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1 7. APPENDIX 167

2 168

3 169

4 170

5 171

6 Table 7.11 Soil profile descriptions and physical characterization (colors are for the moist soil unless otherwise indicated; percents are by weight) 172 Profile: Sudbury Type Location #1 Classification: Typic Hapludult, clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Cecil series Location: Sudbury Suburban Watershed, Charlotte, North Carolina; off corner of Terrywood Lane and Acorn Street near Sharon Amity Road and Central Avenue Physiography: Piedmont upland divide Altitude: About 241 m (790 ft) above sea level Relief: Nearly level, 0 to 2% slope Drainage: Well drained Land use: Suburban undeveloped lot Disturbance: Cultivation (prior to 1938) Vegetation: Grass and weeds Profile Description: A horizon; 0 to 12 cm: Yellowish red (5 YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; light yellowish (10 YR 6/4) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); common very fine and fine continuous dendritic tubular interpedal pores; common fine to medium continuous dendritic tubular transpedal pores; many very fine and fine roots; 5% gravel by weight; abrupt wavy boundary. Bl horizon; 12 to 20 cm: Yellowish red (5 YR 4/8) sandy clay loam; reddish yellow (7.5 YR 6/6) dry; moderate very fine subangular blocky structure; firm (moist), brittle (dry), slightly sticky (wet); few discontinuous clay skins; common very fine and fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; many very fine and fine roots, collectively; 5% gravel by weight; gradual wavy boundary. B21t horizon; 20 to 35 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; common medium prominent yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; firm (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; many very fine and fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine roots; 2% gravel by weight; gradual wavy boundary. B22t horizon; 35 to 80 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; common medium prominent yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm (moist), sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine roots; 1% gravel by weight; gradual boundary.

7 Table 7.11 (Continued) 173 B3 horizon; 80 to 105 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; many medium prominent yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few discontinuous clay skins; common saprolite fragments; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; gradual boundary. Cl horizon; 105 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) and yellow (10 YR 7/6) clay loam; weak massive structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); few weak discontinuous clay skins; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores.

8 174 Table 7.11 (Continued) Sudbury Type Location #1 Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t B Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t B Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A B21t

9 175 Table 7.11 (Continued) Profile: Sudbury Type Location #2 Classification: Typic Hapludult, clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Cecil Series Location: Sudbury Suburban Watershed, Charlotte, North Carolina; off corner of Sudbury Road and Kilborne Drive near Central Avenue Physiography: Piedmont upland divide Altitude: About 237 m (778 ft) above sea level Relief: Gently sloping, 2 to 5% slope Drainage: Well drained Land use: Forested undeveloped tract Disturbance: None Vegetation: Mixed hardwood and pine forest; about 6 cm leaf litter Profile Description: A horizon; 0 to 5 cm: Yellowish red (5 YR 4/6) loam; brown (7.5 YR 5/4) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); common medium to coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal pores; many fine to medium continuous dendritic tubular interpedal pores; many very fine to coarse roots; 2% gravel by weight; abrupt wavy boundary. Bl horizon; 5 to 12 cm: Yellowish red (5 YR 5/8) loam; reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6) dry; weak very fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few discontinuous clay skins; common medium to coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal pores; many fine to medium discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common very fine to coarse roots; 17% gravel by weight; clear wavy boundary. B21t horizon; 12 to 35 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; few very fine to fine continuous random simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common very fine to fine roots, collectively; clear wavy boundary. B22t horizon; 35 to 85 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; few very fine to fine discontinuous random simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine to fine roots; collectively; gradual boundary. B3 horizon; 85 to 110 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; red (2.5 YR 5/8) dry; common fine prominent yellow (10 YR 7/6) and weak red (10 R 4/3) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few discontinuous clay skins; common saprolite fragments; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine and fine roots, collectively; gradual boundary.

10 Table 7.11 (Continued) 176 Cl horizon; 110 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay loam; red (2.5 YR 5/8) dry; many fine prominent yellow (10 YR 7/6) and common fine prominent weak red (10 R 4/3) mottles; weak massive structure; very friable (moist), non-sticky (wet); common saprolite fragments; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores.

