Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport. Sustainable & Inclusive Transport Workshop- Thimpu

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1 Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport H.M. Shivanand Swamy Center of Excellence in Urban Transport (COE-UT), CEPT University, Ahmedabad Sustainable & Inclusive Transport Workshop- Thimpu

2 Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India CEPT University focuses on understanding, designing, planning, constructing and managing human habitats. Its teaching programs build thoughtful professionals and its research programs deepen understanding of human settlements. CEPT University also undertakes advisory projects to further the goal of making habitats more livable. The University comprises five faculties. Faculty of Architecture Faculty of Planning Faculty of Technology Faculty of Design Faculty of Habitat Management 2012 The Center of Excellence in Urban Transport, CEPT University (CEPT-CoE), established in 2009 is an initiative of the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Government of India, CEPT-CoE has been envisaged as a resource centre for dealing with issues in urban transport planning and management. It has a mandate to cover three aspects of capacity building in urban transport - human resource development, knowledge management and technical assistance & advisory.

3 Hon'ble Prime Minister of Bhutan in Ahmedabad Received by Ms. D.Thara, Municipal Commissioner

4 Hon'ble Prime Minister of Bhutan in Ahmedabad Taking BRT ride with Hon. Minister Shakner Chaudhary, Government of Gujarat

5 Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport H.M. Shivanand Swamy Center of Excellence in Urban Transport (COE-UT) CEPT University

6 Urban Transport Challenges Unplanned urban growth leading to urban sprawl Higher Capital Investments Increased trip lengths Longer travel times Resulting in congestion- delays Road safety risks Increased energy consumption Deterioration in air quality. Increased dependence on private modes of travel The focus on facilitating vehicular movements Little/no emphasis on quality pedestrian infrastructure /cyclist infrastructure. Motorisation and inadequate transport infrastructure With economic development 2 wheelers are shifting towards car Our cities are not designed for car dominated traffic Unplanned growth Street networks with irregular, not hierarchical pattern COE-UT,Cept University

7 Urban Transport Challenges Air and Noise Pollution The transport sector contributes to about 15% of CO2 emissions in India, and has been increasing Indian cities are very noisy. Mumbai and Delhi have both registered more than 90 db, making Mumbai the third noisiest city in the world Road Safety Road accidents have grown 2.5 times from 2000 to 2012 pedestrians and cyclists accounts for more than 60% of the urban road fatalities Institutional Inadequacies Urban transport is not the responsibility of any one institution Centre State Local Railways, Shipping, Aviation Land & Urban Transport City bus & city transport infrastructure Major port Minor Port Inland waterways Trunk Highways Other roads Local Roads Financing of Urban Transport Urban local bodies fund transport through local taxation Limited resources- focus on building & maintaining roads, flyovers & under bridges Public transport only a discretionary function of local bodies COE-UT,Cept University

8 Urban Transport Challenges Figures shows India turning into vehicle oriented society COE-UT,Cept University

9 Urban Transport Challenges COE-UT,Cept University

10 Required Change in Perspective Use Captive to the Car Target Group Cannot afford anything else Car Use 2w or old car Use PT or NMT Quality is important Affordability is important I N C O M E

11 Health Land use Economics Technology Politics Energy Security Environment Complexity of Urban Transport Behavior Sociology Finance Affordability Engineering Disability Gender Source : OP Agrawal,World Bank Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport

12 Urban Transport Planning & Management needs a holistic approach Need to balance supply side measures with demand side measures This requires many actions to happen in an integrated and well coordinated manner These actions are taken by multiple agencies, that often cut across different levels of the Govt. This is the institutional challenge Source : OP Agrawal,World Bank Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport

13 Essential to integrate this fragmented responsibility through a lead institution having comprehensive responsibility Source : OP Agrawal,World Bank Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport

14 PLANNING & MANAGEMENT OF URBAN TRANPORT - INSTITUTIONS

15 Spatial Planning How to structure (Re)Development? Land use Planning A Statutory Process Town Planning & Urban Development Act How to organise mobility systems? Transport /Mobility Plans Not Statutory/Adhoc basis Planned as two separate systems!! Integrated Approach is required

16 Agencies responsible for the plan preparation? Land use planning and zoning (Under respective T&CP Acts) Development Authorities Municipalities Town & Country Planning Agency Transportation planning Multiple agencies (Urban roads, public transport, railways, metro, traffic management) National, State level Local level Lack of coordination

