1 FAO DRE Capacity development workshop Morogoro, Tanzania, May 2012 Decent rural employment for food security in Tanzania Monika Percic International National Programme Coordinator
2 Why MORE AND BETTER JOBS IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS Are Important for Achieving FOOD SECURITY and Reducing Poverty in Tanzania?
3 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Four dimensions of Food Security and Decent Rural Employment 3. Conclusions 4. Discussion
4 Decent rural employment for food security Four pillars of decent work Employment & enterprise development Social protection Standards and rights at work Governance and social dialogue Food availability Food access Food stability Food utilization Four pillars of food security
5 Tanzania Largely rural, population growth, increasing workforce More and better jobs in agriculture and rural areas are key to reducing poverty and food insecurity Agriculture source of livelihoods for 75 percent of workforce Low agricultural labour productivity Persisting working poverty and food insecurity
6 Tanzania Food Security Situation
7 Tanzania - Agriculture Agriculture remains the largest employer in the country and there is commitment to dynamise the sector (CAADP) But: Households engaged in farming, livestock raising, fishing and forestry are the poorest. Workers in agriculture and rural areas are concentrated in vulnerable forms of employment, mainly working as own-account farmers and contributing family members.
8 Tanzania Agricultural sector LAND PRODUCTIVITY: 4.6% growth between Experiencing annual average level of US$ dollars per agricultural hectare. LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY: Annual 3.5% growth between Agriculture has the lowest labour productivity while Industrial sector the highest. Experiencing annual average level of US$ dollars per agricultural worker.
9 Population (1000) Tanzania Agricultural workforce Active Population in Agriculture Trend Active Population in Agriculture Male Active Population in Agriculture Female Active Population in Agriculture Active Population
10 Tanzania working poverty, vulnerable employment Significant working poverty: 31% of population 15+ (2007) (National poverty rate = 33.6%) High level of vulnerable employment, esp. in rural areas, for women and youth: 88.6% of total pop % of female 91.3% of youth (15-24) 95% of rural population
11 Tanzania Gender inequality In rural areas, women represent almost 92 % of the agricultural workforce Most of rural women work as unpaid family workers and combine more than one job Women face significant constraints in access to land and productive resources, as well as education
12 % Tanzania rural youth Youth (15-24) Labour Force Participation Rate, Male (%) Female (%) Average (%) 76 75
13 Tanzania - child labour in agriculture 37% of rural boys and 28.9% of rural girls are economically active 52% of the child workers work in the family farm
14 2. FOUR DIMENSIONS OF FOOD SECURITY AND DECENT RURAL EMPLOYMENT
15 DRE Food availability More productive agricultural employment Sustainable increase in domestic production Increase of food availability
16 DRE Food availability Small-scale farmers and SMAEs are crucial for local food availability Growing demand for agricultural wage workers Future of the sector: potential of young farmers But in rural areas: Low productivity Gender gap in agriculture Constraints of smallholders to invest Lack of skill development for agricultural workforce, esp. for youth and women
17 DRE Food access More and better rural jobs Living wage, decent work conditions Increase of food access
18 DRE Food access Poor rural people rely mainly on the use of their labour to gain access to food But in rural areas: Working poverty, vulnerable employment Exposure to hazardous substances Child labour in agriculture Gender inequalities Lack of opportunities for youth
19 DRE Food utilization Decent rural employment Improved diets due to more stable incomes and better work conditions Improvement of food utilization
20 DRE Food utilization Decent work enables people to access food that is nutritious and diverse But in rural areas: Vicious circle: Low productivity low wages malnutrition ill-health low working capacity Women facing significant time burden (difficulty to combine paid work with care work and feeding)
21 DRE Food stability over time Decent and secure rural employment Greater resilience Greater stability of food security over time
22 DRE Food stability over time Dynamic rural labour markets (rural non-farm economy) and access to social protection (asset building) favour food stability But in rural areas: Not all rural poor can benefit from employment opportunities in the rural non-farm economy Majority of rural workers lack access to social protection Inadequate social infrastructure in rural areas
23 Conclusion To achieve food security and reduce poverty, Tanzania needs more and better jobs in rural areas and agriculture HOW? EMPLOYMENT- CENTRED RESPONSIBLE AGRO- INVESTMENTS BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS IN AGRICULTURE ANALYSIS of rural labour markets (LMIS, gender age disaggr. statistics) DRE centrality in coping with shocks and adapting to CLIMATE VARIABIITY
24 Discussion Towards greater policy coherence: What priorities? How can coordination between labour and agriculture stakeholders be improved? Towards more productive agricultural employment: How can agricultural investments favour employment creation? Are there measures specifically targeting women and youth in rural areas?