# Sanitary and Environmental Engineering I (4 th Year Civil)

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1 Sanitary and Environmental Engineering I (4 th Year Civil) Prepared by Dr.Khaled Zaher Assistant Professor, Public Works Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

2 Wastewater Flow Diagram Inlet Chamber Screening Grit Removal Primary Sedimentation Primary Sludge Biological Treatment Final Sedimentation Secondary Sludge Final Disposal

3 Screening A screen is a device with openings, generally of uniform size, that is used to retain solids found in the influent wastewater to the treatment plant. The principle role of screening is to remove coarse materials from the flow stream that could: 1. damage subsequent process equipment 2. reduce overall treatment process reliability and effectiveness 3. contaminate waterways Fine screens are sometimes used in place of or following coarse screens where greater removals of solids are required (1) protect process equipment or (2) eliminate materials that may inhibit the beneficial reuse of biosolids. 3

4 The screening element may consist of parallel bars, rods or wires, wire mesh, or perforated plate, and the openings may be of any shape but generally are circular or rectangular slots. A screen composed of parallel bars or rods is often called a ''bar rack'' or a coarse screen and is used for removal of coarse solids. The materials removed by these devices are known as screenings. Hand cleaned coarse screens are used when the flow is not more than 5000 m 3 /d, while mechanical cleaned coarse screens are used when the flow is more than 5000 m 3 /d. 4

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7 To design a coarse screen: Q = A * V V = V *sin θ A = area = ((n-1)*s) * d W = (n-1)*s + n*w h l = * (V 2 - v' 2 )/2g 7

8 where : S = distance between bars n = number of bars d = depth V = horizontal velocity between bars w= width or diameter of one bar W = Total width of screen h l = head loss (m) C = an empirical discharge coefficient to account for turbulence and eddy losses, typically 0.7 for a clean screen and 0.6 for a clogged screen v' = approaching velocity in upstream g = 9.81 m/s 2 8

9 Grit Removal Grit chambers are designed to removal grit, consisting of sand, gravel, cinders, or other heavy solid materials that have subsiding velocities or specific gravities substantially greater than those of the organic solids in wastewater. Grit chambers are most commonly located after the bar screens and before the primary sedimentation tanks. Primary sedimentation tanks function for the removal of heavy organic solids. In some installations, grit chambers precede the screening facilities. Generally, the installation of screening facilities ahead of the grit chambers makes the operation and maintenance of the grit removal facilities easier. 9

10 Grit chambers are provided to: (1) protect moving mechanical equipment from abrasion and accompanying abnormal wear; (2) reduce formation of heavy deposits in pipelines, and channels, and conduits; and (3) reduce the frequency of digester cleaning caused by excessive accumulations of grit. 10

11 There are two general types of grit chambers: horizontal flow or aerated type. In horizontal flow type, the flow passes through the chamber in a horizontal direction and the straight-line velocity of flow is controlled by the dimensions of the unit, an influent distribution gate, and a weir at the effluent end. The aerated type consists of a spiral flow aeration tank where the spiral velocity is induced and controlled by the tank dimensions and quantity of air supplied to the unit. Design of grit chambers is commonly based on the removal of grit particles having as specific gravity of 2.65 and a wastewater temperature of 15.5 o C. However, analysis of grit-removal data indicates the specific gravity ranges from 1.3 to

12 Generally, what is removed as grit is predominantly inert and relatively dry material. However, grit composition can be highly variable, with moisture content ranging from 13 to 65 percent, and volatile content from 1 to 56 percent. The specific gravity of clean grit particles reaches 2.7 for inerts but can be as low as 1.3 when substantial organic material is agglomerated with inerts. A bulk density of 1600 kg/m 3 is commonly used for grit. Grit particles 0.2 mm and larger have been cited as the cause of most downstream problems. 12

