CNG/LNG/CRNG/LRNG as alternative fuels in heavy duty transportation - a techno-economic assessment

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1 CNG/LNG/CRNG/LRNG as alternative fuels in heavy duty transportation - a techno-economic assessment Dejene A. Hagos

2 Number of NGVs Tusinde Number of NGVs Millioner Global development-ngvs Market drivers: urban air pollution energy independence volatile oil prices make use of indigenous resources 83% world population live in areas where the air quality is above the WHO guidelines In 213, 5.5 million people died of air pollution India and China account for 55 % ASIA-PACIFIC EUROPE NORTH AMERICA LATIN AMERICA AFRICA Source: IHME-Institute for health metrics and evaluation Italy Germany Bulgaria Sweden Source: NGV Global

3 Number of NGVs Number of NGVs per filling station NGVs development in EU-28, Source: NGV Global & CNG Europe Light Vehicles Buses Trucks Number of NGVs per filling station

4 Global Status LNG in maritime Norway is at the front line, owning more than 59% of worldwide operational LNG ships. The NOx fund which provides a financial incentive is main driver! As of August 215, globally, about 7 ships were in operation; mostly regional ferries (38%) and platform supply vessels (27%). Fig. Global development of LNG fueled fleet, excluding LNG carriers 8 ships are under construction (expected to be ready by 218). Globally, main driver - strict limit on NOx and sulfur content of marine fuels (.1%), as of January1 st 215 in ECAs; used to be 1% More than 59% of existing ports (North American, European, and Asian ports) already have LNG supply infrastructure or have planned for it. Source: Lloyd's Register Outside ECAs, the current 3.5% sulfur limit will be reduced to.5% by January 1 st, 22

5 CNG/LNG filling stations (LNG Blue Corridors project) Source: NGVA Europe

6 In this talk: Potential fuel supply pathways for well-to-tank (WTT) and wellto-wheel (WTW) evaluations WTW energy, GHG, and regulated (air pollutant) emissions evaluation Breakeven vehicle added cost- including sensitivity for price gap and driving distance

7 Selected WTT pathways (1)

8 Selected WTT pathways (2) Pathway acronym Final fuel Pathway description Danish NG mix, distributed through transmission and distribution pipes to grid-connected VRA CNG households/industries. The home-filling facility, called vehicle refuelling appliance (VRA), is assumed to be supplied with a low-pressure grid (4 bar). CNGMF CNGMT CNG Danish NG mix, distributed through transmission and distribution pipes to grid-connected filling stations. The station could be either a fast-fill (CNGMF) or time-fill (CNGMT) station connected with a low-pressure grid. CNGD LNG L-CNG LNG-STS LNG-TTS CRNGD-manure CRNGD-waste CRNGP-manure CRNGP-waste LRNG-waste LRNG-manure CNG LNG CNG/LNG LNG LNG CRNG CRNG LRNG LRNG The same process description as CNGMF pathway, but it represents daughter stations. CNG supplied to the station is assumed to be filled at mother station and transported with truck/cng trailer. Remote LNG production, LNG sea transport to north-western Europe import terminals, distribution by truck/lng trailer to skid-based LNG filling stations. The same as LNG but at filling stations both LNG and CNG are available. Also, includes LNG vaporisation/compression to CNG at skid-based L-CNG. Remote LNG production, LNG sea transport to north western Europe import terminals, distributed by LNG bunkering vessel to bunkering facility at ports (storage tank); ship-to-storage (STS). The same process description as LNG-STS, but LNG assumed to be distributed by truck/lng trailer to bunkering facility at ports (storage tank); truck-to-storage (TTS). Raw biogas production from manure (CRNGD-manure) and municipal organic waste (CRNGD-waste), upgrading and compression to 2 bar, and truck/cng trailer distribution to fast-fill CNG filling station. The same process description as (CRNGD-manure) and municipal organic waste (CRNGD-waste), but the gas is directly injected into the low-pressure grid (4 bar) through plastic pipes. Raw biogas production from waste, upgrading, liquefaction, and local distribution by truck/lng trailer to LNG filling stations. Raw biogas production from manure, upgrading, liquefaction, and local distribution by truck/lng trailer to LNG filling stations.

