1 Introduction to the mechanical design of aircraft engines Reference : AERO MECHANICAL DESIGN OF TURBOMACHINERY - 5 ECTS - J.-C. GOLINVAL
2 2 Principles of jet propulsion Comparison between the working cycle of a turbo-jet engine Air intake Compression Combustion Exhaust and a piston engine Air intake Compression Combustion Exhaust
3 3 Development process of the structural design Industrialization Testing Program Request For Proposal Preliminary Design Review Detailed Design Certification Program Launch First Engine To Turn milestone Definition of the thermodynamic cycle consistent with the specification and of the best structural architecture of the engine Today, the duration of this process is about 3 years (against ~ 6 years in the 90s)
4 4 Challenges of turbojet technology Evolution of turbojet engines to the technology level of today In conclusion, new concepts or technological breakthroughs are rare; advancements are rather due evolutionary improvements of the design. To achieve good performances, parallel research and development effort were undertaken in areas such as in aerodynamics, aerothermics, acoustics, combustion process, mechanics,metallurgy, manufacturing, Aim of this presentation Focus on the mechanical aspects of the design.
5 5 Challenges of turbojet technology Overall efficiency of a jet propulsion engine Overall efficiency η overall = η thermal η propulsive Thermal efficiency Propulsive efficiency
6 6 Thermal efficiency The thermal efficiency is defined as the ratio of the net power out of the engine to the rate of thermal energy available from the fuel. According to the Temperature-Entropy diagram of an ideal turbojet engine, the thermal efficiency simplifies to η thermal T = 1 T e Temperature Entropy 4 e
7 7 Challenges of turbojet technology To progress to the performance capabilities of today, two goals were (and still are) being pursued to increase the thermal efficiency: Goal n 1: Increase the compressor pressure ratio. Trend in compressor pressure ratios Calendar years Compressor pressure ratio Late 1930 to :1 to about 6:1 Early 1950 About 10: to :1 to about 25: :1 to about 40:1
8 8 Mechanical challenges Increasing of the compressor pressure ratio (r) «variable» geometry to adapt the compressor behavior to various regimes. 2 solutions are possible
9 9 Concept of variable stator blades Solution n 1: concept of variable stator blades Design of reliable airflow control systems. Prevention of air leakage at the pivots of the vanes at high pressures (temperatures). Variable stator vanes HP compressor
10 10 Concept of multiple rotors Solution n 2: concept of multiple rotors (r ~ 20:1-30:1) Example of a dual-rotor configuration Fan HPC HPT LPT CFM56 Advantages Selection of optimal speeds for the HP and LP stages. Reduction of the number of compressor stages. Cooling air is more easily taken between the LP and HP rotors. The starting of the engine is easier as only the HP rotor needs to be rotated.
11 11 Concept of multiple rotors Rolls-Royce RB211 engine
12 12 Concept of multiple rotors Mechanical challenges Analysis of the dynamic behavior of multiple-rotor systems and prediction of critical speeds. Design of disks. Example 2 (or even 3) coaxial rotors require to bore the HP disks to allow passing the LP shaft the stress level doubles (hole) and increases with the boring radius To place the first critical speeds above the range of operational speeds, the LP shaft diameter should be as high as possible. Opposite requirements
13 13 Thermal efficiency The thermal efficiency is defined as the ratio of the net power out of the engine to the rate of thermal energy available from the fuel. According to the Temperature-Entropy diagram of an ideal turbojet engine, the thermal efficiency simplifies to η thermal T = 1 T e Temperature Entropy 4 e
14 14 Challenges of turbojet technology Goal n 2: Increase the ratio of power-output to engine weight by increasing the turbine inlet temperature Trend in turbine inlet temperatures Turbine inlet temperature C Military Commercial Year
15 15 Mechanical challenges Increasing the turbine temperature capability Main technological challenge: the HP turbine temperature is conditioned by the combustion chamber outlet temperature. SNECMA combustion chamber Stress distribution in a structural element of the combustion chamber
16 16 Mechanical challenges Increasing the turbine temperature capability Example of the SNECMA M88 HP turbine Rotational velocity Centrifugal acceleration Disk load induced by the blades