11 177 Table 7.11 (Continued) Sudbury Type Location #2 Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t B Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t B Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A B21t

12 Table 7.11 (Continued) 178 Profile: Sudbury Type Location #3 Classification: Location: Physiography: Altitude: Relief: Drainage: Land use: Disturbance: Vegetation: Profile Description: Ochreptic Hapludult, fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (no established series) Sudbury Suburban Watershed, Charlotte, North Carolina; off corner of Sudbury Road and Glenstar Terrace at Windsor Park Elementary School Piedmont upland divide About 334 m (768 ft) above sea level Nearly level, less than 1% slope Well drained Elementary school grounds About 0.5 to 1 m of original profile has been removed Grass and weeds A horizon; 0 to 2 cm: Reddish brown (5 YR 4/4) clay loam; brown (7.5 YR 5/4) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few fine pedorelicts a ; common medium to coarse continuous simple tubular transpedal and interpedal pores; many very fine and fine roots, collectively; 7% gravel by weight; abrupt wavy boundary. B2t horizon; 2 to 8 cm: Red (2.5 YR 5/8) clay loam; reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6) dry; common fine distinct reddish brown (5 YR 4/4) mottles; weak very fine subangular blocky over platy structure; firm (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common fine burnt wood and angular rock fragments; few medium pedorelicts; common very fine to fine continuous random simple tubular to irregular interpedal to apedal pores; common very fine and fine roots, collectively, concentrated along tubular pores and between plates; 14% gravel by weight; clear irregular boundary almost indistinct except for foreign fragments. a Pedorelicts (Brewer, 1976) are features formed by erosion, transport and deposition of nodules of an older soil material or pedological features from it, or by preservation of some part of a previously existing soil horizon within a newly formed horizon. The term is used herein in reference to man transported and deposited soil material which retains pedological features of the previous soil.

13 Table 7.11 (Continued) 179 B3 horizon; 8 to 24 cm: Red (2.5 YR 5/8) clay loam; reddish yellow (7.5 YR 7/6) dry; common medium prominent yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; weak very fine subangular blocky to massive structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few clay skins; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine roots; clear irregular boundary. Cl horizon; 24 to 50 cm: Yellow (10 YR 7/6) loam; common medium prominent red (2.5 YR 4/8) mottles; massive structure; very friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few discontinuous clay skins; common saprolite fragments; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores; gradual irregular boundary. C2 horizon; 50 to 105 cm: Yellow (10 YR 7/6) loam; few fine prominent red (2.5 YR 4/8) mottles; massive structure; very friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); many saprolite fragments; few very fine and fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores.

14 180 Table 7.11 (Continued) Sudbury Type Location #3 Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A B2t B Cl Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A B2t B Cl Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A/B2t B

15 Table 7.11 (Continued) Profile: Sudbury Type Location #5 Classification: Aqualfic Arent, fine-loamy, mixed, thermic (no established series) Location: Sudbury Suburban Watershed, Charlotte, North Carolina; at 3548 Enfield Road near Kilborne Drive and Central Avenue Physiography: Piedmont valley bottom Altitude: About 219 m (720 ft) above sea level Relief: Nearly level Drainage: Somewhat poorly drained Land use: Suburban residential yard Disturbance: About 1.8 m fill over original valley alluvium; fill dated at early 1960 s Vegetation: Grass Profile Description: A horizon; 0 to 8 cm: Dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/2) loam; brown (10 YR 5/3) dry; few fine prominent gray (5 YR 5/1) mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable (moist), sticky (wet); few fine burnt wood and angular rock fragments; common fine faint pedorelicts; common medium to coarse continuous dendritic tubular to irregular transpedal and interpedal pores; many very fine and fine roots, collectively; 5% gravel by weight; clear wavy boundary. Cl horizon; 8 to 18 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay loam; yellowish red (5 YR 5/6) dry; few medium distinct gray (5 YR 5/1) and few coarse prominent olive brown (2.5 Y 4/4) mottles; weak very fine subangular blocky to massive structure; firm (moist), sticky (wet); few fine rock chips and burnt wood fragments; common medium to coarse distinct pedorelicts; few moderate distinct stress and shear fabrics ; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal to apedal pores; few very fine to fine roots, collectively; 5% gravel by weight; abrupt smooth boundary. b Stress and shear fabrics are morphological characteristics interpreted as indicative of compaction and tearing of the soil fabric. Stress fabric is most notable when strongly contrasting fabrics abut along a curved or linear edge. The fabric is different on each side of the contact. Shear fabric is most notable where a single fabric abruptly ends with an irregular edge which appears to be a tear or shear fracture face. 181

