# Assume that both pricing systems for beer are price discrimination. What type of price discrimination is each?

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1 Microeconomics, Price discrimination, final exam practice problems (The attached PDF file has better formatting.) *Question 1.1: Football Parties At the Harvard-Yale weekend, both football teams have beer parties.! At the Harvard party, a cup of beer costs \$2 for men and \$1 for women.! At the Yale party, beer costs \$2 for the first cup and \$1 for the second cup. Assume that both pricing systems for beer are price discrimination. What type of price discrimination is each? Harvard Yale A First Degree Second Degree B Second Degree First Degree C First Degree Third Degree D Third Degree Second Degree E Second Degree Third Degree Answer 1.1: D Harvard Party: Third degree price discrimination prices according to the elasticity: ~ Men value beer more and are less likely to be deterred by a high price. They have a low price elasticity of demand for beer, so they are charged more. ~ Women value beer less, and are more likely to be deterred by a high price. They have a high price elasticity of demand for beer, so they are charged less. Yale Party: second degree price discrimination prices according to the portion: By decreasing marginal utility, people are willing to pay more for their first cup than their second cup. *Question 1.2: Third Degree Price Discrimination Third degree price discrimination entails dividing a market into two segments where A. Consumers have different wealth. B. Consumers have different knowledge. C. Consumers have different marginal costs. D. Consumers have different price elasticity of demand.

2 E. Consumers have different price elasticity of supply. Answer 1.2: D Different incomes often lead to different price elasticities of demand, but the important item is the price elasticity of demand, not the income. Marginal cost and price elasticity of supply relate to the producer, not the consumer. *Question 1.3: Third Degree Price Discrimination Which of the following is true regarding third degree price discrimination? Assume higher means higher than or equal to; lower means lower than or equal to. A. Producers surplus is higher than with no price discrimination. B. Prices are higher for all consumers than with no price discrimination. C. Producers surplus is lower than with no price discrimination. D. Prices are lower for all consumers than with no price discrimination. E. Producers surplus is the same as with no price discrimination. Answer 1.3: A Statement A: If producers surplus were lower, they would not discriminate in prices. *Question 1.4: Price Discrimination Furniture stores often set prices higher than the competitive level and allow their sales personnel to offer discounts to customers depending on their perceptions of a customer s willingness to pay. This pricing strategy is an attempt to implement A. First degree price discrimination B. Second degree price discrimination C. Third degree price discrimination D. A two-part tariff E. Cartel pricing Answer 1.4: A First degree price discrimination is charging the consumer the maximum that he or she is willing to pay for the goods. A sales person who charges each consumer the maximum that he or she will pay is practicing first degree price discrimination. *Question 1.5: Pricing Strategies and Social Gain

3 Which of the following pricing strategies might not increase social gain when implemented by a profit-maximizing monopolist? A. First degree price discrimination B. Second degree price discrimination C. Third degree price discrimination D. A two-part tariff E. Expense reductions lowering marginal cost Answer 1.5: C Third degree price discrimination may either increase or decrease the quantity produced, thereby increasing or decreasing social gain. *Question 1.6: Consumers Surplus and Producers Surplus Which of the following is true regarding third degree price discrimination? A. Third degree price discrimination increases consumers surplus. B. Third degree price discrimination decreases consumers surplus. C. Third degree price discrimination increases producers surplus. D. Third degree price discrimination decreases producers surplus. Answer 1.6: C The monopolist seeks to increase its surplus. The effect on consumers surplus is ambiguous; consumers surplus may increase or decrease. *Question 1.7: Price and Quantity in Third Degree Price Discrimination Which of the following is true regarding price and quantity in third degree price discrimination? A. Prices are higher for all consumers than without price discrimination. B. Prices are lower for all consumers than without price discrimination. C. Total quantity is always higher than without price discrimination. D. Total quantity is always lower than without price discrimination. Answer 1.7: E

5 With first degree price discrimination, the monopolist captures all the social gains, but there is no dead weight loss.

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