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14 Horizontal flow Grit Removal: Rectangular or square horizontal flow grit removal have been used for many years. Rectangular horizontal flow grit chambers is the oldest type of grit chamber used. It is velocity-controlled type. these units were designed to maintain a velocity as close to 0.3 m/s as practical and to provide sufficient time for grit particles to settle to the bottom of the channel. The design velocity will carry most organic particles through the chamber and will tend to resuspend any organic particles that settle but will permit the heavier grit to settle out. 14

15 The basis of design of rectangular horizontal flow grit chambers is that, under the most adverse conditions, the lightest particle of grit will reach the bed of the channel that will be retained on a 0.2 mm diameter (65 mesh) screen, although many chambers have been designed to remove grit particles retained on a 0.15 mm diameter (100 mesh) screen. The length of the channel will be governed by the depth required by the settling velocity and the control section, and the cross sectional area will be governed by the rate of flow and by the number of channels. Allowance should be made for inlet and outlet turbulence. Grit removal from horizontal flow chambers is accomplished usually by a conveyor with scrapers. In small plants, grit chambers are sometimes cleaned manually. 15

16 Design criteria of horizontal flow grit chamber according to Egyptian Code: Horizontal velocity = m/s Detention time = s Surface loading rate should not exceed 1200 m 3 /m 2 /d Water Depth = m Width of chamber = (1-2) water depth Vertical velocity = 2 cm/s for particles greater than 0.2 mm Length of chamber = (20-30) water depth Amount of grit settled = l/1000 m 3 /d 16

17 Aerated Grit Chambers: In aerated grit chambers, air is introduced along one side of a rectangular tank to create a spiral flow pattern perpendicular to the flow through the tank. The heavier grit particles that have higher settling velocities settle to the bottom of the tank. Lighter, principally organic, particles remain in suspension and pass through the tank. The velocity of roll or agitation governs the size of particles of a given specific gravity that will be removed. If the velocity is too great, grit will be carries out of the chamber; if it is too small, organic material will be removed with the grit. Fortunately, the quantity of air is easily adjusted, almost 100 percent removal will be obtained and the grit will be well washed. Grit that is not well washed and contains organic matter is an odor nuisance and attracts insects. 17

18 Aerated grit chambers are nominally designed to remove 0.21 mm diameter (65 mesh) or larger, with 2 to 5 minute detention periods at the peak hourly rate of flow. The cross section of the tank is similar to that provided for spiral circulation in activated sludge aeration tanks, except that a grit hopper about 0.9 m deep with steeply sloping sides is located along one side of the tank under the air diffusers. The air diffusers are locates about 0.45 to 0.6 m above the normal plane of the bottom. Influent and effluent baffles are used frequently for hydraulic control and improved grit removal effectiveness. 18

19 Wastewater will move through the tank in a spiral path and will make two to three passes across the bottom of the tank at maximum flow and more passes at lesser flows. Wastewater should be introduced in the direction of the roll. To determine the required head loss through the chamber, the expansion in volume caused by the air must be considered. In areas where industrial wastewater is discharged to the collection system, the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by the air agitation in aerated grit chambers needs to be considered. The release of significant amounts of VOCs can be a health risk to the treatment plant operators. Where release of VOCs is an important consideration, covers may be required or nonaerated type grit chambers used. 19

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21 Design criteria of aerated grit chamber according to Egyptian Code: Detention time = 2-5 min Surface loading rate should not exceed 1000 m 3 /m2/d Water depth = 3-5 m Spiral velocity of water = m/s Horizontal velocity = m/s Length = m Width of chamber should not exceed 2 m Rate of air supply = m3/min/m length of chamber Amount of grit settled = l/1000 m 3 /d 21