16 Table 7.11 (Continued) 182 C2 horizon; 18 to 85 cm: Dark brown (7.5 YR 4/4) and red (2.5 YR 4/6) loam (mixture of sandy loam and clay); light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4) dry; few medium to coarse distinct gray (5 YR 5/1), few coarse prominent olive brown (2.5 Y 4/4) and few fine prominent light gray (10 YR 7/1) mottles; weak variable fine subangular blocky and massive structure; firm (moist), very sticky (wet); common burnt wood, rock chips and saprolite fragments; common medium to coarse distinct stress and shear fabrics; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal packing voids; few very fine to fine roots, collectively; 4% gravel by weight; diffuse wavy boundary. C3g horizon; 85 to 150 cm: Dark brown (7.5 YR 4/4) and light gray (10 YR 7/1) loam (mixture of sandy loam and clay); pale brown (10 YR 6/3) dry; common medium to coarse distinct gray (5 YR 5/1) and few coarse prominent olive brown (2.5 Y 4/4) mottles, extremely variable; weak massive structure with structureless single grain pockets; few large rotten wood artifacts; common moderate quartz gravel and saprolite fragments; common pockets rotten leaves; common medium distinct pedorelicts; few moderate distinct stress and shear fabrics; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores; common medium to coarse discontinuous random irregular apedal packing voids; 3% gravel by weight; clear boundary. C4g horizon; 150 to 163 cm: Dark blue gray (5 B 4/1) and red (2.5 YR 4/8) loam (mixture of sandy loam and clay); common medium prominent greenish gray (5 GY 5/1) mottles; weak massive structure with structureless single grain pockets; few burnt wood and saprolite fragments; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores; common medium to coarse discontinuous random irregular apedal packing voids; clear boundary. C5g horizon; 163 to 175 cm: Dark gray (N 4/0), gray (5 Y 5/1), dark reddish brown (2.5 YR 3/4) and red (2.5 YR 4/8) loam (mixture of sandy loam and clay); weak massive structure with structureless single grain pockets; fragments of buried A horizon and rotten root mat; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores; common medium to coarse discontinuous random irregular apedal packing voids; clear boundary. IIAgb horizon; 175 to 200 cm: Greenish gray (5 GY 5/1) and dark brown (7.5 YR 3/2) sandy clay loam; weak very fine subangular blocky to massive structure; slightly sticky (wet); common medium to coarse continuous dendritic tubular interpedal pores; many fine to medium rotten roots.

17 183 Table 7.11 (Continued) Sudbury Type Location #5 Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A Cl C C3g Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A Cl C C3g Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A C

18 Table 7.11 (Continued) Profile: Mine Valley Type Location #1 Classification: Typic Hapludult, clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Cecil Series Location: Mine Valley Subdivision, Raleigh, North Carolina; on Lot #25 off corner of Sawmill Road and Mine Valley Road near Lead Mine Road Physiography: Piedmont upland divide Altitude: About 127 m (417 ft) above sea level Relief: Nearly level, 0 to 2% slope Drainage: Well drained Land use: Forest, but presently being converted to suburban residential Disturbance: None Vegetation: Hardwood forest; about 8 cm leaf litter Profile Description: A horizon; 0 to 15 cm: Dark yellowish brown (10 YR 4/4) sandy clay loam; brown (10 YR 4/4) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); many medium and coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal and interpedal pores; common very fine and fine continuous dendritic tubular to irregular interpedal pores; many very fine to coarse roots; 10% gravel by weight; abrupt smooth boundary. Bl horizon; 15 to 22 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) gravelly sandy clay loam; reddish yellow (7.5 YR 6/6) dry; weak very fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common medium and coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine and fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common medium to coarse roots; 24% gravel by weight; clear wavy boundary. B21t horizon; 22 to 38 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; red (2.5 YR 5/6) dry; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; few medium to coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few fine to coarse roots, collectively; clear boundary. B22t horizon; 38 to 72 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; red (2.5 YR 5/8) dry; moderate medium subangular blicky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; few very fine to fine discontuous random irregular interpedal pores; few fine to medium roots, collectively; gradual boundary. 184