17 Forecasting and backcasting FUTURE VISION OF THE FUTURE Forecasting Backcasting PRESENT PRESENT 18 *Source: STELLA Focus Group 4 meeting, Brussels March 2004

18 Change Course towards desired future

19 Plans and Process London, Mayor s Transport Strategy London Plan Long term plan (20 years) Lead Agency: GLA Economic Development Strategy Long term plan (20 years) Spatial Strategic Plan: Challenges of economic and population growth. Accessible neighborhood. World leader in improving the environment. Easy, safe and convenient access of jobs and opportunities. Long term plan (20 years) Lead Agency: GLA and TfL Transport Strategic Goals Support economic and population growth. Enhance quality of life of Londoners. Reduce transport contribution to Climate. Improve transport opportunities to all Londoners Lead Agency: GLA Supportive Agency: TfL, London Development Agency, Metropolitan Police Service Economic Strategic Plan: Promote London as a world capital business centre Most competitive business environment. World s leading low carbon capital Investment in infrastructure and transport.

20 Plans and Process - Singapore Long term plan (30-40 years) Concept plan Lead Agency: URA (Urban Redevelopment Authority), Supporting Agency: HAD (Housing Development Dept), JTC (Industry & Developers), National Environment Agency Physical development Economic development opportunities Physical connectivity Land Transport Master Plan Medium term plan (10-15 years) Lead Agency: LTA (Land Transport Authority), Supporting Agency: PTC (Public Transport Council) Strategic thrust: Making public transport a mode choice. Managing Road usage Meeting the diverse needs of the people

21 Plans and Process - Ottawa 1. Human service Plan 2. Arts and Heritage Plan 3. Economic strategy Plan 4. Environment strategy Plan 5. Official Plan Plan period: 20 years Lead Agency: City council Managing growth Providing Infrastructure Maintaining Environmental Integrity Creating Liveable Communities Infrastructure Master Plan Green Space Master Plan Transport master Plan Plan period: 10 years Lead Agency: City council Land use planning Transportation demand management Transportation supply management New infrastructure and services.

22 Benchmarking - CURITIBA A Concentric roads Pedestrinised City Centre Slow moving traffic ring Express Bus Stations Highest Density along BRT Kerb side bus stops Median Bus lanes pphpd ridership

23 Singapore Landuse Transport Integration Concept Plan 1971 drew up plans for MRT Lines land banking adopted by Government to develop residential areas which were to be connected by the PT system. Concept Plan 1991 proposed highrise development around MRT stations - commercial and other economic activities Integration of PT with economic centres led to better utilisation of the MRT network in both directions during peak hours. Development of residential areas near to commercial and industries - reduce the need of travel by

24 Benchmarking - SINGAPORE ERP is a congestion management tool Pay-as-you-use principle Review speed range at 3-month interval, adjust ERP rates Arterial Roads Expressways Increase ERP rate Decrease ERP rate Increase ERP rate Decrease ERP rate 20 kph 30 kph 45 kph 65 kph

25 Benchmarking - SEOUL Improve public transport access to city centers, restrict single occupant autos Remove 1,160 Lane Km of general traffic lanes- Add pedestrian and transit-only space, Cheong Gye Cheon Before After

26 INDIA - INTEGRATED PLANNING - National Land Use Policy - National Urban Transport Policy - Spatial Planning

27 Urban Transport Management Framework India National URBAN TRANSPORT POLICY-2006, Framed by MoUD, GOI - NUTP The objective of this policy is to ensure safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and sustainable access for the growing number of city residents to jobs, education, recreation and such other needs within our cities. National Urban Renewal Mission (NURM), Framed by MoUD, GOI Reform led infrastructure funding program - Metro Rail, Bus Rapid Transit System, Buses, NMT infartsructure SMART CITIES COE-UT,Cept University

28 NATIONAL URBAN TRANSPORT POLICY-2006, Framed by MoUD, GOI Initiatives towards urban transport reform Vision People centric Cities Most liveable cities in the world Evolution of cities according to support the main social and economic activities that take place in the city Objective The objective of this policy is to ensure safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and sustainable access for the growing number of city residents to jobs, education, recreation and such other needs within our cities. Focus Reduce Need to travel Invest in sustainable transport infrastructure Livable cities and Improved social & economic systems Strategies Integrated land use transport planning Integrated, multimodal transport Greater use of technology to deliver cleaner and more user friendly transport Institutional capacity building Regulatory reforms to create level playing field Access to houses and livelihood opportunities of the poor Promoting public transport and non-motorised transport through equitable allocation of streets space and central financial support COE-UT,Cept University

