1 BMM3643 Manufacturing Processes Powder Metallurgy Process by Dr Mas Ayu Bt Hassan Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
2 Chapter Synopsis This chapter will expose students to the sequence steps in making powder metal such as methods to produce the metal powders, blending, compaction, sintering and finishing operations.
3 Chapter Information Lesson Objectives: Powder Metallurgy Process Lesson Objective: At the end of this lecture, students should be able to understand and explain the following: Differentiate the various operations needed in powder-metallurgy process Analyze the characteristics of production, blending and compaction of metal powders operations
4 Introduction In powder metallurgy process (P/M), metal powders are compacted into desired shapes and sintered to form a solid metal. Commonly used metals in P/M are: Iron, Tin, Copper, Aluminum, and Nickel It is a completive process with forging and machining Parts can weight from 2.5Kg up to 50Kg
5 PRODUCTS MADE BY POWDER-METALLURGY (b) (a) (c) (a) Examples of typical parts made by powder-metallurgy processes. (b) Upper trip lever for a commercial sprinkler made by P/M. This part is made of an unleaded brass alloy; it replaces a die-cast part with a 60% savings. (c) Main-bearing metal-powder caps for 3.8 and 3.1 liter General Motors automotive engines. Source: (a) and (b) Reproduced with permission from Success Stories on P/M Parts, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, New Jersey, (c) Courtesy of Zenith Sintered Products, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
6 Sequence in Producing Powder-Metallurgy Parts Source by Kalpakjian Book, 2014
7 1. Production of Metal Powders 1. Atomization Injecting molten metal through a small orifice 2. Reduction Using gases (H & CO) to produce fine metallic oxides 3. Electrolytic deposition Either aqueous solutions or fused salts 4. Carbonyls Iron & nickels react with CO creating metal carbonyls such as Fe(CO) 5 & Ni(CO) 4 5. Comminution Crushing, milling, grinding metals into small particles 6. Mechanical alloying Impacts of hard balls, the powders fracture & join together by diffusion, forming alloy powders.
8 PRODUCTION OF METAL POWDERS: ATOMIZATION (b) Methods of metal-powder production by atomization: (c) (a) gas atomization; (b) water atomization; (c) atomization with a rotating consumable electrode; and (d) centrifugal atomization with a spinning disk or cup. Source by Kalpakjian Book, 2014
9 PRODUCTION OF METAL POWDERS: MECHANICAL COMMINUTION (b) (c) Methods of mechanical comminution to obtain fine particles: (a) roll crushing, (b) ball mill, and (c) hammer milling. Source by Kalpakjian Book, 2014
10 PRODUCTION OF METAL POWDERS: MECHANICAL ALLOYING (b) (c) Mechanical alloying of nickel particles with dispersed smaller particles. As nickel particles are flattened between the two balls, the second smaller phase is impresses into the nickel surface and eventually is dispersed throughout the particle due to successive flattening, fracture, and welding events. Source by Kalpakjian Book, 2014
11 Particle Shapes in Metal Powders Particle shapes in metal powders, and the processes by which they are produced. Iron powders are produced by many of these processes. Source by Kalpakjian Book, 2014
12 SEM images: Metal Powder Particles (a) (a) Scanning-electron-microscopy photograph of iron-powder particles made by atomization. (b) Nickel-based superalloy (Udimet 700) powder particles made by the rotating electrode process. Source: Courtesy of P.G. Nash, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. (b)
13 Screening Metal Particle Size and Shapes In addition to screen analysis one can use: 1. Sedimentation - measuring the rate that particles settle in a fluid 2. Microscopic analysis - using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FESEM 3. Light scattering - Using laser to illuminates particles 4. Optical - particles blocking a beam of light that is sensed by a photocell 5. Suspending particles in a liquid & detecting particle size & distribution
14 2. Blending Metal Powders Powders made by different processes will have different sizes and shapes and must be well mixed-impart special physical & mechanical properties & characteristic. Blending can obtain uniformity from part to part. Lubricants can be mixed with the powders to improve their flow characteristics (reduce friction, improve flow & die life).
15 Bowl Geometries in Blending Metal Powders (e) (a) to (d) Some common bowl geometries for mixing or blending powders. (e) A mixer suitable for blending metal powders. Since metal powders are abrasive, mixers rely on the rotation or tumbling of enclosed geometries as opposed to using aggressive agitators. Source: Courtesy of Gardner Mixers, Inc.
