Overview and EE&C of Steel Industry in Japan

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1 Overview and EE&C of Steel Industry in Japan November, 2006 Hideyuki TANAKA Program Leader, International Engineering Dept. The Energy Conservation Center, Japan 1

2 1. Recent status of Energy Conservation in Mini Mill Industry in Japan 2. EE & C Activities in EAF 3. EE & C Activities in CC 4. Energy Conservation in Rolling Mill Process 5. Transition of Total Energy Intensity (Crude oil equivalent) - Example - 2

3 (1) Trend of Crude Steel Production, Operation Status in Japan kton EAF ratio = (EAF steel) / (All steel) Converter EAF ratio EAF, Special steel Open hearth EAF, Ordinary steel 3

4 (2) Energy Saving Technologies in Mini Mill Process Decrease of Input Power Decrease of Heat Loss VVVF Bag Filter Scrap Scrap Preheater EAF Ladle & Tundish Continuous Caster Decrease of Holding Time Billet Heat insulator DHCR (Direct Hot Charge Rolling) Rolling Mill Furnace Regenerative Burner Furnace Operation Rod, Bar & Coil Continuous Rolling Type 1 Type 2 Connecting of Billet Connecting of Bar 4

5 (3) Energy Use in Mini Mill Factory (Products: Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement) 13% 10% 4% 52% 9% 12% Ratio EAF (Power) EAF (Chemical Reaction O2 Oil Others) Auxiliaries of Steel Making Shop (Power) Burner (Ladle+Tundish) Burner (Re-heating Furnace) Rolling Mill Shop (Power) 5

6 (1) Transition of Technical Development Period Introduction of new Technologies Tap-Tap Time (min) Power Consum. (kwh/t) (EAF-CC) Oxygen m 3 N/t Oil L/t ~ 1976 Traditional operation method ~ ~ ~ ~ LF installation Burners on wall Furnace water cooling Wider water cool area High power factor operation Carbon injection SPH installation Oxygen rich operation (PSA) New casting machine EBT installation Installation of more wall burners ~ 2000 Bottom stirring DC furnace (More than 20 f ces) Aluminum arm, Slag detector Powder casting or nozzle casting Large tundish, EMS Mist cooling 2001~ 2006 Ecoarc (Shaft furnace and continuous operation) 63 Hot metal operation Night time operation Utilization of waste materials 200 6

7 Tap to Tap Time (min) (2) Trend in Operation Indices of EAF Power Unit Consumption of EAF (kwh/t-good steel) Tap to Tap Time Power Unit Consumption of EAF 7

8 (3) Energy Conservation Activities in EAF Process 1) Energy conservation in EAF shop (EAF: Electric Arc Furnace (AC, DC)) a) Increase of input energy Enrichment of O 2 According to above countermeasure Increase of Oil (Burner), Carbon, Low cost alloys (Aluminum ash, Bundle made from Can, etc. ) 8

9 b) Increase of efficiency in input energy Power Common (DC, AC ): VVVF control of electrode lifting Introduction of Inverter control system Foaming slag control in refining stage, etc. AC Al-arm, Reactor (in case of enough capacity of power station and high voltage operation), etc Other Post combustion (Shaft furnace), Supersonic lance, etc. 9

10 c) Decrease of output energy Increase of Heat size Decrease of Tap to Tap time and waiting time of the time after tapping (from tapping to the start of scrap charge) Decrease of heat loss by slag Hot recycle of slag, Control of scrap s dust, etc. Scrap preheating Shaft furnace with decreasing technology of dioxin 2) Others Power saving in auxiliaries VVVF control of dust collecting fan motor, etc. 10

11 (4) Energy Balance Energy (kwh/t) Power 380 C-combustion 210 Metal oxidation 100 Metal Slag 100 Furnace loss 140 Off gas Metal oxidation Input Output 11

12 (5) Enriched Oxygen Operation (Example) Melting Stage Melt down and Refining Stage Coke Slag Foaming Detector Coke O 2 Manipulator / EBT Water Cooled Lance Fe + 1/2 O2 = FeO 1.15Mcal/kg-Fe C + 1/2 O2 = CO 2.2Mcal/kg-C FeO + C = Fe + CO Mcal/kg-Fe O 2 #1 Ch. Burner #1 Me. #2 Ch. #2 Me. Refining and Heating Tap Oxygen Carbon 5.3kA 5.3kA 700V 700V 675V Time (min) 12

13 (6) Influence of Oxygen and Reheat on Power Consumption 3 kwh/t Oxygen 1m 3 N/t (m 3 N/t) 13

14 (7) Relation between Transformer Capacity and Tap to Tap Time of EAF Tap to Tap Time (min) Transformer Capacity / Charge Weight (MW/Ch-t) 14

15 (8) Scrap Preheater Several Types of Recent Scrap Preheater Consteel Shaft Furnace Twin Shell Furnace Effect: 45kWh/t (Reported value) Effect: 70kWh/t (Reported value) Effect: 30kWh/t (Reported value) 15