29 Reforms in urban transport in India State Level City Level State Urban Dev Dept Urban transport under the purview of urban development department Urban Local Body ULB to be responsible for the urban development in the city Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority Million+ cities Coordinated planning and implementation of UT projects Dedicated Urban Transport Fund Land value capture, advertisement tax, etc. Urban Transportation fund Generate inflows from various taxes and fees Funding new UT projects & maintenance Advertisement Policy Advertisement revenue from PT, IPT and public utilities for public purpose Integrated planning Changes in bylaws and master plans to integrate sustainable transport Parking Policy Parking fee represents true value of land occupied. Mechanism to Curb private vehicle parking Fare revision Regulatory/institutional mechanism setup to periodically revise PT fares Integrated Network & ITS Seamless travel, multimodal integration,automatic fare, Realtime information Transit Oriented Development (TOD TOD encouraged by policy amendments SPV Special purpose vehicle for managing hte public transportation State Taxes COE-UT,Cept University Waiving off/reimbursing taxes on urban or city buses or brts Traffic Management Control Center Effective monitoring and enforcement data for future planning

30 Process SECTORAL STUDIES AND ANALYSES SPATIAL STUDIES AND ANALYSES PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS SECTORAL STRATEGIES VISION DEVELOPMENT PLANS PROJECTS SPATIAL STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION

31 Legal framework Planning legislation must be revamped in all states A new planning framework a combination of STRATEGIC & SPATIAL planning at all hierarchical levels State HIERARCHICAL LEVELS IN SETTLEMENT PLANNING REGIONAL PLANNING JURISDICTIONS Metropolitan Area City Zone Ward, Local area Other Regions* Gram Panchayat Ward Districts * Other regions heritage region, disaster affected region, flood plain, industrial area, etc.

32 DISTRICT LAND USE PLAN NATIONAL LAND USE POLICY Focus Natural Resources & Agricultural Productivity

33 Rural settlement Planning Gamtal/ Gaothan expansion; Access/ Village roads and pathways; Common property resources management; Water & Sanitation, Disaster Management Existing Land Use Proposed Land Use

34 Plans and Process - Ahmedabad Gujarat Town Planning & Development Act 1976 Guideline document for planning and development Spatial Framework Development plan Town Planning Scheme (TPS) Land use management at micro level Road network hierarchy & good quality balanced built form. Control on development through FAR & regular shapes of the plots. Long term plan (20 years) Lead Agency: AUDA (Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority), Supporting Agency: AMC, Roads & Building department, Integrated Mobility Plan Medium term plan (20 years) Lead Agency: AUDA (Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority), Supporting Agency: AMC, R&B, GIDB, AMTS, AJL, Western railway Land use & Economic development centres (CBD, TOD etc.) Housing (EWS, Affordable housing etc.) Public transportation & TOD Social infrastructure development Local area access plan & Green Network Integrated land use transport infrastructure Efficient movement of people & goods Sustainable & safer transport focussing on NMT & PT.

35 Land Management 2 Stage Process Under the Gujarat Urban Development and Town Planning Act-1976 Development Plan Provides Overall Development Framework Overall Direction of Urban Expansion Landuse Zoning City level road network City Level Infrastructure (Utilities & Amenities) Reservations of Land for other Public Purposes Development Control Regulation/rules Ahmedabad DP s 1965, 1987, 2002, 2014

36 Land Management Process Under the Gujarat Urban Development and Town Planning Act-1976 Town Planning Scheme (TPS) A land readjustment tool to adapt land for urban use Reconstitution of land holdings Appropriation of land for public uses without acquisition Local level road network Local level social and physical infrastructure Land Bank for Urban Poor Infrastructure Cost Recovery Land appropriation compensation adjusted against land value increments due to infra. provision Land for Financing of infrastructure (15%)

37 Town Planning Scheme Under the Gujarat Urban Development and Town Planning Act-1976 Land Area for Public Purposes Appropriation of land for public uses upto 50% Road Network upto 20% Local level social and physical infrastructure (upto 5%) Land for Economically Weaker Section Housing (upto 10%) Land Bank for Financing of infrastructure (upto 15%)