16 3. Compaction of Metal Powders Blended metal powders are pressed together into various shape of die. The powder must flow easily into the die. In compaction, size distribution is important that: i. They should not be all the same size ii. Should be a mixture of large and small particle The higher the density; the higher the strength The density of the metal powders depends on the pressure applied.
17 Sequence in Compaction Metal Powders (a) Compaction of metal powder to form a bushing. The pressed-powder part is called green compact. (b) Typical tool and die set for compacting a spur gear. Source: Courtesy of Metal Powder Industries Federation.
18 THE EFFECTS OF DENSITY IN P/M PARTS (c) (a) Density of copper- and iron-powder compacts as a function of compacting pressure. Density greatly influences the mechanical and physical properties of P/M parts. (b) Effect of density on tensile strength, elongation, and electrical conductivity of copper powder. Source: (a) After F. V. Lenel, (b) IACS: International Annealed Copper Standard (for electrical conductivity).
19 Compacting Pressures for Various Powders BMM 3643 Page 19
20 Compaction of Metal Powders (continue) Compaction Equipment Different metal powders need to be compacted using different pressure. Compaction equipment are divided into 2 categories: i. Cold compaction ii. Hot compaction
21 i. Cold Compaction Cold isostatic Pressing (CIP) Metal powder is placed in a flexible rubber mold Pressurized hydrostatically Uses pressures up to 400 MPa Typical application is automotive cylinder liners
22 Cold Isostatic Pressing Schematic illustration of cold isostatic pressing, as applied to forming a tube. The powder is enclosed in a flexible container around a solid-core rod. Pressure is applied isostatically to the assembly inside a high-pressure chamber. Source: Reprinted with permission from R. M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ; 1984.
23 ii. Hot Compaction Hot Isostatic pressing (HIP) Container is made of high-melting-point sheet metal Uses a inert gas as the pressurizing medium Common conditions for HIP are 100 MPa & 1200 o C Mainly used for super alloy casting, aircraft, military & medical
24 Hot Isostatic Pressing Schematic diagram of hot isostatic pressing. The pressure and temperature variation versus time are shown in the diagram. Source by Kalpakjian Book, 2014
25 4. Sintering Green compacts are heated in a furnace to a temp. below melting point Improves the strength of the material Proper furnace control is important for optimum properties Particles start forming a bond by diffusion Vapor phase transport heated very close to melting temperature allows metal atoms to release to the vapor phase
26 Mechanisms for Sintering Metal Powders Illustration of two mechanisms for sintering metal powders: (a) solid-state material transport; and (b) vapor-phase material transport. R = particle radius, r = neck radius, and p = neck-profile radius. Source by Kalpakjian Book, 2014
27 Sintering Temperature and Time for Various Metals Source by Kalpakjian Book, 2014
28 WROUGHT VERSUS P/M METALS (c)
29 5. Secondary & Finishing Operations To improve the properties of sintered P/M products several additional operations may be used: Coining and sizing compaction operations Impact forging cold or hot forging may be used Parts may be impregnated with a fluid to reduce the porosity Infiltration metal infiltrates the pores of a sintered part to produce a stronger part and produces a pore free part Other finishing operations: i. Heat treating ii. Machining iii. Grinding iv. Plating
30 Design Considerations for P/M Parts Simple and uniform shape as possible. Provision for ejection without damaging the green compact. Made with the widest acceptable tolerances to maximize tool life. Walls should not be less than 1.5 mm thick; walls with length-to-thickness ratios above 8:1 are difficult to press. A true radius cannot be pressed; instead use a chamfer. BMM 3643 Page 30
31 (c) Examples of P/M parts showing poor and good designs. Note that sharp radii and reentry corners should be avoided and that threads and transverse holes have to be produced separately by additional machining operations. Source: Courtesy of Metal Powder Industries Federation.
32 DESIGN FEATURES FOR USE WITH UNSUPPORTED FLANGES OR GROOVES (c) Design features for use with unsupported flanges. (b) Design features for use with grooves. Source: Courtesy of Metal Powder Industries Federation.
33 P/M Process Capabilities Capabilities; Suitable for parts from high melting refractory metals High production rates Good dimensional control Wide range of compositions in obtaining the properties Limitations; High tooling cost for short production runs Limitations on part size and shape complexity Mechanical properties of the part strength & ductility BMM 3643 Page 33
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