# Infiltration and Inflow. Michael Sassaman Phone

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1 Infiltration and Inflow Michael Sassaman Phone

2 Inflow and Infiltration PA DEP

3 Learning Objectives Do you have Excessive I/I? Sources of Inflow and Infiltration I/I abatement programs Sewer Rehabilitation Methods

4 source: Town of Dedham Massachusetts

5 Is your I&I Excessive? What is considered Excessive I&I? Infiltration Average Daily flow over 120 GPPD (Gals./person/day) Divide Average Daily Flow by population OR GPD/IDM over 4,000 GPD IDM = Inch Diameter/ Mile of pipe Determine IDM of your system Example 36 miles of 4 pipe + 36 miles of miles of miles of 12 36x4 + 36x8 + 6x10 + 6x12 = 564 inch diameter miles Avg Daily Flow 2 mgd divide by 564 IDM = 3546 GPD/IDM

6 Is your I&I Excessive? What is considered Excessive I&I? Inflow Average Daily flow over 275 GPPD (Gals./person/day) Divide Average Daily Flow by population OR GPD/IDM over 9,000 Determine IDM of your system Example 36 miles of 4 pipe + 36 miles of miles of miles of 12 36x4 + 36x8 + 6x10 + 6x12 = 564 inch diameter miles Peak Wet Weather Daily Flow 6 mgd divide by 564 IDM = 10,638 GPD/IDM

7 Six Components of a Good, Well-Planned, Organized I/I Abatement Program 1. Mapping: Without a map of your collection system, you cannot implement an I/I program. Mapping involves documenting slopes and invert elevations, and knowing the locations of all of the system s manholes. 2. Metering: Metering should be at key locations at the bottom of individual sub-basins in order to help coordinate investigative and rehabilitative actions. Both baseline and wet weather flows should be identified during the summer months and February through May, respectively. The wet weather metering should attempt to collect 6 8 inches of rainfall over a 6 8 week period and include 6 8 different storm events. 3. Televising: The entire system should be televised in order to identify areas that need to be rehabilitated due to structural failure or to identify illicit connections, water main breaks, etc. This is an integral part of the overall program with respect to identifying leaking service laterals.

8 Six Components of a Good, Well-Planned, Organized I/I Abatement Program 4. System Hydraulic Characterization: This step should be accomplished in order to identify areas of the collection system that physically do not allow for effective transfer of flow, especially during wet weather conditions. This is of critical importance in areas where the collection system becomes surcharged during wet weather events. 5. System Rehabilitation: This occurs after the steps referenced above are completed and may include various methods of pipeline repair or replacement depending on site conditions or cost feasibility. 6. Post-Rehabilitation Flow Metering: This should occur on a sub-basin level to document the effectiveness of the abatement efforts referenced above and to identify areas in the collection system that need further investigation.

9 Frequent Sources of Inflow Loose, open, perforated manholes Direct downspout and sump pump connections Cross connection of stormwater pipe to sewer pipe

10 Frequent Sources of Infiltration Cracked pipes Loose joints Leaking pipe joints or manholes Defective Stream Crossings Root intrusion

11 Identifying I&I Inflow: Metered flow peaks quickly with rainfall and declines rapidly after rainfall ceases. Infiltration: Generally, metered flow increases steadily and once rain fall ceases, flows steadily decline, usually over the course of days. RDII Rainfall Derived Inflow and Infiltration

12 Inflow vs Infiltration

13 Fix it or leave it??? Determine if I&I is excessive. >120 GPD/capita or >4,000 GPD/IDM. Cost Effectivness Analysis To rehab or not? Estimate Rehab costs vs treatment costs Leaks will often migrate to the next defect Prioritize rehab efforts Look for structural issues that might not be leaking now

14 SSES Sewer System Evaluation Survey When should we look for I&I?? Flow Metering of sub areas Inspections Visual, Smoke Testing, Building Inspections, Manhole Inspections Condition Assessment Cost Effective Analysis? Prioritizing Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Methods Lamping to determine if a sewer is straight or blocked.

15 I/I Abatement Program Mapping Metering Televising System Hydraulic Characterization System Rehabilitation Post-Rehabilitation Flow Metering

16 Mapping One comprehensive system map including street names, manhole numbers, invert elevations, manhole locations, streams, roads, lateral connections, storm sewers, etc. Printed maps, Laminated, or on a laptop in GIS format. GIS can be linked to videos, inspection reports, repair records, Maintenance issues, etc. This could also be helpful to investigate illegal dumping or to track down other pollutant sources

17 Metering A sub-basin metering program to identify areas with excessive or significant I/I Baseline and wet weather flow data collection Data should cover 6-8 inches of rainfall over a 6-8 week period and include 6-8 different storm events.