38 N-S Metro E-W Metro BRT Network Metro BRT Integration No Station Leve l Ashram Road ( income 1 tax) 1 2 Kalupur Rly. Stn. 1 3 Sabarmati Rail Stn 1 4 Helmet Cross Road 2 5 Rabari Colony 2 6 Anjali 2 7 Madalpur 2 8 Vadaj 2 9 Ranip 2 10 Thaltej Gam 3 11 Thaltej 3 12 Drive-in Cinema 3 13 Gurukul Road 3 14 Commerce Six Road 3 15 Stadium 3 16 Shahpur 3 17 Relief Road 3 18 Kankaria East 3 19 New Cotton Mills 3 20 Amraiwadi 3 21 Vastral 3 22 Nirant Cross Rd Vastral Gam 3 24 APMC 3 25 Vasna 3 26 Paldi 3 27 Nava Gandhigram 3 28 Usmanpura 3 29 AEC 3

39 INTEGRATED LAND USE WITH MASS TRANSIT 2021

40 Focus Areas Service Level Benchmark 1.Public Transport facilities 2.Pedestrian Infrastructure facilities 3.Non Motorized Transport facilities 4.Usage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS) facilities 5.Travel Speed (Motorized And Mass Transit) Along Major Corridors 6.Road Safety 7.Availability of Parking facilities 8.Pollution levels 9.Land Use Transport Integration 10.Financial Sustainability of Public Transport 11.Intermediate Public Transport (IPT)

41 Adapting Indicators for Hill Cities Why do we need to look at Hill Cities differently? Geographical constraints Steep slopes, landslides, heterogeneity of climate, land use pattern and scarcity of buildable land Population size Residents vs Visitors Size of these cities maybe smaller but the scale is much larger as it is driven by both residents and visitors Functionality Small cities deliver higher order functions (not matching with size)

42 Paved footsteps Near NST Station High School Near Red cross building

43 Unpaved footsteps Along NH-29 Martyrs Park to PWD office Along NH-29

44 Methodology for Hill Cities Research background methodology to compute basis for Hill Cities Developing a base Survey required for computation Base information required to collect for all hill cities 1. Contours 2. Generate Elevation from Contours 3. Generate Slopes from Elevation. 4. Using Path distance tool and applying Tobler s hiking function (vertical factors) to calculate the cost in terms of time. 1.Public transport user survey 2. Average walking speed Interpretation of 500m buffer

45 Methodology for Hill Cities Computation Result from survey Calculation for computation Sample size 1% of ridership-220nos 75% of bus users use walk as an access and egress mode 45 % of the bus users are walking 10 minutes 23% of the bus users are willing to walk upto 2o minutes to a bus stops Average walking speed is 2.3 km/hr m = 230 m i.e. It takes 6 minutes to walk 230m in hill areas 2. Willingness to walk = 20 mins =750m i.e. Coverage of public transport is 750m instead of 500m becausepeoplewalkmoreon hilly areas.

46 MANAGEMENT OF URBAN TRANPORT - INSTITUTIONS

47 Who should Plan & Manage Transport? Functions Legal basis Jurisdiction Manpower profile and size Management structure and accountability Leadership of the institution Financing Source : OP Agrawal,World Bank Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport

48 Structure for Transportation Management Strategic Level Strategic Functions Policy Formulation Establishing a Vision, Long term planning, Capital Financing Tactical Level Operations Level Infrastructure Planning Regulation Service Planning Infrastructure Construction / Maintenance Public Transport Operations Planning for roads, bridges, and other infrastructure Functions Under Law Issue of permits for public tpt, Fare fixation Driver license & Vehicle registn Traffic Management, Enforcement Planning functions,demand assessment Network & route design, Service planning Inter-modal coordination Common facilities Separate facilities Construction & maintenance of Roads/bridges, etc Terminals, Bus stops, Control systems, Database, Ticketing, Accident recovery Metro, BRT, Buses, Para Transit Planning level Functions Operations

