Lesson 3. Adam Smith and the Free Market 1/27/2013. Markets and Competition. Demand. Unit 2. Krugman, Module 5 pp

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1 Unit 2 Adam Smith and the Free Market Lesson 3 Krugman, Module 5 pp Markets and Competition A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular product. A competitive market is one with many buyers and sellers, each has a negligible effect on price. A perfectly competitive market: all goods exactly the same Large numbers of buyers & sellers so that no one can affect market price In this chapter, we assume markets are perfectly competitive. 1 Demand The quantity demanded of any good is the amount of the good that buyers are willing and able to purchase. Law of demand: the claim that the quantity demanded of a good falls when the price of the good rises. The reasons for this: Diminishing Marginal Utility Substitution Effect Income Effect 2 1

2 The Demand Schedule Demand schedule: A table that shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded. Example: Helen s demand for lattes. Notice that Helen s preferences obey the Law of Demand. of lattes Quantity of lattes demanded CHAPTER 3 of Lattes \$.00 \$5.00 \$.00 \$3.00 \$2.00 \$1.00 Demand Schedule & Curve Quantity of Lattes of lattes Quantity of lattes demanded Market Demand versus Individual Demand The quantity demanded in the market is the sum of the quantities demanded by all buyers at each price. Suppose Helen and Ken are the only two buyers in the Latte market. (Q d quantity demanded) Helen s Q d Ken s Q d Market Q d

3 The Market Demand Curve for Lattes P \$.00 \$5.00 \$.00 \$3.00 \$2.00 \$1.00 Q P Q d (Market) Demand Curve Shifters The demand curve shows how price affects quantity demanded. Non-price determinants of demand are things other than the good s price that effect buyers willingness and ability to purchase a good Changes in them shift the D curve 7 Demand Curve Shifters: tastes Anything that causes consumers to want more of a good will increase demand for that good and shift its D curve to the right; usually this is advertising of some sort Example: The Atkins diet became popular in the 90s, caused an increase in demand for eggs, shifted the egg demand curve to the right. CHAPTER 8 3

4 Demand Curve Shifters: income Demand for a normal good is positively related to income. Increase in income causes increase in quantity demanded at each price, shifts D curve to the right 9 Demand Curve Shifters: more or less buyers Increase in # of buyers increases quantity demanded at each price, shifts D curve to the right. 10 Demand Curve Shifters: # of buyers P \$.00 \$5.00 \$.00 \$3.00 \$2.00 \$ Suppose the number of buyers increases. Then, at each P, Q d will increase (by 5 in this example). Q CHAPTER 11

5 Demand Curve Shifters: expectations Expectations affect consumers buying decisions. Examples: If people expect their incomes to rise, their demand for meals at expensive restaurants may increase now. If the economy turns bad and people worry about their future job security, demand for new autos may fall now. Sometimes consumers reactions cause what they think is going to happen to actually happen; this is ARBITRAGE 12 Demand Curve Shifters: Two goods are substitutes if you buy one OR the other; an increase in the price of one would then cause an increase in demand for the other. Example: pizza OR hamburgers. An increase in the price of pizza increases demand for hamburgers, shifting hamburger demand curve to the right. Other examples: Coke and Pepsi, laptops and desktop computers, compact discs and prices of related goods 13 Demand Curve Shifters: prices of related goods Two goods are complements if you buy one AND the other; an increase in the price of one would then cause a fall in demand for the other. Example: computers AND software. If price of computers rises, people buy fewer computers, and therefore less software. Software demand curve shifts left. Other examples: college tuition and textbooks, bagels and cream cheese, eggs and bacon 1 5

6 Summary: Variables That Affect Demand Variable A change in this variable causes a change along the D curve Tastes shifts the D curve Income shifts the D curve More/less buyers shifts the D curve Expectations shifts the D curve Related goods shifts the D curve 15 Demand curve Draw a demand curve for. What happens to it in each of the following scenarios? Why? A. The price of ipods falls B. The price of music downloads falls C. The price of compact discs falls 1 A. price of ipods falls of music downloads P 1 Music downloads and ipods are complements. A fall in price of ipods shifts the demand curve for to the right. Q 1 Q 2 D 1 D 2 Quantity of 17

7 B. price of falls of music downloads P 1 P 2 The D curve does not shift. Move down along curve to a point with lower P, higher Q. Q 1 Q 2 D 1 Quantity of 18 C. price of CDs falls of music downloads P 1 CDs and are substitutes. A fall in price of CDs shifts demand for to the left. D 2 D 1 Q 2 Q 1 Quantity of 19 MODULE SUMMARY A competitive market has many buyers and sellers, each of whom has little or no influence on the market price. Economists use the supply and demand model to analyze competitive markets. The downward-sloping demand curve reflects the Law of Demand, which states that the quantity buyers demand of a good depends negatively on the good s price. Besides price, demand depends on buyers tastes, incomes, number, expectations, and the prices of substitutes and complements. If one of these factors changes, the D curve shifts. 20 7

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