19 Table 7.11 (Continued) B31 horizon; 72 to 100 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; common medium prominent very pale brown (10 YR 7/3) and yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common clay skins; common fine manganese concretions; common mica flakes and saprolite fragments; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; gradual boundary. B32 horizon; 100 to 130 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) and yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles, common fine prominent light gray (10 YR 7/2) mottles; weak massive structure; firm (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common clay skins; many mica flakes and saprolite fragments; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores; gradual boundary. C horizon; 130 cm: Red (10 R 4/8) clay loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) and yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles, common fine prominent light gray (10 YR 7/2) mottles; weak massive saprolite structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky and greasy (wet); common clay skins; numerous mica flakes; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores; mica schist parent material. 185

20 186 Table 7.11 (Continued) Mine Valley Type Location #1 Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t B Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t B Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A B21t

21 Table 7.11 (Continued) Profile: Mine Valley Type Location #2 Classification: Typic Hapludult, clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Cecil Series Location: Mine Valley Subdivision, Raleigh, North Carolina; on Lot #36 off Mine Valley Road near Lead Mine Road Physiography: Piedmont upland divide Altitude: About 122 m (401 ft) above sea level Relief: Nearly level, 0 to 2% slope Drainage: Well drained Land use: Forested, but presently being converted to suburban residential Disturbance: None Vegetation: Hardwood forest; about 5 cm leaf litter Profile Description: A horizon; 0 to 18 cm: Brown (10 YR 4/3) sandy loam; brownish yellow (10 YR 6/3) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); many medium to coarse continuous horizontal tubular transpedal and interpedal pores; common very fine and fine continuous dendritic tubular and irregular interpedal pores; many very fine to coarse roots; 14% gravel by weight; abrupt wavy boundary. Bl horizon; 18 to 30 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) sandy clay loam; reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6) dry; many coarse prominent brown (7.5 YR 4/4) mottles; weak very fine subangular structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few clay skins; common medium to coarse discontinuous random simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine and fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common fine to medium roots, collectively; 13% gravel by weight; clear wavy boundary. B21t horizon; 30 to 70 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) clay; red (2.5 YR 5/6) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; few fine to medium discontinuous random simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine and fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few fine to medium roots, collectively; gradual wavy boundary. B22t horizon; 70 to 108 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; red (2.5 YR 5/8) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; common mica flakes; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; gradual boundary. 187

22 Table 7.11 (Continued) B3 horizon; 108 to 120 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; common medium prominent brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); few clay skins; many mica flakes; common saprolite fragments; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; gradual boundary. C horizon; 120 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) clay loam; many coarse prominent weak red (10 R 4/3) mottles, common moderate prominent brownish yellow (10 YR 6/8) mottles; weak massive saprolite structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky and greasy (wet); few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores; mica schist parent material. 188

23 189 Table 7.11 (Continued) Mine Valley Type Location #2 Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t B Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t B Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A B21t

24 Table 7.11 (Continued) Profile: Mine Valley Type Location #2 Classification: Typic Hapludult, clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Cecil Series Location: Meredith Townes Subdivision (condominiums), Raleigh, North Carolina; at northwest corner of property off Morningside Drive near Blue Ridge Road Physiography: Piedmont upland slope Altitude: About 115 m (378 ft) above sea level Relief: Sloping, about 10% slope Drainage: Well drained Land use: Forested Disturbance: None Vegetation: Hardwood forest; about 8 cm leaf litter Profile Description: A horizon; 0 to 30 cm: Dark brown (10 YR 3/3) gravelly loam; brown (10 YR 5/3) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); many medium and coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal and interpedal pores; common very fine and fine continuous dendritic tubular and irregular interpedal pores; common fine to coarse roots; 25% gravel by weight; clear wavy boundary. Bl horizon; 30 to 40 cm: Strong brown (7.5 YR 5/8) gravelly sandy clay loam; brown (10 YR 4/3) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common fine to medium continuous vertical dendritic tubular transpedal pores; common very fine and fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common very fine to medium roots, collectively; 50% gravel by weight; abrupt wavy boundary. B21t horizon; 40 to 55 cm: Red (2.5 YR 5/8) gravelly clay; yellowish red (5 YR 5/8) dry; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common clay skins; few fine to medium continuous vertical simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine and fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common very fine to fine roots; 47% gravel by weight; gradual boundary. 190