49 Agencies Responsible for Urban Transport in India Planning level Strategic Level Tactical Level Operations Level Functions Strategic Functions Urban /Infrastructur e Planning Regulation Service Planning Infrastructure Construction / Maintenance Public Transport Operations Agency Ministry of Urban development Ministry of Road transport & Highways Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Department of Transport Urban development Department- Planning for roads, bridges, and other infrastructure Road and Building Department Delhi Development Authority Home department Road Transport Office - Driver license & Vehicle registn Department of Police - Traffic Police : Traffic Management Enforcement DDA Public Transport Auhtorities: Planning functions Demand assessment Network & route design Service planning Inter-modal coordination Municipal Corporation Construction & maintenance of Roads/bridges, etc Urban Development Authority Road and Building department Common facilities Public Transport Authorities Terminals, Bus stops, Control systems, Database, Ticketing, Accident recovery Separate facilities Public Transport Authorities Metro, BRT, Buses, Para Transit COE-UT,Cept University

50 London Strategic Functions TfL Infrastructure Planning TfL London Underground Regulation TfL Dept of Transport Service Planning TfL Infrastructure Construction / Maintenance Private Construction firms World Bank Study Common Facilities TfL or subsidiaries (Victoria Coach Station) Public Transport Operations Separate Services London Underground Private bus operators

51 Singapore Strategic Functions LTA Infrastructure Planning LTA Regulation LTA, PTC POLICE Service Planning LTA, Operators Infrastructure Construction / Maintenance Private Construction firms World Bank Study Common Facilities LTA Public Transport Operations Separate Services SMRT SBS

52 Transport Authority Framework in various cities City Option adopted Agency Under Own legislation Under Generic legislation Under Executive orders Under Mutual Agreement Paris Framework Law for such organizing authorities for public transport London Greater London Authority Act, 1999 Subsidiaries - under a generic Companies Act Vancouver TransLink South Coast British Colombia Authority Act Subsidiaries Generic legislation Singapore Land Transport Authority Act LTA Paris Transit Authority Transport for London Translink Lagos LAMATA Act LAMATA Cairo Presidential Decree Cairo Transportation Authority Pereira Mutual Agreement India UMTA Urban Mass Transit Authority ACT (State wise) Various Mass transit authorities setup in various cities Having its own legislation gives it the required Authority but can be time consuming and complicated. Needs strong will and leadership. Source : OP Agrawal,World Bank Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport

53 Manpower Staff strength depends on what functions it performs and how it organizes the operation of public transport services TfL TransLink LTA STIF Bangalore Lagos

54 Sourcing manpower Two options: Existing civil service Open market Existing civil service has the advantage of knowing the system better, but may not have the requisite technical skills Open market may have the requisite skills, but: Salary scales required may have to be much higher conflict with existing civil services May not know the internal systems very well

55 Management structure Typically a Board, supported by a Secretariat Secretariat headed by a CEO Can have several subsidiaries

56 TfL Board (chaired by Mayor) Transport for London (headed by Commissioner) London Underground Limited London Bus Services Litd Victoria Coach Station Docklands Light Railway London River Services 19 others World Bank Study

57 Leadership - Who heads Usually tricky if many jurisdictions Head of the main city Provincial or national representative Selected by heads of all jurisdictions Agency TfL, London STIF, Paris LTA, Singapore TransLink, Vancouver LAMATA Leadership Mayor of London Chair of a 29 member board comprising reps of region, Paris and departments Chair of a 15 member Board. CEO heads secretariat Chair of a 9 member Board appointed by a Mayors Council 13 member Board representing different stakeholders

58 Financing Finances for its own expenses + finances for meeting capital and O&M costs Government grants Taxes assigned to the institution to collect and use Fees and revenues from its own activities Its most important source of Authority Authority TfL, London STIF, Paris LTA, Singapore TransLink,Vancouver LAMATA, Lagos India Source of finance Govt. grants towards (1)investment program and (2) for operational activities, + congestion fee, advertising etc. Govt. grants + Transport Tax Management fee, vehicle registration fee, etc. + Grants for capital investments Property tax, parking sales tax and fuel tax + Agreed transfers from Govt. Fees for its services and share of road tax Grants, Land Value Capture, Green Cess (Surrat, Ahmedabad)

59 Bangalore Strategic Functions UMTA Infrastructure Planning City/PWD Regulation STA/RTA POLICE Service Planning Operators Infrastructure Construction / Maintenance Private Construction firms Common facilities None at present Public Transport Operations Separate Services SPVs BMRC/BMTC