9 TTW technologies For HDVs and passenger vessels application: 1. Direct injection compression ignition (DICI): reference vehicle 2. Port injection spark ignition (PISI): 1% CNG/LNG dedicated. 3. Port injection dual fuel (PIDF): 4-6% diesel substitution (diesel and CNG/LNG mixed at the injection port). 4. High pressure direct injection (HPDI): 9-95% diesel substitution (high pressure LNG directly injected into the cylinder head). Engine cycle thermal efficiency: 35% for PISI, 43% for DICI, PIDF, and HPDI engines.

10 Type approved and real-world emissions HDV Type approved emission (Euro VI) for conventional HD vehicles Chassis dynamometer measured data for HD gas vehicles (Source: Swedish gas center) Passenger vessel MARPOL Annex VI NOx emission (Tier III,2 g/kwh) and Sulfur limit (.1%) for conventional vessels in emission control areas (ECAs), i.e..5% as of 22 in open sea. On-board measured data in ECAs (On Norwegian LNG vessels) (source: SINTEF Ocean (former MARINTEK)-Norwegian marine technology research institute) Assumed regulated emissions in HDVs (g/kwh out ) PISI PIDF HPDI CH 4.27(.13%) 6.53 (2.2%).84 (.48%) NOx PM NMHC CO Assumed regulated emissions in LNG Vessels (g/kwh out ) PISI PIDF HPDI CH 4 4.1(1.9%) 6.9(2.37%).693(.4%) NOx PM NMHC.3.4.5

11 Methodology WTW energy and emissions evaluation Where, Credits refers to the primary energy and GHGs emission savings associated with digestate, only for the biogas pathways. The value of α is 1 (one) for fossil-fuel based pathways and (zero) for renewable (biogas)-based pathways.

12 WTT energy and GHG emissions Impact reducing Impact inducing 1, ,6 1 Impact avoiding 1,4 MJ/MJ fuel 1,2 1,8,6,4, g CO 2 eq/mj fuel Fuel conditioning & filling at filling/bunkering stations Fuel transportation and distribution Feedstock conversion to fuel Feedstock transportation Feedstock extraction&treatment Total GHGs emission-co2eq

13 MJ/km g CO 2 eq/km WTW energy and GHG emissions (1) Heavy duty vehicles, WTT TTW GHGs HDV

14 kg CO2eq/km GJ/ km kg CO 2 eq/ km WTW energy and GHG emissions (2) Passenger vessels, LNG: PISI &PIDF Impact inducing by 25% WTT TTW GHGs HPDI.Impact reducing by 7-9% LRNG: Passenger vesssel Impact avoiding in PISI & HPDI! 25, 2, 15, On average, a 1% methane slip would 1, 5, result in 8.5%, 4.7%, and 8% increase in, net GHG emissions, in PISI, PIDF, and HPDI LNG vessels, respectively. Methane slip % 1% 1.5% 2%

15 g/km g/km WTW regulated (air pollutant) emissions On-board combustion is the main source, small contribution from WTT! CO NMHC NOX PM SOX CO NMHC NOX PM SOX Passenger vesssel PISI & PIDF meet MARPOL NOx limit! HDV

16 Annual driving distance (km) PISI PIDF HPDI HDV-breakeven vehicle added cost Diesel price gap= diesel( /L)-CNG( /kg)/ kg CNG =1.37 L diesel The added cost for HD gas vehicles is reported to be between 1,6-16,45 Diesel price 1.17 /L LNG price 1.3 /kg CNG price 1.6 /kg 12, 9, 6, Current diesel price gap,.42 /L for LNG, and zero for CNG 12, 9, 6, Discount rate 6% Vehicle economic life 7 years 12, 9, Negative break-even added cost indicates a net loss 6, Break-even vehicle added cost ( ) Diesel price gap /L.34 /L.41 /L.48 /L.55 /L.61 /L.67 /L.73 /L

17 Thank you!

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