Efficient pharmaceutical removal from (hospital) wastewater by staged- MBBRs followed by ozonation

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2 Efficient pharmaceutical removal from (hospital) wastewater by staged- MBBRs followed by ozonation Presenter: Caroline Kragelund Rickers Danish Technological Institute, Section for Water and Environment C. Kragelund 1, K. Tang2, G.T.H. Ooi 2, A.T. Christensen 3, K.M.S. Kaarsholm 1, C. Sund 3, M. Christensson 4, KK Møller 5, T Møller 6, JD Andersen 7, N Møller 7, K. Bester 8, H.R. Andersen 2 1 Danish Technological Institute, 2, Technical University of Denmark 3 Krüger Veolia, 4 Anoxkaldnes, 5 Aarhus Water, 6 Aarhus University Hospital, 7 Herning Water, 8 Aarhus University

3 Background Hospitals pollute due to discharge of pharmaceuticals with the wastewater About 5% of all medicine is consumed in hospitals, the rest is consumed in private homes* Mose Pedersen et al., 2007 Limiting unwanted pharmaceuticals in wastewater A Danish list expanding now approx. 40 pharmaceuticals Uncertain which technology to use and which wastewater streams to treat at hospitals Treatment of hospital wastewater is possible, it is just expensive!

4 The MERMISS project Environmental and economical efficient removal of pharmaceuticals Delevopment of the treatment concept with the optimized biological performance Efficient way to reduce expenses needed to polishing residual pharmaceuticals The New University Hospital DNU Mapping of pharmaceuticals from hospital Data not shown

5 Optimized biological treatment Staged Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

6 Benchmarking for treatment S1 Potential locations for wastewater treatment for micropollutants related to medical treatment: S1 Sidestreams S2 Treatment of all wastewater from hospital S3 Treatment at the municipal wastewater treatment plant S2 S3

7 Wastewater treatment at different scales Proof of concept Optimized biological removal in MBBR Stages Ozone treatment

8 Wastewater treatment at different scales Proof of concept Optimized biological removal in MBBR Stages Ozone treatment

9 Efficiency of treatment Conventional removal of COD, N and P Spiking experiments with a selection of pharmaceuticals Removal potential of pilot plant Concentration profiles Actual removal through the pilot plant Hardly degradable/non-biodegradable material will be removed by ozonation

10 Biodegradation of model pharmaceuticals Lab scale

11 Biodegradation of model pharmaceuticals pilot scale for hospital and municipal wastewater 3 Only biology, no chemical treatment here Hospital 95 Azithromycin Carbamazepine 55 Ciprofloxacin Clarithromycin 15 Diclofenac 3 Municipal Azithromycin Carbamazepine Ciprofloxacin Clarithromycin Diclofenac 2 µg/l µg/l Influent Effluent 0 Influent Effluent Proposed limit values Efficient biology

12 Chemical polishing Determination of ozone dosage for removal of residual pharmaceuticals dosage identified 1.4 mg O3/mg DOC 90-99% % % >99.99% Triclosan Mefenamic acid Sulfadiazine Sulfamethoxazole Sulfamethizole Diclofenac Trimethoprim Diclofenac Carbamazepine Propranolol Sotalol Naproxen Roxithromycin Clarithromycin Phenanzone Gemfibrozil Ciprofloxacyn Clindamycin Metoprolol Tramadol Acetyl-sulfadiazine Citalopram Ketoprofen Atenolol Ibuprofen Clofibric acid Venlafaxine Iopromide Iohexol Iomeprol Iopamidol Diatrizoic acid mg O 3 /mg DOC

13 Conclusion The treatment concept is composed by an optimized biological step followed by ozonation The treatment concept is suitable for: Effective removal of COD, N and P Also efficient biological reduction/removal of pharmaceuticals Less use of chemicals (O 3 ) for the residual compounds Much less pharmaceuticals are consumed at hospitals than anticipated Where is the most economically and environmentally place to remove pharmaceuticals?

14 Conclusion and ongoing work The treatment concepts is suitable for: Sidestream treatment (dept. of Oncology) Entire stream from hospital Municipal WWTP (Hybas and polishing) Benchmarking of technology concept On the different locations Removal percentages versus price Project ends in February 2017

15 MERMISS Consortium Danish Technological Institute Caroline Kragelund Alice Thoft Christensen Veolia Water Technologies Christina Sund Kim Sundmark Air Liquide Morten Prühs Herning Water Niels Møller Jensen Jeanette D. Andersen Technical University of Denmark Henrik Rasmus Andersen Kai Tang Gordon Ooi Aarhus University Kai Bester Monica Escola The New University hospital Thomas Møller AnoxKaldness Magnus Christensson Aarhus Water Karen Klarskov Møller