18 Portable Flow Meter For metering sub areas. Flow sensor Battery power Data Recorder Waterproof housing Software for tabulating data

19 V-Notch Weir For measuring flows.

20 Televising TV during the right weather conditions High Flow conditions, Night work or Bypass Pumping Identify Infiltration or Inflow Televise entire system??? Or by Sub-Basin Identify areas that need repair, cracked or broken pipes and dislocated joints Identify illicit connections (like storm sewer connections or illegal connections) Water main break inflow Contractor or Municipally owned?

21 CCTV

22 Just a minor leak: Infiltration

23 Sewer Testing Methods Smoke Testing Procedures Dye Testing Lamping Manhole Inspections

24 Smoke Testing source: Superior Smoke 24

25 Dye Testing source: Tool Experts source: Drains IOM

26 Manhole Inspections source: USA Ltd USSR Ltd source: Pipe Services

27 System Hydraulic Characterization Some areas of the collection system may sag and collect debris which affects transfer of flows Some areas have slope issues and become the critical condition Bends in pipes or missing manholes Identifies areas of the collections system subject to hydraulic overloads or surcharges Computerized Hydraulic Modeling

28 Rehabilitation Methods Excavate and Replace Chemical Grouting Not a Structural Repair Sectional Lining Manhole to manhole lining Lateral Lining Trenchless Technologies

29 System Rehabilitation Repair and maintenance schedule Line item in the budget each year Coordinate with other municipal activities like road repair, water line replacement Nearby Municipalities working together

30 Mainline Grouting

31 Unlined Lateral Grouting

32 Manhole Horizontal Crack Injection

33 Lined Lateral Grouting

34 Sliplining Sometimes Annular Space leak problems Reduces pipe size and capacity

35 Cured-in-Place source: Clark Regional Wastewater District

36 Pipe Bursting

37 Manhole Rehabilitation Grouting to stop water flow Coating for surface protection, repair or rehabilitation of deteriorated surfaces Lining can be installed in manholes by spray on methods, CIP Liners or incorporated in new manhole construction Manhole Inserts Chimney Seals source: Parson Environmental source: Municipal Sewer & Water

38 Post-Rehabilitation Flow Metering Meter the same sub-basins to document I/I reductions Keep a non-rehabilitated sub-basin for a control comparison Prioritize other areas not previously prioritized Start the cycle over again

39 Why remove I/I? More I/I water = spending more \$\$, but no more customers Hydraulic overload can cause SSOs, effluent violations, NOVs, penalties I/I can take up capacity reserved for building projects

40 Case Study 1. Major pump station overflowed directly to waters of the Commonwealth through a dedicated overflow pipe from the pump station wet well 2. Conducted sub-basin flow metering, both dry and wet weather, in the sanitary sewer collection system tributary to the pump station 3. Discovered high average-to-peak flow ratios at monitoring locations 4. Televised entire sub-basin 5. Identified many faulty sewer lateral connections, mainly at the house side of traps 6. Worked with residents to make the necessary repairs by assisting with funding sources and coordinating the corrective actions 7. Eliminated sewage overflows at the pump station (and an estimated one million gallons of I/I)

41 Test 1. Three sources of inflow are and,. 2. Four sources in infiltration are,,, and. 3. The six components of an I/I abatement program are:,,,,,. 4. Groundwater entering sewers is. 5. Two Testing Methods for sewers are and. 6. Rehabilitation methods include, and. 7. Three benefits of removing I/I are:,,.

42 Test Answers 1. Three sources of inflow are manholes and sump pumps and downspouts, and cross connections. 2. Four sources in infiltration are cracked pipes, defective joints in pipes, manhole defects, and root intrusion. 3. The six components of an I/I abatement program are: mapping, metering, televising, hydraulic characterization, rehabilitation, postrehab flow metering. 4. Groundwater entering sewers is Infiltration. 5. Two Testing Methods for sewers are Smoke Testing and Dye Testing. 6. Rehabilitation methods include Lining, Grouting and Manhole Rehabilitation. 7. Three benefits of removing I/I are: save money, less violations, more capacity.

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