22 Example: Design an aerated grit chamber for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The average flow rate is 0.5 m 3 /s and the peaking factor is Solution 1. Peak flow = 0.5*2.75 = m 3 /s 2. Assume 2 grit chambers will be used and detention time = 3 min Volume of one chamber = (1.375/2)*3*60 = m 3 3. Assume Depth = 4 m, and Width = 2 m then Length = /(4*2) = 15.5 m 4. Assume air supply requirement = 0.3 m 3 /min/m of length then Air required = 0.3*15.5 = 4.65 m 3 /min for each chamber Total air supply required = 4.65 * 2 = 9.3 m 3 /min 5. Assume amount of grit = 150 l/1000 m 3 /d Grit volume = 1.375*150*60*60*24/1000*1000 = m 3 /d 22

23 Primary Sedimentation The objective of treatment by sedimentation is to remove readily settleable solids and floating material and thus reduce the suspended solids content. Primary sedimentation is used as a preliminary step in the further processing of the wastewater. Efficiently designed and operated primary sedimentation tanks should remove from 50 to 70 % of the suspended solids and from 25 to 40 % of the BOD. Almost all treatment plants use mechanically cleaned sedimentation tanks of standardized circular or rectangular design. Two or more tanks should be provided so that the process may remain in operation while one tank is out of service for maintenance and repair work. 23

24 Sedimentation tanks are normally designed on the basis of a surface loading rate ( commonly termed ''overflow rate'') expressed as cubic meters per square meter of surface area per day, m 3 /m 2.d. The selection of a suitable loading rate depends on the type of suspension to be separated. When the area of the tank has been established, the detention period in the tank is governed by water depth. Overflow rates in current use result in nominal detention periods of 2.0 to 2.5 h, based on average design flow. It should be emphasized that overflow rates must be set low enough to ensure satisfactory performance at peak rates of flow. 24

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26 Design Criteria according to the Egyptian Code: Rectangular tanks Water depth = 3-5 m, Length should not exceed 40 m, Width = 6-12 m Width : length = 1:3-1:5 Bottom slope = 1:40 or 1: 50 Detention time for tanks followed by trickling filter = hrs Detention time for tanks followed by activated sludge = hrs Detention time for tanks without secondary treatment = 3-4 hrs Surface loading for tanks without secondary treatment = m/s Surface loading for tanks followed by biological filters= 1-2 m/s Surface loading for tanks followed by aeration tanks= m/s 26

27 Circular tanks Water depth = m, Diameter should not exceed 40 m Bottom slope = 1:10 or 1: 15 Loading on weir = m3/m/d Detention time for tanks followed by trickling filter = hrs Detention time for tanks followed by activated sludge = hrs Detention time for tanks without secondary treatment = 3-4 hrs Surface loading for tanks without secondary treatment = m/s Surface loading for tanks followed by biological filters= 1-2 m/s Surface loading for tanks followed by aeration tanks= m/s 27

28 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT Involves biological removal of dissolved organic matter. Supernatant or primary effluent contains high levels of dissolved organic load (Biological Oxygen Demand) Aeration to stimulate aerobic degradation activated sludge reactor trickling filter reactor bacteria degrade organic carbon to CO 2

29 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT Bacteria + Organics O 2 New Cells 1) Attached Growth of Bacteria Trickling filters 2) Suspended Growth of Bacteria Activated sludge method

30 Aerobic secondary sewage treatment - Activated sludge and Trickling filter.

31 Trickling filters The waste effluent is passed over rocks or other solid materials upon which microbial films have developed. Microbial community in these films degrades organic waste. Passage of waste water through the filter causes the development of (bacteria, protozoa etc.)

32 Rotating distribution arm sprays primary effluent over circular bed of rock or other coarse media Air circulates in pores between rocks Biofilm develops on rocks and micro-organisms degrade waste materials as they flow past Organisms slough off in clumps when film gets too thick

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35 Filter Material

36 Activated sludge Involves horizontal flow of WW with a recycle of sludge Sludge is the active biomass formed when organic matter is degraded and oxidized by microorganisms. The process must be provided with air required for bacteria growth There two system of aeration: - Surface aeration - Diffused air system

37 Activated Sludge (diffused air system)

38

39 Thank you

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