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1 Lecture 2 Perfectly competitive markets Kosmas Marinakis, Ph.. Important notes 1. Homework 1 will is due on Monday 2. Practice problem set 2 is online microeconomics II first module Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 2 Basic assumptions of PC 1. Large number of firms Assumptions A market is perfectly competitive when 1. Firms are many 2. Product is homogeneous 3. Entry and exit are free Firms are so many that cannot meaningfully interact This assumption leads to price-taking Each firm holds a tiny market share and its actions do not affect other firms is set at the market level - the firm cannot affect it That is, for the firm, price is considered given What happens if the firm deviates? Also, every consumer buys too small a share of industry output to have any impact on market price Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Product homogeneity Assumptions 3. Free entry and exit Assumptions All products have differences It matters how the consumer perceives the good Heterogeneous products, such as brand names, can charge higher prices because they may be perceived as better Suppliers can easily enter or exit the market There are no special costs that make it difficult for a firm to enter (or exit) an industry There are no prohibitions in entering a market Buyers can easily switch from one supplier to another Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 6

2 Profit maximization in general Profit maximization in PC Profit maximization Lets see the math first: Π The FOC for this expression is Π C 0 This yields the generalized profit maximization condition under any market structure, profit is maximized when the cost for producing an extra unit equals the revenue from this unit Under perfect competition the price is constant So, the revenue is Thus, marginal revenue (MR) is So, under PC the profit maximizing condition becomes under PC, profit is maximized when the cost for producing an extra unit equals the (given) price Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 8 emand for a PC firm emand for a PC firm (graphs) emand emand curve faced by an individual firm is a horizontal line Industry Firm firm s sales have no effect on market price emand curve faced by the whole market is downward sloping shows quantities consumers will purchase at different prices S The demand curve faced by the firm is a horizontal line at d Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 10 : Short-Run A competitive firm in the S-R We will need to combine the demand with the cost structure of the firm in the same graph in order to investigate the decision about Profit MC In the Short-Run, capital is fixed and firm must choose levels of variable inputs to maximize profits We can look at the graph of MR, MC, ATC and AVC to determine profits A ATC AVC d Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 12

3 Stability of the S-R equilibrium When should the firm shut down? Assume that MR=MC when the PC firm produces This means that maximizes the firm s profit If the firm produces any MR > MC more profit could be gained by increasing output If the firm produces any MR < MC decreasing output will increase profits Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 13 A firm is producing chairs 1 worker for \$80 / day with 1-year contract \$10 worth of materials per chair (wood, etc.) The worker makes 10 chairs per day \$18 For 18the firm has profit For 18the firm has losses Should it shut down? For 1018the firm covers its AVC and parts of FC If it shuts down it will have to pay the FC from its pocket Keep operating till the contract with the worker expires Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 14 Losses and shut down S-R supply It is not rare that at a given market price, a firm will incur losses that is, when If, the firm should continue producing in the short-run covers all of variable costs and part of fixed costs If, the firm should shut down operation makes the situation worst cannot even cover variable costs Supply curve tells how much output the firm will produce at different prices Competitive firms produce the quantity where Also, shut down when The competitive firm s supply curve is the portion of the MC curve above the AVC curve Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 16 S-R supply curve Supply Market supply for the S-R Supply MC Supply curve ATC AVC Shows the amount of output the whole market will produce at given prices Is the horizontal sum of all the individual firms supply curves in the market adding quantities for each price The market supply is more elastic than the firm supply curves Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 18

4 Market supply (graph) P p 3 Supply S Long-Run Competitive Equilibrium For the long-run equilibrium, firms must have no desire to enter or leave the industry Mobility in and out this industry will be eliminated when economic profit vanishes When 0, the owner of the firm is earning a normal return on his/her investment normal return is firm s opportunity cost of using money to buy capital instead of investing elsewhere Q Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 20 L-R Competitive Equilibrium Entry Equilibrium L-R Competitive Equilibrium Exit Equilibrium Firm Industry S 1 Firm LMC Industry S 2 LMC LAC LAC S 2 S 1 q 2 Q Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 21 Q 2 q 2 Q 2 Q Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 22 L-R equilibrium properties All firms in industry are maximizing profits No firm has incentive to enter or exit industry Π0 Market is in equilibrium Equilibrium A market is efficient when nothing is lost due to its function if the function of the market creates frictions, the market is inefficient All the gains from trade between the parties are captured does it matter who captures them? Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 24

5 Measuring market efficiency Surplus How can we quantify an index of economic efficiency? How do we measure inefficiency in a specific market? such measure of efficiency would be necessary to evaluate government intervention or policy Surplus is the benefit beyond the minimum benefit required for a transaction to occur I was willing to teach 3 courses per year in order to accept an offer from HSE They offered me to teach just two So, I am enjoying a surplus of 1 course less teaching load Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 26 Consumer Surplus Producer Surplus Consumer surplus is the value consumers receive beyond what they actually pay for the good CS are willing to pay Willingness to pay is measured by? Actual payment is given by? actually pay CS measures the net benefit to consumers by the area between the demand curve and the market price Producer surplus is the benefit producers receive beyond what it costs to produce a good PS actually receive Willingness to sell is measured by? Actual payment received is given by? are willing to sell Producer surplus measures the net benefit to producers by the area between the supply curve and the market price Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 28 Consumer and Producer Surplus in a Competitive Market From the previous figure it seems that nothing is lost P Consumer Surplus S The total surplus is gained by someone in this market Therefore, PC markets are always 100% efficient oes this mean that no failures occur in PC? p* Producer Surplus P S Q Q S Q* Quantity Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 30

6 Market Failure Types of market failures Market failure Sometimes, the market system may fail What is a failure? How can it occur if markets automatically equilibrate? When the market fails: s fail to provide proper signals to consumers and producers The market is inefficient (in what sense?) Government may intervene to fix the problem Externalities costs or benefits that do not show up as part of the market (e.g. pollution, systemic risks, antibiotic resistance, education) Asymmetry of information imperfect information prevents efficient transactions from happening Mechanism design can induce failure Government intervention may be desirable in all cases Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 32 Example Market failure Georgi Olga Plan A Plan B 1 11 Which plan is best? What if Olga alone is deciding about the plan? What can we say about efficiency? Thank you! Kosmas Marinakis, HSE MII Lecture 2 33 Kosmas Marinakis WARNING! This printout is provided as a courtesy, so that lecture time can be dedicated to note taking. These slides are not standalone material and should be used strictly as reference, side by side with notes taken in the lecture. Studying solely from the slides is not recommended and in some cases may mislead those who have not attended the relevant lecture. Less than 5% of tasks in tests and exams can be answered from the slides.

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### Econ 98 (CHIU) Midterm 1 Review: Part A Fall 2004

Disclaimer: The review may help you prepare for the exam. The review is not comprehensive and the selected topics may not be representative of the exam. In fact, we do not know what will be on the exam.

### INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS LECTURE 13 - MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION AND OLIGOPOLY. Monopolistic Competition

13-1 INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS LECTURE 13 - MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION AND OLIGOPOLY Monopolistic Competition Pure monopoly and perfect competition are rare in the real world. Most real-world industries

### a. Sells a product differentiated from that of its competitors d. produces at the minimum of average total cost in the long run

I. From Seminar Slides: 3, 4, 5, 6. 3. For each of the following characteristics, say whether it describes a perfectly competitive firm (PC), a monopolistically competitive firm (MC), both, or neither.