1 ECONOMICS OF TASAR SILK Suresh Rai Assistant Director Central Tasar Research and Training Institute Central Silk Board, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India P.O. Nagri, Ranchi Jharkhand
3 INTRODUCTION India is the second largest producer of silk in the world. All four kinds of silk, namely Mulberry, Tasar, Eri, and Muga are produced in the country. Annual silk production of the country is about 15,000 MT and foreign exchange earnings from silk goods exports is over Rs crore During the year , total production in India was recorded tones with an increase of 4.88 % over previous year (16500 tones). Mulberry Raw Silk Production during was tones compared to the production of tones in the year , indicating an increase of 5.6%.
4 Production of Vanya silk, viz; Tasar, Eri, and Muga raw silk during were 308, 1442 and 110 tons respectively over corresponding figure of 322, 1448 and 110 tons in the year , indicating a decrease of 4.3% in tasar and 0.4% in Eri, while no change in the production of Muga raw silk. Over all Vanya silk has decreased by 1.06 % during over previous year Specially, Tasar culture is practiced by 1 lahk 40 thousand tribal families in the state of Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, U.P. and Maharastra It gives gainful employment and attractive income to the tribal. However for silk yarn and fabric production non tribal are involved. Approx. 1 lakh tasar handlooms are working at present to produce tasar silk and allied mixed silk fabrics to feed to our internal market as well as for exports.
5 Tasar silk has greater commercial importance specially in exports. Traditional markets for tasar silk export are Singapore, Hong Kong, United Arab Emrates, Taiwan, and Saudi Arabia whereas non traditional markets are U.S.A, United Germany, Canada, Japan, France, Switerland, UK, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, New Zealand, Australia and Czechoslovakia. The Silk export earning of Rs crore has been achieved during the year , indicating an increase of 9.7% over the previous year (Rs crore). The provisional quantum of import of raw silk into the country was recorded 8334 MT during the year in comparison to 7948 MT for the year , indicating an increase of 5.0 %
6 Tasar Rearing, Reeling and Weaving Centres Sl. No States Bihar Jharkhand Orissa West Bengal Chattisgarh M.P Maharastra A.P. Uttar Pradesh Tasar Silkworm Rearing areas Bhabhua, Rohtas, Nawada, Jamui, Banka and Munger Singhbhum, Santhal Praganas, Dumka, Giridih, Hazaribgh, Ranchi, palamau, and Dhanbad Mayurbhanj, Sundergarh, Keonjhar, Balasore, Cuttack and Dhenkanal district Midnapore, Purulia and Birbhum district Raigarh, Bilaspur, Korba, Surguja, Jashpur and Bastar Bhandara, and Chandrapur Adilabad, Waeangal, Karimnagar and Godavari area Mirzapur, Rabartsganj Reeling and Weaving areas Bhagalpur, Gaya, Banka, Raxaul, Nawada Bhagaiya, Kharsawa (Saraikela), Chaibasa, Puraini, Katoria Gopalpur, Fakirpur, Nuapatna Tantipara, Raghunathpur, Bishnupur Chapa, Seoni, Chhuri, Raigarh Bhandara, Andelgaon Kosgi, hakeempet, pathureddyapalli Varanasi, Dudhi,
7 State-wise approximate number of families engaged in rearing reeling, spinning & weaving Sl. No States No. of Tribal families engaged in tasar rearing No. families involved in Reeling, Spinning & weaving ( in lakh) (in Lakh) 1. Jharkhand / Bihar Orissa West Bengal Chattisgarh / M.P Maharastra A.P Uttar Pradesh Total
8 Present status of Tasar Raw silk production with special reference to Bihar It was observed that Tasar Raw Silk contributes 16% in Vanya silk and 1.78% in total raw silk production during in India which is comparatively lower than State wise progress Tasar Raw Silk during indicates that Jharkhand was the highest producer and contributes 31.17% followed by Chhattisgarh (29.22%) and West Bengal (11.04%) respectively. Bihar was leading state in Tasar silk production in India before division in Nov 2000 and its share was recorded approx. 50% Presently 95 % tasar cocoon producing areas are with Jharkhand state which covers 90% tribal population and better forest position and climatic condition. The production statistics of Tasar cocoons and Raw silk of Bihar state during to shows that production was more or less in static position but during , it was registered 14 MT Raw silk and 14,489 Kahan cocoon production which is highest till date.
