Module 1: LNG Fuelled Vessels Design Training

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1 Module 1: LNG Fuelled Vessels Design Training Compliance Strategies of Owners with the Regulations Dr Evangelos Boulougouris (University of Strathclyde)

2 Minimise Cost Maximize Revenue Maximum Profit Owner priorities Structural Cost Optimum Design, Effective Plan, Effective Project Management Operational Cost Running Cost, Crew, Insurance, Maintenance, Fuel, Port & Canal Costs, Terminal Costs, Handling etc. Efficient Operational Management Bunker Management Crew Management Adaptation to new technologies and regulations Environmental Awareness Certification Training & Education Fuel Cost is the most important expenditure item, Owners develop strategies by taking into consideration the changes in fuel sector, This a game theory, Other stakeholder priorities should be considered.

3 Stakeholder priorities Shipping Industry: Safe, streamlined, fast and economic solutions in accordance with new environmental regulations Bunker operators: Safety, Maintain business, Minimum interruptions Fuel and LNG providers: Safety for people and assets Protection of LNG industry reputation Business in the downstream market Ports: Provision of services effectively aligned with existing operations

4 Fuel Strategies Scrubbers + HFO Fuel Switching Low sulphur fuel Other Solutions LNG

5 Scrubber Typical dry SOx scrubber system Abatement technologies or end-of-pipe treatments The use of scrubber to remove SOx and PM, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), 2015 SECA and Tier III ECA requirements, Tier III NOx requirements.

6 Strengths Scrubber + HFO ECA compliancy No new fuel tank, fuel logistics etc. Easier re-fit and less expensive than LNG fuel retrofit Weaknesses Sludge reception facilities Space requirements, stability Large installation/interface on-board Fuel penalty, operational costs Wash water criteria Costs Power requirements, CO2 emissions Discussions Performance on all engine loads Integration with boilers Corrosion

7 Scrubber Some Examples: Krystallon (Hamworthy/Wartsila) Ferry Pride of Kent (2006); Krystallon (Hamworthy/Wartsila) RoRo Linea Messina (2011); Wartsila Containerships VII (2011); Wartsila Closed Loop 8*NB for Algoma (Great Lakes) (2013); Wartsila RoRo Tamesis (2012) 28 MW hybrid scrubber Hamworhty/Wartsila RoRo Tarago (2013); 28 MW hybrid scrubber Hamworhty/Wartsila (Sembawang) ConRo Plyca (2012); 28 MW hybrid/puresox (ShipdockNL) RCCL Liberty of the Seas (2012); GreenTech MV Timbus, dry scrubber, Couple Systems MV Balder (2012); hybrid scrubber, Clean Marine

8 MGO Fuel Type Distillation Residues HFO: The fuel derived from distillation residues, often referred to as heavy fuel oil (HFO), are heavier marine fuels compared with the viscosity and sulfur content Fractional Distillation Products The distillate fuels can be divided into two categories, fuel type MGO and MDO. MGO: Marine Gas Oil MDO: Marine Diesel Oil IFO:When the fuel is derived from the distillation residue mixed with fuel by fractional distillation, the mixture is called intermediate fuel

9 Fuel Switching Strengths ECA compliancy possible Safe and proven, existing network Recording regime established Familiar for crew Low Investment Switch to conventional low sulphur diesel oil Weaknesses Increased OPEX 30-40% Low flashpoint issues Fuel switching can cause black out Discussions Global availability Price hike

10 LNG LNG as fuel Environmentally friendly fuel with low sulphur content SOx and PM emissions are negligible NOx reduction 80-90% for four stroke Otto / 10-20% for two-strike engines Less carbon emissions abt. 20% than the other fuels

11 LNG Storage Conditions: In liquid form at atmospheric pressure and -162 C temperature, In cryogenic tanks. Constituent: Methane (CH4) Other hydrocarbons (ethane C2H6, propane C3H8, butane C4H10) Other substances ( nitrogen, N2, hydrogen sulphide H2S, carbon dioxide, etc.)

12 LNG Methane is an aggressive GHG Significant environmental drawbacks Phenomenon of methane slip in four-stroke dual fuel engines The effect of methane slip will be greatly reduced in the future EU approach: The most promising alternative for short and long term At least for short sea shipping and other sea activities such as fishing and offshore services

13 LNG engine choice OTTO LNG may be used in SECA, normal FO for outside SECA and where fuel gas is not available Operating principle: usage of LNG Otto cycle and diesel cycle The ignition source during operation LNG is a small amount of oil, "pilot fuel which is injected and ignited by the heat generated by the compression and combustion DIESEL The technology of this engine implements gas injected at high pressure (about 300 bar) with "pilot fuel". This machine can only use fuel oil or a mixture of gas and oil SINGLE FUEL GAS ENGINES The cycle Otto / Miller is the basis for the operation of this engine. Instead of a pilot fuel, a rich gas / air mixture is ignited in a combustion antechamber, This technology ensures high efficiency and low emissions

14 Investment Scrubber Installation needs a significant investment cost Operational cost are marginally affected slight increase in fuel Retrofitting vs. new ship Fuel Switching Considerable increase in operational costs, Price difference between HFO and MGO, Investment cost is not necessary Existing infrastructure is suitable to supply MGO LNG Substantial reconstruction works diesel engines and LNG tanks Bunkering infrastructure investments New buildings with high cost LNG price provides important economic advantage

15 Investment Cost

16 Investment Cost

17 Operational Expenses Scrubber Scrubber strategy includes additional operational costs, Calculated as (main engine power [kw] time at sea [hours / year]), It is estimated that the specific cost for using "scrubbers" are / kwh main and the SCR / kwh main From HFO to LNG Decrease in the cargo area, Operating costs is examined by the study of GL regarding a conversion of a Container Ship "CV Neptune 1.200" to switch fuel use from HFO to LNG, The capacity of TEU decreased by 48 TEU in TEU (4% decrease), In container ships the cargo space lost is of great importance, Other types of ships has no particular interest as it may be easier to place LNG tank in an area that will not affect the capacity M/T Bit Viking

18 Two key characteristics of fuels Calorific value and density Fuel Characteristics

19 LNG Supply Bridge shore and ship regulation Focus on safety and align with normal operations

20 LNG Supply Large, Medium, Small scales defined (DMA, 2012)

21 LNG Supply LNG truck filling the shore LNG tank at Antwerp port (Hhpinsight.com, 2014) Ship To Ship LNG bunkering (Almeida, 2014)

22 LNG Supply Truck To Ship LNG bunkering (Maritime-executive.com, 2014) Portable LNG containers loaded onto a roro vessel (Levander, 2011)

23 Ship type Bunkering solution suitability (DMA, 2012) LNG Supply

24 Ship type Bunkering solution suitability (DMA, 2012) LNG Supply

25 LNG Supply Base Case Three main configurations: Tank to ship, Truck to ship, Ship to ship For base case no other cargo operation and no passengers in agreement with ISO Instruments.

26 Fuel Prices Gasoline, Gas oil and Heavy fuel oil prices in Rotterdam (Source: BP, 2015, Statistical Review of World Energy) 1 $/bbl FO 5.825$/MMBtu

27 Fuel Prices LNG Prices (Source: BP, 2015, Statistical Review of World Energy)

28 Fuel Prices LNG prices in China, Spain, Japan and the EU (Source: European Commission, 2015, Quarterly Report Energy on European Gas Markets: Market Observatory for Energy, DG Energy Volume 7, issue 4, fourth quarter 2014)

29

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