25 Table 7.11 (Continued) B22t horizon; 55 to 92 cm: Red (2.5 YR 5/8) gravelly clay; reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6) dry; common medium prominent reddish yellow (7.5 YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; few fine to medium discontinuous vertical simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine and fine discontinuous irregular interpedal pores; few very fine to fine roots, collectively; 45% gravel by weight; gradual boundary. B3 horizon; 92 to 125 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) clay; red (2.5 YR 5/6) dry; common fine prominent very pale brown (10 YR 8/3) mottles; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); few clay skins; common saprolite fragments; few very fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; diffuse boundary. Cl horizon; 125 to 165 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/8) and pink (5 YR 7/4) fine sandy clay loam; light red (2.5 YR 6/6) dry; very weak massive structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); few clay skins; many saprolite fragments; few very fine discontinuous random irregular apedal pores; mica gneiss or schist parent material. 191

26 192 Table 7.11 (Continued) Meredith Type Location Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A B21t

27 Table 7.11 (Continued) Profile: Schenck Pasture Type Location #1 Classification: Typic Hapludult, clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Cecil Series Location: Meredith Townes Subdivision (condominiums), Raleigh, North Carolina; at northwest corner of property off Morningside Drive near Blue Ridge Road Physiography: Piedmont upland slope Altitude: About m (425 ft) above sea level Relief: Gently sloping, about 5% slope Drainage: Well drained Land use: Pasture Disturbance: Old eroded land terraced and stabilized as pasture in 1938 Vegetation: Fescue Profile Description: A horizon; 0 to 8 cm: Dark brown (7.5 YR 4/4) gravelly loam; brown (10 YR 4/3) dry; weak fine granular structure; loose (moist), nonsticky (wet); many fine and very fine continuous dendritic tubular and irregular interpedal pores; many very fine roots; 29% gravel by weight; clear wavy boundary. Bl horizon; 8 to 43 cm: Yellowish red (5 YR 5/8) gravelly loam; yellowish red (5 YR 5/6) dry; moderate very fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common fine to medium discontinuous vertical simple tubular transpedal pores; many fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common very fine roots; 45% gravel by weight; gradual wavy boundary. B21t horizon; 43 to 62 cm: Red (2.5 YR 5/8) very gravelly clay loam; reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6) dry; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common discontinuous clay skins; few fine to medium discontinuous vertical simple tubular transpedal pores; common fine to very fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common very fine roots; 67% gravel by weight; clear smooth boundary. 193

28 Table 7.11 (Continued) B22t horizon; 62 to 80 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) gravelly clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common continuous clay skins; common fine to very fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common very fine roots; 32% gravel by weight; gradual wavy boundary. B3 horizon; 80 to 125 cm: Red (2.5 YR 4/6) clay; light red (2.5 YR 6/8) dry; few fine prominent brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common discontinuous clay skins; common fine to very fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine roots. 194

29 195 Table 7.11 (Continued) Schenck Pasture Type Location Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A B21t c c Subsoil values for Schenck Pasture Location #2, B21t.

