1 A d i l N a j a m The Fredrick S. Pardee Chair for Global Public Policy Pardee Center for the study of the Longer-Term Future B o s t o n U n i v e r s i t y How can ECOSOC and AMR foster integration of sustainable development? What is the nature of globalness in the world we live in? What has been the experience of putting sustainable development into global policy?
2 T H R E E S H O R T y l y t l h t igh ng A slig ng l s i A i r i b r p s u In y Dist or y r o t S St #1. #2. Context: Case: Planetary Designs Stumbling Forward S T O R I E S y r o t A S Yet Not ten t i r W #3. choices: Challenges & Opportunities Our Planet: Our Country Imagine, if the world were one country...
3 If the World was a Country.. It would be a very Poor Country It would be a very Degraded Country It would be Poorly Governed Country It would be a very Divided Country It would be a very Insecure Country It would be an Unsafe Country Our Planet is a Developing Country
4 Environment or Development? On a Developing Planet, Is that Even a Choice? Climate or Development? Can you have Sustainable Development without effective Climate Stabilization? NO
5 Climate or Development? Can you have Procedural Climate Stabilization Costs Effectiveness Costs without effective Sustainable Foregone Political Costs Development? Synergies MAYBE But beware of the costs! UNFCCC Article 2 & Article 3 Kyoto Protocol Article 2 & Article 10 IPCC Findings SRES Report INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) The mandate to link CC and SD
6 A Conceptual Evolution Sustainability Equity Development Equity, Sustainability Adaptation, Vulnerability Efficiency Finance, Technology, Livelihoods Environmental & Socio-Economic Impacts Vision, Lifestyles Alternative Development Pathways / SD Development Policy Emissions Mitigation Costs co-benefits Climate Policy The Evolution of Ideas IPCC Third Assessment within the IPCC Report IPCC First Assessment Report IPCC Second Assessment Report Climate +Impacts Climate + Impacts Efficiency IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Climate +Impacts Climate +Impacts Efficiency Efficiency Equity Equity Sustainability (Efficiency) (Equity) Continuing Focus New Focus Emerging Focus (Sustainability) (Sustainable Development?????)
7 Conceptualizing Sustainable Development Energy & SD Energy as Energy as a motor of Environmental stress macro-economic growth Environmental Energy as basic human need 1 10,000,000 USA 280 ppmv atmospheric concentrations of CO2 in parts per millions by volume (ppmv) 360 ppmv 450 ppmv 10GT 0.5 Japan 0.9 Germany 0.4 9GT 1,000, China 0.3 MALI Switzerland 8GT MALAWI NEPAL AFGHANISTAN MOZAMBIQUEUGANDA 0.7 Russian Federation TANZANIA MYANMAR SRI LANKA KYRGYZSTAN TUNISIA OMAN QATAR ZIMBABWE ETHIOPIA TRIN. & TOBAGO ECUADOR BANGLADESH MACEDONIA GEORGIA SLOVENIATAJIKISTAN PERU VIET NAM MOROCCO HONG KONGMOLDOVA CROATIA CUBA LIBYA SYRIACHILE ISRAEL 0.2 SUDAN ZAIRE GHANA IRAQ SINGAPORE PHILIPPINES TURKMENISTAN MALAYSIA COLOMBIA YUGOSLAVIA Social KENYA TAIWAN IRAN BRAZIL Republic 0 KOREA D.P.REP. SOUTH AFRICA PAKISTAN MEXICO KAZAKHSTAN -0.2 BelarusCHINA LITHUANIA ESTONIA SLOVAKIA HUNGARY 4GT LATVIA INDIA BELARUS CZECH REP. BULGARIA -0.3 POLAND ROMANIA UKRAINE Chad 1,000 RUSSIAN FED. Republic of Moldova ICELAND LUXEMBOURG NEW ZEALAND IRELAND SWITZERLAND PORTUGAL DENMARK SWEDEN NORWAY FINLAND AUSTRIA GREECE BELGIUM NETHERLANDS TURKEY SPAIN AUSTRALIA FRANCE Ghana 2GT ITALY -0.5 CANADA Suriname UK GERMANY JAPAN 100 1GT -0.6 UNITED STATES Nauru 0 GT Sao1870 Tome1880 & Principe ,000 10, ,000 1,000 mtoe Environmental Energy Consumption per Capita (1997: kg) 10 Stumbling Forward -0.1 NIGERIA Afghanistan 5GT 3GT VENEZUELA SAUDI ARABIA INDONESIA Temperature witb 20 Year Average Dominican 6GT 10, Saudi Arabia EGYPT ALGERIA ARGENTINA DegreeCelsius HDI (2000) 100, gigatonnes carbon from fossil fuel burning Economic million $US GT Economic Social 1,000,000 10,000,000
8 Environment is a Development Challenge Putting Sustainable Development to Practice ~ The challenge of sustainable development is now a challenge of Implementation ~ Sustainable Development is a global goal that can only be met at the country level ~ Sustainable development requires connections between issues and partnerships across actors
9 Begin by focussing on structural gaps ~ Credit Systems ~ Venture Capital ~ Institutional Support Investment Structures Knowledge Structures ~ Policy Support ~ Education and Communication ~ Knowledge Networks ~ Sustainable Livelihoods Incentive Structures ~ Market Opportunities, Trade and Aid Challenges & Opportunities Scale Capacity Measuring Success Scaling Up or Scaling Out Capacity for whom, for what Measuring the unmeasurable SD as an experiment Inventing SD
10 Sustainable Development: A Short History Government Civil Society Business = Solution = Monitor = Problem 1980s 1990s Government Civil Society Business = Catalyst = Solution = Problem Future Government Civil Society Business 2000s = Problem = Catalyst = Solution Government Civil Society Business = Partner = Partner = Partner