WASA Quiz Review. Chapter 2

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1 WASA Quiz Review Chapter 2

2 Question#1 What is surface runoff? part of the water cycle that flows over land as surface water instead of being absorbed into groundwater or evaporating

3 Question #2 What are 2 ways surface runoff is important? it keep rivers and lakes full of water changes the landscape by the action of erosion

4 Question #3 The less water the ground can absorb, the more runoff on the surface there will be. What is this called? Permeability

5 Question #4 A surface with high ability will have a high permeability. Absorption

6 Question #5 What are THREE meteorological factors that affect runoff? Type of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, etc.) Rainfall intensity Rainfall amount Rainfall duration Distribution of rainfall over the watersheds Direction of storm movement Antecedent precipitation and resulting soil moisture

7 Question #6 Name TWO meteorological and climatic conditions that affect evapotranspiration. Temperature Wind Relative humidity Season

8 Question #7 Name FOUR physical characteristics than affects runoff. Land use Vegetation Soil type Drainage area Basin shape Elevation Slope Topography Direction of orientation Drainage network patterns Ponds, lakes, reservoirs, sinks, etc. in the basin, which prevent or alter runoff from continuing downstream

9 Question #8 Why is flooding more significant in urbanized areas than in forested areas? In a forested watershed, a significant amount of rainfall is absorbed into the soil and stored as groundwater while in urbanized areas, the vegetation is replaced by impervious surfaces, thus reducing the area where infiltration to groundwater can occur. Therefore, much more water arrives into a stream much more quickly, resulting in an increased likelihood of more frequent and more severe flooding.

10 Question #9 What is eutrophication? Runoff from agricultural land including our own yards, can carry excess nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus into rivers and groundwater supplies.

11 Question #10 Why is eutrophication harmful? potential to degrade water quality by causing excessive growth of aquatic plants such as algae

12 Question #11 What are FOUR potential pollutants land surface runoff can pick up? Sediments Nutrients Bacteria Pesticides Metals Petroleum by-products

13 Question #12 What is non-point pollution? Pollution originating over a large land area without a single point of origin and generally carried by surface water runoff

14 Question #13 What is the opposite of non-point pollution sources? Point Sources

15 Question #14 Which body of water are sediment-filled rivers dumping tremendous amounts of suspended sediment in Trinidad? Atlantic Ocean

16 Question #15 What is ONE way oceans are becoming salty? The sediment being dumped into the oceans

17 Question #16 What are THREE uses of water stored in reservoirs? Irrigation districts Downstream communities Recreationalists Fish Wildlife

18 Question #17 The availability of the stored water is largely dependent upon what TWO variables? the inflows to the reservoirs the amount of sediment accumulations that can rob the reservoir of valuable storage space

19 Question #18 The construction of a reservoir blocks the flow of sediment downstream, leading to what TWO consequences? downstream erosion increased sediment build-up in the reservoir

20 Question #19 Diminished storage capacity results in decreased ability to store water and can lead to what? reduced availability of water for irrigation expiration of the reservoir

21 Question #20 What two factors can act to reduce the reliability of the reservoir water supply? Climate change reservoir sedimentation

22 Question #21 Large amounts of water are being lost in what THREE ways? surface water runoff Evaporation Depleted groundwater supplies

23 Question #22 In what TWO ways are aquifers recharged? precipitation through interaction with surface water bodies i.e. rivers, lakes and streams

24 Question #23 The amount of water stored in the soil has an influence on what THREE variables? the rate of actual evaporation groundwater recharge generation of runoff

25 Question #24 In what way can climate change affect the characteristics of soil? changes in waterlogging or cracking This, in turn, affects what? Soil moisture storage properties

26 Question #25 Groundwater is the major source of water across much of the world, particularly in rural areas in which TWO regions? arid and semi-arid regions

27 Question #26 Aquifers generally are replenished by effective rainfall, rivers, and lakes. This water may reach the aquifer rapidly, through, or more slowly by overlying the aquifer. macro-pores or fissures & soils and permeable rocks

28 Question #27 Rapid recharge can occur whenever what happens? Rain

29 Question #28 What is salinity intrusion? replacement of freshwater in coastal aquifers by saltwater

30 Question #29 What will cause saline intrusion into coastal aquifers? Sea-level rise

31 Question #30 What influences the amount of saline intrusion into coastal aquifers? Local groundwater gradients

32 Question #31 What is water quality? describes the condition of the water including chemical, physical, and biological characteristics, usually with respect to its suitability for a particular purpose such as drinking or swimming

33 Question #32 What are THREE factors measured in determining water quality? the concentration of dissolved oxygen bacteria levels the amount of salt (or salinity) the amount of material suspended in the water (turbidity) levels of acidity (ph) the concentration of microscopic algae quantities of pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, and other contaminants

34 Question #33 What is used to determine the water quality, even though scientific measurements are used? relative to the purpose of the water is it for drinking or to wash a car with or for some other purpose

35 Question #34 Name ONE author of the report, Aquatic Ecosystems and Global Climate Change Dr. N. LeRoy Poff Dr. Mark Brinson Dr. John Day, Jr

36 Question #35 What are TWO observations made in the report? Increases in water temperatures as a result of climate change will alter fundamental ecological processes and the geographic distribution of aquatic species Changes in seasonal patterns of rainfall and runoff will alter hydrologic characteristics of aquatic systems, affecting species composition and ecosystem productivity Climate change is likely to further stress sensitive freshwater and coastal wetlands, which are already adversely affected by a variety of other human impacts Aquatic ecosystems have a limited ability to adapt to climate change

37 Question #36 What are TWO human activities that can reduce sources of ecosystem stress? maintaining riparian forests reducing nutrient loading restoring damaged ecosystems minimizing groundwater withdrawal strategically placing any new reservoirs to minimize adverse effects