30 Table 7.11 (Continued) Profile: Schenck Pasture Type Location #1 Classification: Typic Hapludult, fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Durham Variant d Location: Carl Alwin Schenck Forest Watershed, NCSU, School of Forest Resources, Raleigh, North Carolina; adjacent to Reedy Creek Road Physiography: Piedmont upland divide Altitude: About 127 m (418 ft) above sea level Relief: Gently sloping, about 5% slope Drainage: Well drained Land use: Forest Disturbance: Old eroded land converted to pine plantation in 1938 Vegetation: Loblolly pine Profile Description: A horizon; 0 to 18 cm: Reddish yellow (7.5 YR 6/6) gravelly sandy loam; pale brown (10 YR 6/3) dry; common fine prominent dark brown (10 YR 3/3) mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); many medium to coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal pores; many very fine to fine continuous random irregular interpedal pores; common medium to coarse roots; many very fine to fine roots; 50% gravel by weight; clear wavy boundary. Bl horizon; 18 to 29 cm: Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4) sandy loam; very pale brown (10 YR 7/3) dry; weak very fine subangular blocky structure; very friable (moist), nonsticky (wet); few discontinuous clay skins; common medium to coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal pores; many very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; common medium to coarse roots; many very fine to fine roots; 5% gravel by weight; abrupt wavy boundary. 196 d The percent of coarse fragments is greater than the 0 to 5% allowable in any horizon of the Durham Series.

31 Table 7.11 (Continued) B21t horizon; 29 to 50 cm: Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) dry; moderate very fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common discontinuous clay skins; few medium to coarse continuous horizontal simple tubular transpedal pores; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few medium to coarse roots; few very fine to fine roots; 6% gravel by weight; clear wavy boundary. B22t horizon; 50 to 88 cm: Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) gravelly clay loam; yellow (10 YR 7/6) dry; common medium prominent red (2.5 YR 5/6) mottles; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); common discontinuous clay skins; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine to fine roots; 24% gravel by weight; gradual boundary. B23t horizon; 88 to 112 cm: Red (2.5 YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; few fine prominent yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few continuous clay skins; common very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine and fine roots, collectively; gradual boundary. B3 horizon; 112 to 138 cm: Red (2.5 YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; common fine to medium prominent yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; weak very fine subangular blocky structure; friable (moist), slightly sticky (wet); few continuous clay skins; few very fine to fine discontinuous random irregular interpedal pores; few very fine and fine roots, collectively; diffuse boundary. 197

32 198 Table 7.11 (Continued) Schenck Pasture Type Location Fine- Sand Organic earth Depth Horizon matter Sand Silt Clay fraction 1 mm.5 mm.25 mm.1 mm.05 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t Silt Gravel Depth Horizon Coarse µm 5 µm 2 µm fraction 4.8 mm 9.5 mm 19.1 mm 38.1 mm 76.0 mm cm % A Bl B21t B22t Saturated Bulk Total Macro- Micro- hydraulic Final constant Depth Horizon density porosity porosity porosity conductivity infiltration rate cm g/cm cm3/cm cm/hr A e B21t e Mean value not reported due to extreme variability between replications.

33 Table 7.12 Atterberg limits of type location subsoils 199 Plastic Liquid Plastic Activity Type location Horizon limit limit index Clay a of clay b Sudbury-1 B22t Sudbury-2 B22t Sudbury-3 B2t Sudbury-3 B Sudbury-5 Cl Sudbury-5 C Mine Valley-1 B21t Mine Valley-2 B22t Meredith Townes B22t Schenck Pasture B22t Schenck Forest B22t a Percent clay of fraction less than 0.42 mm. b Activity coefficient, PI/% clay.

34 200 Table 7.13 Sum of exchangeable bases, exchangeable acidity, percent base saturation and cation exchange capacity of type location subsoils CEC of CEC of clay CEC of % Exchangeable total soil clay Type location Horizon Clay a Bases b Acidity c CEC ph 7 d CEC ph 8.2 e PBS f CEC ph 7 g Sudbury-l B22t Sudbury-2 B22t Sudbury-3 B Sudbury-5 C h Mine Valley-1 B21t Mine Valley-2 B22t Meredith Townes B22t Schenck Pasture B22t Schenck Forest B22t a Percent clay of fraction less than 2 mm. b Exchangeable bases Ca, Mg, K and Na by 1 N NH4OAc ph 7. c Exchangeable acidity by BaCl2 ph 8.2. d CEC ph 7 of clay times percent clay/100. e Cation exchange capacity ph 8.2 by BaCl2. f Percent base saturation of total soil by BaCl2/TEA ph 8.2 (sum of bases). g Cation exchange capacity of clay by ph 7 NaOAc. hreplicate values were variable.