17 17 Mechanical challenges In early turbojet engines:solid blades the maximum admissible temperature was directly related to improvement of structural materials (T max ~ 1100 C) From : development of early air-cooled turbine blades hollow blades internal cooling of blades (casting using the lost wax technique)
18 18 Mechanical challenges HP turbine blade cooling HP nozzle guide vane cooling Internal and film cooling Impingement tubes Film cooling Lost wax process
19 19 Mechanical challenges Today: single crystal casting
20 20 Mechanical challenges Comparison of turbine blade life properties (fixed temperature and stress levels) Elongation (%) Directionally solidified blades Conventionally cast blade * * Single crystal blades * Fracture Single crystal blades Time (hrs)
21 21 Challenges of turbojet technology Overall efficiency of a jet propulsion engine Overall efficiency η overall = η thermal η propulsive Thermal efficiency Propulsive efficiency
22 22 Propulsive efficiency The propulsive efficiency is defined as the ratio of the useful power output (the product of thrust and flight velocity, V 0 ) to the total power output (rate of change of the kinetic energy of gases through the engine). This simplifies to thrust flight velocity F V η 0 propulsive = = W& out total power output 2 V V e exit velocity
23 23 Challenges of turbojet technology Goal n 3: Increase the propulsive efficiency to lower the thrust specific fuel consumption (specially true for subsonic flight i.e. in the case of commercial engines). the principle is to accelerate a larger mass of air to a lower velocity.
24 24 Principle of the by-pass engine (called turbofan) Air flow rate ~ 5 to 7 times the air flow rate going through the gas generator Drawback: the frontal area of the engine is quite large more drag and more weight result
25 25 Trend in thrust specific fuel consumption Single-pool axial flow turbojet Twin-spool by-pass turbojet Twin-spool front fan turbojet Advanced technology (high by-pass ratio) Propfan Year
26 26 Mechanical challenges Development of high-bypass ratio turbofans Main technological challenge:mechanical resistance of fan blades (without penalizing mass). Improvement of structural materials such as titanium alloys. Design of shrouded fan blades with a high length-to-chord aspect ratio or of large-chord fan blades with honeycomb core. Knowledge of the dynamics of rotors stiffened by high gyroscopic couples and submitted to large out of balance forces (e.g. fan blade failure). Fan blade-off and containment analysis methods (e.g. blade loss). Use of Foreign Object Damage criteria (e.g. bird or ice impact on fan, ingestion of water, sand, volcanic ashes,...).
27 27 Mechanical challenges New concept: high by-pass engine wide chord fan blade the weight is maintained at a low level by fabricating the blade from skins of titanium incorporating a honeycomb core Prop-fan concept Contra-rotating prop-fan This configuration is still in an experimental state Wide chord fan blade construction
28 28 Mechanical design of industrial rotors
29 29 Rotordynamics Type of analysis performed in industry Stability analysis and determination of critical speeds (Campbell diagram). Forced response to harmonic excitation. Forced response to transient excitation (crossing of critical speeds).
30 30 Typical mission profile for a civil aircraft Step climb Cruise Continued cruise Diversion Hold Nominal speed at take-off Landing The critical speeds should placed outside two zones: 50 % and [75% - 110%] of the nominal speed.
31 31 Baseline mechanical design of turbojets Summary of basic steps for the design position the critical speeds outside the range of operational speeds (e.g. a margin of 10% is usually taken). add external damping to lower the resonance amplitude peaks (in order to keep the rotor-stator gap at the minimum and thus to optimize engine performances). minimize excitation sources (balancing, alignment, optimization of gaps). select low support stiffness (flexible bearing supports) in order to reduce the dynamic load transmitted through the bearing to the stator.
32 32 The CFM 56-5 jet engine (Airbus A320, A 340) Twin-spool front fan turbo-jet (high by-pass ratio) Take-off thrust of dan
33 33 The CFM 56-5 jet engine (Airbus A320, A 340) Schematic model of the jet engine Casings (15 nodes, 4 beam elements, 4 disks, 6 supplementary mass elements) Bearings Intershaft bearing Bearings Low-pressure (LP) rotor (9 nodes, 5 beam elements, 9 disks) High-pressure (HP) rotor (7 nodes, 3 beam elements, 7 disks) Ω = Ω ( ) HP BP rpm
34 34 The CFM 56-5 jet engine (Airbus A320, A 340) Campbell diagram Mode-shapes at 5000 rpm ω Hz 3.9 Hz ω = Ω HP Hz Hz ω = Ω BP 60.7 Hz 71.1 Hz 1160 Ω BP tours/min.
