrogen gun Store wafer in dry box Atoms from a solid are vaporized 3 Basics Steps of Evaporation ur Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Vaporized atoms are transported through a reduced d pressure region Atoms condense on a solid surface to form a thin film PVD: Loading the Wafers PVD: Mounting the Filament

8 7/1/010 PVD: Images of the filament PVD: Unloading Wet Etching Aluminum Phosphoric Acetic Nitric Acids (PAN etch) 16:1:1: H 3 P 4 :CH 3 CH:HN 3 :H Heated to 3 4⁰C 30Å/minute Nitric oxidizes Al Al 3 Phosphoric dissolves alumina By product hydrogen gas Do under fume hood Gas bubbles can micro mask 4 8

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