16 (9) Effect of VVVF (Example of Power saving calculation) Blower Motor of Direct Dust Collector (970kW) Power Consumption Difference (80t furnace) Without VVVF With VVVF (min/60) [1 11/60 = 960kWh/ch / /60] = 520kWh/ch. 960/80 = 12kWh/t 520/80 = 6.5kWh/t 5.5kWh/t Operation rate: 100% 85% 75% 1 charge = 70 min: min 16

17 (10) Energy Control System Standardized Operation and Reduction of Production Cost in EAF Melting Control Power control Melting profile calculation Raw/Submaterial feed control Additional scrap charging & meltdown determination Data Management Statistical data analysis Operation tracking and reporting (Electricity & fuel: daily & monthly report) Refining Control Slag foaming guidance Thermal model calculation Metallurgical model calculation Other Functions Trend graph of kwh/t Correlation between kwh & oxygen Etc. 17

18 (1) EE&C Activities in CC (1) Energy conservation in Ladle and CC Regenerative burner for ladle & tundish Matching of the productivity between EAF and CC (Continuous Casting) (2) Energy conservation after CC Billet heat insulating equipment DHCR (Direct Hot Charge Rolling), etc. Matching of the productivity between CC and Rolling Mill 18

19 (2) Regenerative Burner for Ladle (Same System for CC Tundish) Exhaust Gas Exhaust Gas Fuel Gas 920Mcal/h Conventional Regenerative Burner Switching Valve Regenerator (Ceramics) Fuel Gas 600Mcal/h Effect: Fuel Reduction Ratio = 51% [Condition] Ladle Capacity: 100 t Heating Period: 10 hours 19

20 (3) Billet heat insulating equipment This equipment maintain the billet temperature in hot at waiting to the reheating furnace. Steel Making Shop Billet Yard Heat insulating Direct Hot Charge Hot charge Cold charge Rolling Reheating Furnace ( Hot rolling Mill Shop) 20

21 (1) Transition of Technical Development (Rolling Mill) Period Introduction of new Technologies 1995~ Regenerative burner Power Consum. (kwh/t) Oil L/t Oil reduction: 20~29% 2001~ DHCR (Direct Ht Charge rolling), and subsidiary furnace (Heat keeping furnace) Oil reduction: 52% 2001~ Endless rolling 2002~ Hot eddy current inspection 21

22 (2) Energy Conservation Measures in Rolling Mill Factory (1) Matching of the productivity between CC and Mill (2) DHCR (Direct Hot Charge Rolling), etc. (3) Reheating furnace: Application of regenerative burner system (4) Energy saving of fluid machinery: Pump, Fan, Air Compressor, etc. 22

23 (3) Application of Regenerative Burner Regular Industrial Furnace High temperature exhaust! Fuel Burner Exhaust High-performance Industrial Furnace (1) Metal type heat exchanger Exhaust Blower Fuel Burner Recuperator (metal) Blower Combustion air 23

24 High-performance Industrial Furnace Alignment of a pair of burners with a built-in ceramic storage heat exchanger, combustion and exhausting in turn, temperature preheated of combustion air Burner Fuel switching valve Regenerator (Ceramic) Induced draft fan Switching valves for air supply & exhaust Blower 24

25 Merit of Regenerative Burner in Furnace Energy saving Effect of high temperature combustion air over 1,000 (Reduction of fuel = - 20%) Uniform heating Effect of the stirring of waste gas by cyclic combustion Compact equipment Shortening of the furnace length by installing burners along the full length of the furnace 25

26 (4) Effect of Heat Pattern Change in Re-hearing Furnace Temperature Temperature of re-hearing furnace Temperature of heated material Heat pattern Fuel usage Time 26

27 (5) Endless Bar Rolling System Loss reduction by eliminating of cutting off at both ends of bars Reduction of the idle time before feeding each new billet and the factors for rolling errors Drastic reduction in products of wrong dimension or insufficient length Reduction in energy cost 3% 27

28 Endless Bar Rolling - Welding Flash Butt Welding Preheat Rough Mill FBW Intermediate Mill Crop shear (Billet) or Bar (Billet) or Bar Flash butt Welding Preset Plane 28

29 (6) Energy Conservation System Accumulation and analysis of the energy consumption data Control and management of energy consumption & intensity Application of existing system examples Energy monitor and analysis system Local devices 29

30 Energy Intensity (Crude oil equivalent L/t) (1) Transition of Total Energy Intensity (Crude oil equivalent) - Example Performance of energy conservation for 5 years = 10.5% Electricity / total = Performance of energy conservation for 3 years = 8.1% Electricity / total = (50t/heat EAF) Fiscal Year Energy conservation effect by continuous rolling = 4.1% (FY2002) Electricity / total = 93 (estimate)

31 Thank You 31 The Energy Conservation Center, Japan