The Steps Before Unmanned Ships

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1 The Steps Before Unmanned Ships Oskar Levander, VP Innovation, Rolls-Royce Marine Smart Operations Copenhagen, Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc. This information is given in good faith based upon the latest information available to Rolls-Royce plc, no warranty or representation is given concerning such information, which must not be taken as establishing any contractual or other commitment binding upon Rolls-Royce plc or any of its subsidiary or associated companies. Trusted to deliver excellence

2 Marine Trends

3 Information Technology The dawn of the Ship Intelligence era

4 Ship Intelligence

5 Automation & Control Positioning & Manoevering Systems Integrated Automation & Control Systems Integrated Bridge Systems

6 Unified Bridge

7 Unified Bridge Common look and feel

8 ox Operating Experience

9 ox Augmented Reality

10 ox Situation Awerness 10

11 Connectivity

12 Data Logging Vessel Position Data Vessel Operational Performance Data Product usage specific data Other available data: RCI data, safety records, Doc Library, maintenance data, ERP/Baan/SAP data, Design data from PLM, test records, service reports Selection of Control Systems data Environmental data Vibration, Oil monitoring (particles, moisture), speed, load, steering angle Fuel and efficiency specific data Product condition specific data (temp, pressures, etc.)

13 Energy Management Onboard ship performance monitoring Customer web portals Shore-side support and optimisation services

14 Equipment and System Health Monitoring

15 Remote Support

16 Remote Opportunities

17 Unmanned Remote Controlled Ships Making ship transport more efficient and safe!

18 Unmanned Trend in Society It is not IF, but WHEN... Marine is only following todays trend!

19 Key Development Areas Cyber Security Communications Operation optimization Remote control center Situational awareness systems Remote controlled systems Health & safety management

20 International Regulatory Obstacles Examples of conflicts with present international rules and regulations REISSUE 2024?

21 Roadmap Reduced crew with remote support and operation of certain functions Remotely operated local vessel Remote controlled unmanned coastal vessel Remote controlled unmanned ocean going ship Autonomous unmanned ocean going ship Unmanned ships will most likely start with local applications!

22 First Step Towards Remote Operations Ship Intelligence will provide the means to make ships more efficient and leaner Remote support and operation combined with increased level of automation will reduce the number of crew required

23 Case Study - Market Short routes in Northern Europe Smaller ports with low to moderate cargo volumes Existing fleet is old and in need of replacement Old vessel design criteria is outdated SECA regulations are in force and require expensive fuel or convertions Difficult to financially justify a new build vessel, particullarily small to medium sized

24 Case Study - LEAN RoRo Fixed route 1500 lane meters Double stack containers on cassettes and trailers Small ship will enable traffic from ports with limited cargo volumes Very low cost needed to make small ship feasible

25 Design Philosophy - LEAN Low crew costs Minimum bridge crew - Only 1 active bridge crew member at all times - 3 crew on constant rotation - Automatic look-out No dedicated machinery crew - 1 multi purpose mechanic/deckhand - Expert remote support from shore centre No deck crew - Automatic mooring - Cargo lashing completed in port No hotel crew onboard - Pre fabricated food prepared ashore - Washing and cleaning done in port Low fuel cost High efficiency Smaller displacement (lightweight) LNG Modest operating speed

26 Design Philosophy - LEAN Low building cost Lean design Number of systems minimised No steam system No diesel fuel system No water production bunker water in port No sewage return sewage to port HVAC in deckhouse with direct electricity (no steam or cold water circuit) Small deck house One cargo deck, no internal roro ramps No enclosed cargo deck lower steel weight

27 LEAN RoRo Machinery Hotel load 350 kw PTI: kw PTO: kw 3277 kw 130rpm kw PTI: kw PTO: kw 895 kw 3277 kw 1 x 1000 kw Installed propulsion power: 7.0 MW Service speed: 16.5 kts (15% SM at 76% MCR) Max speed: 18 kts (15% SM at 94% MCR) 130rpm kw 2 x 8L Bergen B35:40 1 x MTU 8V4000 M24S

28 Benchmarking The Lean RoRo is compared with two ships to determine the economic attractiveness of the concept Reference vessel 1: Todays market standard Existing, second hand RoRo from 1990 s Cargo capacity: 1500 lm - Lower cargo hold - Main deck - Upper deck Designed for 20 knot, operating far below this design point Reference vessel 2: Conventional new build Modern version of Reference vessel 1 optimised for todays market Cargo capacity: 1500 lm - Lower cargo hold - Main deck - Upper deck Speed 17 knot

29 Main Characteristics Reference vessel 1 Second hand 1990 design Reference vessel 2 Conventional New Build LPP [m] Breadth [m] Draught [m] Lean RoRo Lane meters [m] 1500 (only partial double stack) 1500 (only partial double stack) 1500 (double stack) Displacement [ton] Service speed [kts]

30 Crew cost Assumption: Northern European crew Lean RoRo - 3 bridge crew + 1 mechanic/deckhand = 4 total crew Reference vessel: - 12 multidisciplinary crew 1.2 M 0.8 M 0.4 M 0.0 M Lean RoRo Reference vessel 1&2

31 Operating Costs Lower crew costs Lower fairway and port fees lower GT Lower fuel cost: - LNG vs MGO - Lower hotel load No cargo area ventilation Smaller accommodation area Fewer systems onboard - Lower operating speed - faster loading and unloading All cargo on main deck no internal ramps Wide stern ramps 0 M 7 M 6 M 5 M 4 M 3 M 2 M 1 M Assumptions: MGO $ 600 /ton LNG $ 11 /mmbtu = $ 511/ton EURO/USD 1.19 FOR GUIDANCE ONLY Crew Maintenance Fuel Lean RoRo Conventional newbuild RoRo Second hand RoRo

32 Lean RoRo - CAPEX Lower building cost - Lower steel weight and volume - Less roro equipments single deck - Smaller accommodation - Fewer systems onboard 30 M 25 M 20 M CAPEX Second hand cost Ship Systems Machinery Accommodation No cargo ventilation open deck No steam system (no HFO heating) No water production (bunker in port) No sewage treatment (return to port) - Only three engines Additional cost - LNG storage system - Redundant machinery and remote system 15 M 10 M 5 M 0 M LNG tanks incl. Lean RoRo Conventional new build RoRo 50% value of new build Second hand RoRo Ship Outfitting Superstructure Hull Structures RoRo Equipment Tests and Trials Design EURO/USD 1.19 FOR GUIDANCE ONLY

33 Annual costs [M ] Total Annual Costs 10 M 9 M 8 M 7 M 6 M 5 M 4 M 3 M 2 M 1 M 0 M Lean RoRo Conventional newbuild RoRo Second hand RoRo Second hand value assuemd to be 50% of new build OPEX CAPEX 10 years and 7% interrest FOR GUIDANCE ONLY

34 Conclusions We are at the dawn of the Ship Intelligence era LEAN ship concepts with reduced number of crew can offer an attractive solution on short sea routes!

35 The best way to predict the future is to create the future