9 Bihar has placed at 7 th rank among tasar producing states in India and its contribution was recorded 5%. Main Tasar cocoon producing areas are namely viz; Bhabhua, Rohtas, Nawada, Jamui, Banka and Munger. There are two Tasar Pilot project centers and 12 Tasar seed supply sub stations in Bihar. Presently the Annual Target of Production & Supply of Seed of each TPPCs is 4000 dfls and each TSSSSs is 5000 dfls. SGSY Project has been launched in Banka and Jamui in Bihar for development of Tasar and Eri culture. It has shown positive and significant achievement in comparison to Jharkhand state during and There are several other schemes of NGO PRADAN, MORD, DOS are working in the state for the development of silk industry and aims to provide employment to the people who are landless or marginal farmers and young educated persons.
10 Handloom is one of the major labour intensive cottage industry engaging 3.7 lakh weavers in the state. Foreign exchange is also being earned through export of handloom products. Since several Presently Bihar has major avenue to exhilarate the handloom sector so that cocoon and raw silk produced by neighboring state Jharkhand will be best utilized by Weavers in the state. In Bihar approx. 22,600 handlooms and 45,500 weavers are working directly or indirectly in reeling, spinning and weaving of silk related fabrics in different clusters. Bhagalpur is one of the prominent cluster for this avocation.
11 India - Raw Silk Production (MT) during to Year Mulberry Non-Mulberry Total Silk Tasar Eri Muga Total
12 State AP Bihar Chattisgarh Jharkhand M.P. Maharastra Orissa U.P. Uttranchal State-wise Tasar Raw Silk Production (MT) during to West Bengal Year
13 Silk Import (quantity in tons) and Export (value crore Rs.) Year Quantity (tons) Import Growth Index (base year ) Value (Crore Rs.) Export Growth Index (base year )
14 Trend in Growth Index of Non-Mulberry Silk in India Growth Index Tasar Eri Muga Year
15 Tasar Raw Silk Production in Bihar Value (tons) Year
16 Percentage Contribution of major tasar silk producing states Values (%) Year CHG JHK ORS WB
17 Trend in Growth Index of Silk Import (quantity MT) and Export (value crore Rs.) Index Year Import Export
18 Existing System of Marketing Cocoons and Raw Silk The cocoons and raw silk are the intermediaries of Vanya silks. These intermediary products are largely marketed through the Mahajans irrespective of type of Vanya silk, state or presence of Govt agencies. Various systems that prevail in Tasar sector are as follows: Tasar sector: In Chhattisgarh and the adjoining states like, Jharkhand, MP, Bihar and West Bengal, the cocoon producers sell their produce to Mahajans through contract or forward sale agreement or take their produce to the weekly haats for sale. Mahajans generally supply cocoons to weaver-cum-reeler groups and collect the weaved fabric from them by paying conversion charges. The cocoon produces, reelers / spinners and weavers are paid bare minimum prices of produce / conversion cost.
19 In Orissa, marketing of tasar cocoon and silk yarns is monitored by SERIFED, an apex society (A Govt. of Orissa undertaking) by involving Tasar Rearers Coop. Societies and Reelers & Weavers Coop. Societies placed at the potential cocoon producing clusters, and other right price of the cocoons / yarn to the farmers / reelers / weavers fixed by the SERIFED. In Andhra Pradesh cocoons are marketed through SERIFED and auction in cocoon markets. In North Indian States like, U.P., Himachal Pradesh, Uttranchal and J&K, the volume of the Vanya silk is not very significant and as such they are marketed through DOSs or NGOs involved with the Vanya silks production. Besides, CSB has also established Tasar Raw Material Bank (TRMB) at Chaibasa in Jharkhand with a mandate to procure cocoons from the adjoining states of Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and west Bengal and providing necessary interventions in marketing of cocoons and yarn to minimize exploitation by the Mahajans/ Middlemen.
20 SUGGESTION There is an urgent need for increasing the systematic food plantations with the involvement of forest departments in the state. Improvement in the down stream multiplication of basic seed both in terms of quantity and hygiene so as meet the rearers requirements at appropriate time. Product development is likely to provide better returns to the actual producers by increasing the demand for quality silk. The low cost, highly productive reeling and spinning machinery developed by CSB need to be popularized adequately.