35 201 Table 7.14 X-ray diffraction analysis of type location subsoil clays Type location Kaolinite Chlorite Illite Horizon hallosite verm. a Smectite muscovite Quartz Gibbsite Goethite Relative amounts b Sudbury-1 B22t Sudbury-2 B22t Sudbury-3 B t 1 Sudbury-5 C t Mine Valley-1 B22t 3 1 Mine Valley- 2 B22t Meredith Townes B22t 3 2 t 1 Schenck Pasture B22t t Schenck Forest B22t a Interstratified chlorite-vermiculite. b Key: 3 = dominant mineral 2 = important mineral\ 1 = minor mineral t = trace mineral.

36 Table 7.15 Differential thermal analysis of type location subsoil clays 202 Kaolinite & Type location Horizon halloysite Gibbsite % Sudbury-1 B22t Sudbury-2 B22t Sudbury-3 B Sudbury-5 C Mine Valley-1 B22t Mine Valley- 2 B22t Meredith Townes B22t Schenck Pasture B22t Schenck Forest B22t

37 Table 7.16 Surface area of type location subsoil clays 203 Surface area Type location Horizon External a Internal b Total c m2/g Sudbury-1 B22t Sudbury-2 B22t Sudbury-3 B Sudbury-5 C Mine Valley-1 B22t Mine Valley- 2 B22t Meredith Townes B22t Schenck Pasture B22t Schenck Forest B22t a Nitrogen gas adsorption, 3-point method. b Difference. c Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether adsorption.

38 Table 7.17 Laboratory soil core data, definition of units and abbreviations 204 Effective pore Tension, cm H 2 0 Bars diameter mm List of abbreviations Cum. - Cumulative desorption value Diff. _ - Differential desorption value X - Mean S.D. - Standard deviation Db - Bulk density, g/cm 3 f - Total porosity, cm 3 /cm 3 f mac - Macroporosity, cm /cm 3, soil moisture desorption value at 60-cm -l tension f mic - Microporosity, cm 3 /cm 3, total porosity less macroporosity K sat - Saturated hydraulic conductivity at 25 C, cm/hour

39 205 Table 7.21 Laboratory soil core data (Sudbury Suburban Watershed, Charlotte, North Carolina) Type Location #1, A Horizon (0 to 7.6 cm) Tension Core numbers Cum. Diff. cm H X S.D. X S.D. Moisture desorption data, pore volume/soil volume Physical properties Db f f mac f mic K sat

40 206 Table 7.21 (Continued) Type Location #1, B21t Horizon Tension Core Numbers Cum. Diff. cm H X S.D. X S.D. Moisture desorption data, pore volume/soil volume Physical properties Db f f mac f mic K sat

41 207 Table 7.21 (Continued) Near Type Location #1 (Same Mapping Unit), B21t Horizon Tension Core numbers Cum. Diff. cm H X S.D. X S.D. Moisture desorption data, pore volume/soil volume Physical properties Db f f mac f mic k sat

42 208 Table 7.21 (Continued) Type Location #2, A Horizon (0 to 7.6 cm) Tension Core numbers Cum. Diff. cm H X S.D. X S.D. Moisture desorption data, pore volume/soil volume Physical properties Db f f mac f mic K sat

43 209 Table 7.21 (Continued) Type Location #2, B21t Horizon Tension Core Numbers Cum. Diff. cm H X S.D. X S.D. Moisture desorption data, pore volume/soil volume Physical properties Db f f mac f mic K sat

44 210 Table 7.21 (Continued) Type Location #3, A/B2t Horizon (0 to 7.6 cm) Tension Core numbers Cum. Diff. cm H X S.D. X S.D. Moisture desorption data, pore volume/soil volume Physical properties Db f f mac f mic K sat

45 211 Table 7.21 (Continued) Type Location #3, B3 Horizon Tension Core Numbers Cum. Diff. cm H X S.D. X S.D. Moisture desorption data, pore volume/soil volume Physical properties Db f f mac f mic K sat