60 Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority UMTA Functions ( INDIA) Policy Functions : Formulation of policy, strategy & financing city PT systems. Regulatory functions: Coordination between various PT modes for seamless travel Financing functions: Integrated Holistic Planning: Planning Multimodal PT system, IPT, NMT & Goods movement Planning Road Network & Associated infrastructure: Road furniture, Junctions, Flyovers, Parking, intermodal transfers Organizing & Coordinating Services: Route allocation, contract monitoring Common Services: PR, Security Services, revenue sharing mgmt, data mgmt, last mile connectivity etc. Traffic engineering & Management Capacity building for city officials City level Hyderabad Urban Metropolitan Transport Authority (HUMTA) Chennai Urban Metropolitan Transport Authority (CUMTA) Unified Mumbai Metropolitan Transport Authority (UMMTA) Bangalore Metropolitan Land Transport Authority (BMLTA) Mysore City Land Transport Authority (MCLTA) State Level Directorate of Urban Land Transport (DULT) Karnataka UMTA for Odhisha, Jharkhand, UP COE-UT,Cept University

61 Investment Program: Alternative Funding meachanism Urban Transport Fund (UTF) with advertisement revenues, parking revenues and land value capture (sale of FSI) as sources of fund. UTF is available for capital & expenditure costs for transit systems and NMT facilities Green Tax : 2% on price of vehicle which goes to UTF ( Implemented by Surat Gujarat) Automatic Fare Revision formulae- Bus fares indexed to changes in fuel price and other costs (Adopted by Ahmedabad) private sector -to finance and operate and maintain transit systems efficiently, gross-cost & net-cost contracting models Gross cost models by Ahmedabad, Surat, Delhi etc.- Recommended COE-UT,Cept University

62 Agencies responsible for transport in Bhutan Ministry Agency Major Functions Level Govt. Ministry of Road Safety & Transport Transport policy, regional transport connectivity National Information Authority Vehicle registration, driver testing and licensing, vehicle & standards, road safety, road transport regulation, public transport services (incl. urban transport) and facilities, ra Communica Department of Civil Aviation infrastructure, navigation/ communication facilities, National tions Aviation airport security, regulate air carriers, services at the airport Ministry of Home & Cultural Affairs Ministry of Works & Human Settlement Dzongkhag Administration Planning, implementation and maintenance of feeder roads Province Gewog Administration Maintenance of farm roads, tracks and footpaths with inputs Local from DoA (MoAF) Royal Bhutan Police, Traffic Enforcement of road rules, highway patrolling, road safety, traffic National Division and parking control Department of Disaster Management Emergency (disaster) search & rescue National Department of Roads Road network (NH, DR) planning, implementation, maintenance Technical standards Road infrastructure safety/road safety auditing Road signs, signals, markings Department of Urban development National Engineering Services Urban Road Department of Human Engineers administration, Urban planning, Urban land use National Settlement planning/management, Suspension bridges

63 Ministry Agency Major Functions Level Govt. Ministry of Agriculture and Forests Department of Agriculture Implement farm Roads Ministry of Finance Agencies responsible for transport in Bhutan Ministry of Labour & Human Resources Department of Renewable Energy Ministry of Education Ministry of Foreign Affairs Thromdeys - Thimphu, Phuentsholing, Gelephu, Samdrupjongkha r National Environment Commission Department of Revenue & Customs Department of Trade Department of Renewable Energy Vehicle import, motor vehicle related taxes and levies, subsidy to city transport Installation and management of weigh bridges Licensing of driver training schools public and private Vehicle import license, Dry port, freight transport, automobile workshops, fuel policy, transit trade (sea-ports) Alternative energy School buses Protocol/VIP vehicles All aspects of Thromde Roads, Traffic and parking management, Urban transport, Road signs, signals, markings Emission standard National National National National Province National

64 Bhutan Strategic Functions? Infrastructure Planning Regulation Service Planning??? Infrastructure Construction / Maintenance? Common Facilities Public Transport Operations Separate Services??

65 Key lessons New Institutions Takes time to evolve matching expectations with possibilities What exists today will have to give us a lead for the future!! Selecting an existing institution will always be questioned by others!!

66 Key success factors Being able to provide facilities that are of public value Public Value Internal Capacity External Support Has the technical capacity and financial resources to discharge its responsibilities Has influential champions to back it up Source : OP Agrawal,World Bank Establishing Institutions for the coordinated planning and management of urban transport

67 Thank You. Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, CEPT University

68 THANK YOU

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