21 Handlooms sector in the state should be strengthen because it has rich and diverse cultural heritage, high employment potential, low capital investment, high value addition and potential for export/foreign exchange earnings Government would ensure better targeting in various programme for welfare of waever families such as Health programmes, Worshed cum housing, thrift fund, Insurance etc. Regional Handloom Weavers Cooperative Unions and Primary Weavers Co-operative societies will be reactivated and strengthened for increased quality production of handloom goods.
22 ECONOMICS OF RAISING AND MAINTENANCE OF TASAR FOOD PLANT General information Food plant / species used : Arjun (Terminalia arjuna ) Asan (Terminalia tomentosa) Spacing (cm) : 4 x 4 for Arjun 6 x 6 for Asan No. of plants per hectare : 6724 for Arjun 2989 for Asan
23 S. N Operations/ phases Preparations of saplings Plantation Maintenance during II and III year Maintenance during IV to X year Economics of maintaining one hectare plantation Labour component (Supposed to be met by family ) Arjun Asan Material component Arjun Asan Arjun Total Asan This is evident from the various costing details that the major expenditure is on the labour component,which is supposed to be met mainly with family labour.
24 Economics of leaf production S. N. A B C Parameters No. of plants per ha Planting cost 5% of planting cost Arjun Asan Remarks Taking the average life of plant of approx 20 yrs D Per year maintenance cost E Annual expenditure (C+D) F Leaf production in Kg (After 4 yrs) 3.5 Kg/plant 5 K g/plant G Leaf cost Rs / Kg (Rs) 0.59* 0.89 *This cost is with the wages of the engaged labourers.this cost will come down substantially in proportion to the family labour used.
25 S. N ECONOMICS OF TASAR REARING IN T.ARJUNA PLANTATION PER HECTARE PER CROP Particulars/ expenditure Cost of 450 Rs. 1/- per dfl. Material cost for Chawki garden and rearing Material cost on maintaining the plantation & late age rearing Total Material cost for maintaining Chawki garden, rearing and plantation (2 + 3 ) Production of cocoons Sale value of cocoons: Rs per cocoon Net profit ( 6-4) Cost on conventional technique (Rs.) cocoon / dfl cocoon / dfl Wages: man days 80 man days per 100 dfls man days man days per 100 dfls). Approx wage is Rs Cost on improved technique (Rs.) 450
26 NORMS No. of plants In one hectare of economic plantation T. Arjuna (4 x4 ) = Rearing capacity of dfls in one hectare of Arjun plantation = 450 dfls. No. of chawki plants in two chawki gardens to cover by two nets = 70 Plants in each garden. Calculation is based on 4 year s old T. arjuna plantation of 4 x4 spacing. Improved technique: Chawki rearing on chawki garden at 4 x4 spacing young age silkworm rearing under nylon net followed by late age rearing on regular economic plantation. Production norms: 200 eggs / dfls, 80% hatching, production of cocoons: 1. conventional Method 50 cocoons/dfls, 2. Improved technique 65 cocoons/dfls.
27 Economics of Tasar Silk Yarn / hectare plantation Sl. No. Particulars Improved CTR&TI, Pedalcum-motor operated Reeling-cum-twisting machine Charkha 1 Machine utilised Reeling machine (Cost Rs /- approx) 50% subsidies Tasar Reeling Machine (Cost Rs approx) 50% subsidies 2 Space required 6 x 5 6 x 5 3 Cocoon required per day 200 nos 500 nos 4 No. of working hrs/day 8 hrs. 8 hrs 5 Cocoons required / month (30 days working) 6000 nos nos. 6 Market price / cocoon Re Re Cost of chemicals required for month for cocoon cooking Rs Rs
28 8. Manpower utilized 1 person / machine 2 persons per chakha 9. Production of silk yarn / day 200 gms / day 500 gms / day 10. Production silk yarn / month 6.00 kg./ month kg / month 11. Employment generation 120 working days 78 working days 12. Prevailing market rate of reeled tasar silk yarn Rs /- per kg. Rs. 1600/- per kg. 13. Cost of reeled yarn produced / month Rs x 6.00 = Rs Rs x = Rs Earning per month Rs (Revenue from silk sale) Rs. 300 (Cost of chemicals) = Rs Rs Rs.500 = Rs Earning after processing 24,000 tasar cocoons Rs. 40,800 (in 120 working days by one person) Rs. 30, 550 ( in 78 working days by two person)
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