35 35 The CFM 56-5 jet engine (Airbus A320, A 340) Response to mass unbalance on LP rotor (point A) A B At point A At point B Ω BP Ω BP
36 36 Structural dynamics of blades and disks Vibration phenomena are the main cause of failure of compressor blades and disks. Requirements Ability to predict: natural frequencies (i.e. to identify critical speeds); mode-shapes (i.e. to establish vulnerability to vibrate and locations of maximum stresses); damping levels (i.e. severity of resonance); response levels (i.e. fatigue susceptibility); stability (i.e. vulnerability to flutter).
37 37 Structural dynamics of blades and disks Campbell diagrams (Natural frequencies vs. Rotation speed) Standard format for presentation of blade vibration properties in order to illustrate the essential features and regions of probable vibration problem areas.
38 38 Dynamic analysis methods for practical blades Campbell diagram of a compressor blade 1000 Frequency (Hz) 2nd Bending (Flap) Engine Order 7 Engine Order 6 Engine Order 5 Engine Order st Torsion (Edge) Engine Order 3 1st Bending (Flap) Engine Order 2 Engine Order 1 Rotation speed (rpm)
39 39 Flutter design methodology Types of flutter Subsonic/Transonic stall flutter (one of the most encountered in practice) Surge line Supersonic stall flutter High incidence supersonic flutter Pressure ratio 50 % 75 % 100 % Classical unstalled supersonic flutter Operating line Choke flutter Corrected mass flow rate
40 40 Flutter design methodology Shroud or interconnected tip The design of the first blades of the compressor is governed by aeroelastic problems. 1st natural frequency (torsion or bending) Criterion: c x f 1 > threshold limit chord First solution Make the chord wider high weight construction of the blade with a honeycomb core, which renders the fabrication more complex (high cost).
41 41 Flutter design methodology Criterion c x f 1 1st natural frequency (torsion or bending) > threshold limit chord Second solution Make the first natural frequency f 1 higher (and bring damping) shrouded blades or fixed tip Take care to the mechanical resistance (high centrifugal effect at the external diameter).
42 42 Mechanical design of disks Disks may have different shapes depending on their location into the engine Fan LP compressor ring Drum HP compressor Disks of varying thickness HP and LP turbines Hollow constant-thickness disks Driving flange
43 43 Mechanical design of disks
44 44 Mechanical design of disks Sources of stresses in a rotor disk Centrifugal body force of disk material; Centrifugal load produced by the blades and their attachments to the disk; Thermo-mechanical stresses produced by temperature gradients between bore and rim; Shear stresses produced by torque transmission from turbine to compressor; Bending stresses produced by aerodynamic loads on the blades; Dynamical stresses of vibratory origin;
45 45 Mechanical design of turbine blades An «optimal» mechanical design requires: 1. The precise determination of physical parameters (temperature, stress and strain distributions) use of refined finite element models, thermo-elasto-viscoplastic analyses. 2. The perfect understanding of the material properties and the conditions which lead to failure this corresponds to the use of an equivalent safety factor of 1.5 or less.
46 46 Mechanical design of turbine disks and blades Damage tolerance philosophy Crack size Assumed life curves Safety limit Initial defect size Detection limit cycles Return to service intervals
47 47 Conclusion In summary, the mechanical design of turbojets is challenging. One of the first challenge is the study of the dynamics of multiple rotor systems submitted to large gyroscopic couples. Then, depending on the engine component (blade, disk) and on its location within the engine, problems are of very different nature: In the «cold» parts of the engine (fan, LP compressor, HP compressor), the mechanical design is based on the solution of dynamical problems (blade vibrations, aeroelastic flutter, bird impact). In the «hot» parts of the engine (HP compressor, combustion chamber, HP turbine), the design is based on creep and fatigue calculations and a damage tolerance philosophy is applied.
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